ALEX Lesson Plan

     

The Underground Railroad

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Jodi Wilson
System: Hale County
School: Moundville Elementary School
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 12543

Title:

The Underground Railroad

Overview/Annotation:

The Underground Railroad of the 1800's inspired talented writers of all ages. This lesson will integrate some of these famous writings to encourage students to develop their questioning techniques for analysis of literature while furthering their knowledge of this era in American history. As an extension of this study, students will create a class quilt to illustrate the depth of their research.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Technology Education
TC2 (2009)
Grade: 3-5
5 ) Practice safe use of technology systems and applications.

Examples: protecting personal information online, avoiding inappropriate sites, exiting inappropriate sites

Technology Education
TC2 (2009)
Grade: 3-5
6 ) Describe social and ethical behaviors related to technology use.

Examples: social—developing positive attitudes for using technology collaboratively

-  ethical—citing sources of text and digital content, avoiding plagiarism, avoiding manipulation of others' work without permission

•  Describing the global nature of the Internet
•  Following local acceptable-use policies regarding technology
•  Identifying intrusive applications, including worms, viruses, spyware, and pop-up advertisements
Technology Education
TC2 (2009)
Grade: 3-5
8 ) Collect information from a variety of digital sources.

Examples: online libraries, multimedia dictionaries

•  Using technology tools to organize information
•  Demonstrating efficient Internet search strategies
Example: keyword search

•  Evaluating electronic resources for reliability based on publication date, bias, accuracy, and source credibility
English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
3 ) Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions). [RL.4.3]

Insight Unpacked Content
Column Definitions

Strand: Reading: Literature
CCR Anchor:
Key Ideas and Details (Standards 1, 2, 3)
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students use writing and/or speaking to:
  • describe characters, settings, or events in-depth including specific details of the text
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • describe in depth
  • character
  • setting
  • event
  • story
  • drama
  • specific details
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • how to describe character, setting, or events based on details in the text
  • vocabulary: character, setting, event, drama, specific details
Skills:
Students are able to use specific details from the text to:
  • describe in-depth a character
  • describe in-depth a setting
  • describe in-depth an event
Understanding:
Students understand details in a story or drama develop characters, settings, or events and lead to a better understanding of other perspectives and cultures.
ACT Aspire Documents:
Curriculum Guide:
Objectives:
ELA 4.3.1: Define traits and motivations.
ELA 4.3.2: Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.
ELA 4.3.3: Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
ELA 4.3.4: Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
ELA 4.3.5: Identify main/supporting characters and setting in a story.
English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
9 ) By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the Grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. [RL.4.10]

Insight Unpacked Content
Column Definitions

Strand: Reading: Literature
CCR Anchor:
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity (Standard 10)
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students, with scaffolding as needed:
  • read and actively engage in comprehending appropriately complex stories and poetry
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • read and comprehend
  • literature
  • stories
  • dramas
  • poetry
  • grade 4 - 5 text complexity band
  • proficiently
  • scaffolding as needed
  • high end of the range
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • techniques for making meaning from difficult stories and poetry
  • techniques for engaging with and appreciating difficult texts
  • techniques for selecting texts that are interesting, motiving, and appropriate for who they are as readers
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • make meaning from difficult stories, dramas, and poetry
  • engage with and appreciate appropriately complex texts
Understanding:
Students understand that a reader's understanding of and appreciation for a text grows through deep thinking and active collaborating with others about texts.
ACT Aspire Documents:
Curriculum Guide:
Objectives:
ELA 4.9.1: Read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the Grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
ELA 4.9.2: Read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the Grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
ELA 4.9.3: With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for Grade 1.
ELA 4.9.4: Participate in choral readings (e.g., partner, echo, reader's theater).
English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
24 ) Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. [W.4.3]

a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator, characters, or both; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. [W.4.3a]

b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. [W.4.3b]

c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events. [W.4.3c]

d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. [W.4.3d]

e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. [W.4.3e]

Insight Unpacked Content
Column Definitions

Strand: Writing
CCR Anchor:
Text Types and Purposes
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students write narratives that include real or imagined experiences or events using descriptive details and clear event sequences by:
  • establishing the situation
  • introducing narrator and/or characters
  • organizing an event sequence that unfolds naturally
  • using dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations
  • using varied transitional words and phrases
  • using concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely
  • providing a conclusion that follows from narrated experiences or events
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • narrative
  • effective technique
  • clear event sequences
  • event sequence that unfolds naturally
  • transitional words and phrases
  • concrete words and phrases
  • sensory details
  • conclusion
Knowledge:
Students know narratives can be real or imagined and include:
  • established situations
  • narrators and/or characters
  • event sequences that unfold naturally
  • dialogue and descriptions
  • a variety of transitional words and phrases
  • concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey precise details
  • conclusions based on the narrated experiences or events
  • vocabulary word: narrative
Skills:
Students are able to:
write a narrative which includes:
  • real or imagined experiences or events
  • an established situation
  • narrators and/or characters
  • dialogue and descriptions to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations
  • varied transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events
  • concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely
  • a conclusion that follows from the narrated experience or event
Understanding:
Students understand that an author reflects on his/her life by writing a narrative to convey a real or imagined experience or event.
ACT Aspire Documents:
Curriculum Guide:
Objectives:
ELA 4.24.1: Define concrete words and sensory details.
ELA 4.24.2: Establish a situation and introduce a narrator, characters, or both; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
ELA 4.24.3: Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations.
ELA 4.24.4: Write using correct order of events.
ELA 4.24.5: Provide a sense of closure.
ELA 4.24.6: Write dialogue using quotation marks accurately.
ELA 4.24.7: Write a story with a clear beginning, middle and end.
ELA 4.24.8: Write complete sentences using correct capitalization and punctuation.
English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
34 ) Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points. [SL.4.3]

Insight Unpacked Content
Column Definitions

Strand: Speaking & Listening
CCR Anchor:
Comprehension and Collaboration
Evidence of Student Attainment:
During or after listening or viewing, students:
  • identify reasons and evidence provided to support particular points
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • identify
  • reasons and evidence
  • support particular points
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • techniques for attentive listening
  • techniques for recording main ideas, details, and evidence while listening
  • signal words included in speeches to indicate transitions or relationships between ideas
Skills:
Students are able to listen attentively to a speaker and explain the speaker's:
  • key points
  • reasons given to support points
  • supporting evidence
Understanding:
Students understand that discerning listening involves critiquing and evaluating.
ACT Aspire Documents:
Curriculum Guide:
Objectives:
ELA 4.34.1: Identify a speaker's main points.
ELA 4.34.2: Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
ELA 4.34.3: Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
ELA 4.34.4: Ask and answer questions about a story read aloud in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
ELA 4.34.5: Listen to speaker without interruption.
Social Studies
SS2010 (2010)
Grade: 4
Alabama Studies
6 ) Describe cultural, economic, and political aspects of the lifestyles of early nineteenth-century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.

Examples: cultural—housing, education, religion, recreation

economic—transportation, means of support

political—inequity of legal codes

•  Describing major areas of agricultural production in Alabama, including the Black Belt and fertile river valleys
Insight Unpacked Content
Column Definitions

Strand: Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government
Course Title: Alabama Studies (Alabama)
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Describe cultural, economic, and political aspects of the lifestyles of early nineteenth-century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.
  • Describe major areas of agricultural production in Alabama, including the Black Belt and fertile river valleys.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • plantation
  • Yeoman
  • townspeople
  • inequity
  • agriculture
  • fertile
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • During this time, most families in Alabama did not own slaves; most slaves were owned by Plantation Owners.
  • Most of Alabama's families made a living through agriculture.
  • The Black Belt and fertile river valleys were major areas of agricultural production.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Compare and contrast cultural, economic, and political aspects of the lifestyles of early nineteenth-century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.
  • Describe major areas of agricultural production in Alabama, including the Black Belt and fertile river valleys.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • There were cultural, political, and economic inequities in Alabama in the early 19th Century between slaves, Yeoman farmers, and Plantation owners.
Alabama Archives Resources:
Click below to access all Alabama Archives resources aligned to this standard.
Social Studies
SS2010 (2010)
Grade: 4
Alabama Studies
7 ) Explain reasons for Alabama's secession from the Union, including sectionalism, slavery, states' rights, and economic disagreements.

•  Identifying Alabama's role in the organization of the Confederacy, including hosting the secession convention and the inauguration ceremony for leaders
•  Recognizing Montgomery as the first capital of the Confederacy
•  Interpreting the Articles of the Confederation and the Gettysburg Address
Insight Unpacked Content
Column Definitions

Strand: Economics, History, Civics and Government
Course Title: Alabama Studies (Alabama)
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Explain the reasons for Alabama's secession from the Union, including sectionalism, slavery, states' rights, and economic disagreements.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • secession
  • Union
  • sectionalism
  • slavery
  • states' rights
  • Confederacy
  • inauguration
  • ceremony
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The reasons Alabama seceded from the Union including sectionalism, slavery, states' rights, and economic disagreements. Alabama played an important role in forming the Confederacy.
  • Montgomery was the first capital of the Confederacy.
  • The Articles of Confederation served as a basis for the Constitution of the Confederacy.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Explain reasons for Alabama's secession from the Union, including sectionalism, slavery, states' rights, and economic disagreements.
  • Analyze Alabama's role in the organization of the Confederacy, including hosting the secession convention and the inauguration ceremony for leaders.
  • Identify Montgomery as the first capital of the Confederacy.
  • Interpret the Articles of the Confederation and the Gettysburg Address as primary documents.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Economic and political disagreements led to Alabama's secession from the Union and Alabama played a major role in the creation of the Confederacy.
Social Studies
SS2010 (2010)
Grade: 5
United States Studies: Beginnings to the Industrial Revolution
11 ) Identify causes of the Civil War, including states' rights and the issue of slavery.

•  Describing the importance of the Missouri Compromise, Nat Turner's insurrection, the Compromise of 1850, the Dred Scott decision, John Brown's rebellion, and the election of 1860
•  Recognizing key Northern and Southern personalities, including Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Joseph Wheeler (Alabama)
•  Describing social, economic, and political conditions that affected citizens during the Civil War
•  Identifying Alabama's role in the Civil War (Alabama)
Examples: Montgomery as the first capital of the Confederacy, Winston County's opposition to Alabama's secession (Alabama)

•  Locating on a map sites important to the Civil War
Examples: Mason-Dixon Line, Fort Sumter, Appomattox, Gettysburg, Confederate states, Union states (Alabama)

•  Explaining events that led to the conclusion of the Civil War
Insight Unpacked Content
Column Definitions

Strand: Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government
Course Title: United States Studies: Beginnings to the Industrial Revolution
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Identify and explain the causes of the Civil War, including issues of states' rights, conflicts regarding slavery, important events, regional differences, and social, economic, and political conditions.
  • Describe Alabama's role in the Civil War.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Civil War
  • Missouri Compromise
  • insurrection
  • opposition
  • rebellion
  • personalities
  • political conditions
  • confederacy
  • secession
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Causes of the Civil War, including issues of states' rights and slavery.
  • The importance of the Missouri Compromise, Nat Turner's insurrection, the Compromise of 1850, the Dred Scott decision, John Brown's rebellion, and the election of 1860.
  • Key Northern and Southern personalities, including Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Joseph Wheeler.
  • Social, economic, and political conditions that affected citizens during the Civil War.
  • Alabama's role in the Civil War (Montgomery as the first capital of the Confederacy, Winston County's opposition to Alabama's secession).
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Locate key places and events on a physical and political map.
  • Identify and analyze the causes of political conflict Identify key people and explain their role throughout the Civil War.
  • Describe and draw conclusions about the war affected the citizens of the United States.
  • Interpret and define the role of Alabama in the Civil War.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • There were many factors that led to the Civil War.
  • Key people and ordinary citizens contributed to and were impacted by the Civil War.
  • Alabama responded to, participated in, and was impacted by the Civil War.
Alabama Archives Resources:
Click below to access all Alabama Archives resources aligned to this standard.

Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will make inferences as they respond to literature.
Students will formulate and ask questions as they listen to a literature selection.
Students will compare and contrast two literature selections.
Students will summarize the theme and content of a literature selection.
Students will plan and design a class quilt descriptive of the Underground Railroad for display.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

61 to 90 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

The Barefoot by Edwards, Pamela Duncan;
Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt by Hopkinson, Deborah;
Freedom Train: The Story of Harriet Tubman by Sterling, Dorothy;
Strategies That Work by Harvey, Stephanie et al;
chart paper for teacher, crayons, markers, colored pencils, quilt design books (Creative American Quilting, Friendship Quilting, New Patchwork and Quilting, all published by Better Homes and Gardens -any quilt book which contains patterns which could be traced and colored)

Technology Resources Needed:

Computer(s) with Internet access

Background/Preparation:

Teacher:
1) A review and introduction of Strategies That Work pages 86-89 focusing on questioning techniques modeled for and then applied by students.
2) Collection of history textbook(s) related to slavery issues and the Underground Railroad.
3) Collection of trade books -fiction and nonfiction concerning slavery and the Underground Railroad.

  Procedures/Activities: 
1.)Refer to Strategies That Work, which emphasizes the importance of teaching students to use the technique of questioning as one reads. Create a chart titled The Barefoot that includes two columns, one headed Questions, the other headed Facts. Preview the book: look at cover illustrations, share synopsis on back, discuss the title, record students questions.

2.)The teacher should "think aloud" while orally reading the selection. Model the technique of questioning for students throughout the reading of The Barefoot. Stop periodically to record student questions and to check whether some questions have been answered; if so, record those questions and answers. For example, when reaching the part of the book about the Heavy Boots, stop and allow students to discuss who they are and to ask questions. Also, make certain students take note of the significance of the animals of the forest and ask pertinent questions.

3.)Take particular note at the end of the book at the significance of the quilt. Discuss student observations. Record questions, answers, and facts. Review the chart's "Q"s and "F"s, focusing on the the escapee's feelings, problems, thoughts; the "Heavy Boots"; the helpful animals of the forest; the "safe house"; the significance of the quilt.

4.)As a class, summarize The Barefoot. Write student suggestions on the board, edit, then write the final draft on chart paper for display.

5.)To extend this concept of the importance of the quilt to Underground Railroad escapees, have the students make a class quilt. This can be as simple as tracing quilt square designs from quilt-making books (see materials list) or as involved as using fabric, needle, and thread. The students will enjoy the hands-on process of designing a quilt. Choose several different square-shaped quilt patterns, four squares per page, and provide each child with 8 different squares to color and cut out. Next assemble the squares into a pleasing design, glue them to black butcher/ bulletin board paper, and display the results with the class summary of The Barefoot.
(Harriet Tubman Vocabulary Quilt)
This neat little quilt was designed by a second grade class in 2001. Not only is it attractive, but it is also interactive, providing a vocabulary quiz for students to take.

6.)As a follow up to this lesson share the trade book, Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt. Either share it orally or locate multiple copies so that a group of students can read it as a small group. Have the students work together to practice the questioning technique used when reading The Barefoot. They should then make the appropriate chart in order to record questions and observations.

7.)In order to foster critical thinking, create another two column chart or a Venn Diagram, this time to compare and contrast the different aspects of The Barefoot and Freedom Quilt.
(Venn Diagram Generator)
A site to use to quickly create a Venn diagram.

8.)Take students on a virtual field trip on the Underground Railroad.
(The Underground Railroad)
This website offers a virtual field trip of the Underground Railroad. It offers student visitors choices (whether or not to escape; where to go; etc.), has excellent graphics, introduces students to the faces of the Underground Railroad, etc.

  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

Have each individual student apply the questioning technique in the reading of a Civil War, slavery, or Underground Railroad book of his/her choice. Require the creation of a Question/Answer chart to be turned in, then check the chart to assess questioning skills. See Strategies That Work for tips, strategies, and suggestions to help teachers help students become better comprehenders. In addition, students might be required to visit the listed websites to take the vocabulary quiz and to build background concerning the Underground Railroad. Also, students may be given a writing assignment on any of the three modes of writing tested during the Fifth Grade Writing Assessment - narrative, expository, descriptive - in order to culminate this lesson.

Acceleration:

Students could conduct a research project on some aspect of the Underground Railroad. Provide Internet research opportunities. In addition, most local libraries have wonderful books on this topic. The most well-known conductor on the Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman, is the subject of numerous biographies (a good Harriet Tubman biography for young adults is titled Freedom Train: the Story of Harriet Tubman), expository texts, and trade books, any of which would be an excellent resource for student researchers.

Intervention:

 

Each area below is a direct link to general teaching strategies/classroom accommodations for students with identified learning and/or behavior problems such as: reading or math performance below grade level; test or classroom assignments/quizzes at a failing level; failure to complete assignments independently; difficulty with short-term memory, abstract concepts, staying on task, or following directions; poor peer interaction or temper tantrums, and other learning or behavior problems.

Presentation of Material Environment
Time Demands Materials
Attention Using Groups and Peers
Assisting the Reluctant Starter Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior
Be sure to check the student's IEP for specific accommodations.