# ALEX Lesson Plan

## Hello, Moon

You may save this lesson plan to your hard drive as an html file by selecting "File", then "Save As" from your browser's pull down menu. The file name extension must be .html.

This lesson provided by:
 Author: Amara Alexander System: Madison City School: Madison City Board Of Education And Author: Anne Monroe System: Jackson County School: Bryant School
General Lesson Information
 Lesson Plan ID: 34328 Title: Hello, Moon Overview/Annotation: In this interdisciplinary lesson about the moon phases, students track the phases of the moon across the sky. The lesson involves components of the Sun- Earth- Moon system, English Language Arts and Science. This lesson will involve NASA resources, hands-on inquiry and observational data. This lesson was created as part of the 2016 NASA STEM Standards of Practice Project, a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
Associated Standards and Objectives
Content Standard(s):
 Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 6 Earth and Space Science 1 ) Create and manipulate models (e.g., physical, graphical, conceptual) to explain the occurrences of day/night cycles, length of year, seasons, tides, eclipses, and lunar phases based on patterns of the observed motions of celestial bodies. Insight Unpacked Content Column Definitions Scientific and Engineering Practices:Developing and Using ModelsCrosscutting Concepts: PatternsDisciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the UniverseEvidence of Student Attainment:Students: Create and manipulate a model that shows how the positions of the Earth and sun result in day and night at locations on Earth. Create and manipulate a model that shows the movement of Earth around the sun during a year with the correct tilt of Earth throughout the modeling. Create and manipulate a model that shows the tilt of the Earth in relationship to the sun which indicates seasons for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Create and manipulate a model that shows the position of the Earth and moon during high and low tides at different locations on Earth. Create and manipulate a model that shows the position of the sun, Earth, and moon during solar and lunar eclipses. Create and manipulate a model that shows the position of the sun, Earth, and moon during lunar phases.Teacher Vocabulary:Model Earth Moon Sun Orbit Rotation Axis Tilted Day Night Hour Revolution Constant Orbital plane Orientation Solar Energy Equator Poles Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere Winter Summer Tides Gravitational pull Low tide High tide Eclipse Solar eclipse Lunar Eclipse Lunar phases (new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, third quarter, waning crescent) IlluminationKnowledge:Students know: Earth rotates on its tilted axis once in approximately 24 hours; this rotation is considered an Earth day. Due to the rotation of the Earth, the side of the Earth facing the sun experiences light (day); the side of the Earth facing away from the sun experiences dark (night). The Earth-moon system revolves around the sun once in approximately 365 days; this revolution is considered an Earth year. The distance between Earth and the sun stays relatively constant throughout the Earth's orbit. The Earth's rotation axis is tilted with respect to its orbital plane around the sun. Earth maintains the same relative orientation in space, with its North Pole pointed toward the North Star throughout its orbit. Solar energy travels in a straight line from the sun and hits different parts of the curved Earth at different angles — more directly at the equator and less directly at the poles. Because the Earth's axis is tilted, the most direct and intense solar energy occurs over the summer months, and the least direct and intense solar energy occurs over the winter months. The change in season at a given place on Earth is directly related to the orientation of the tilted Earth and the position of Earth in its orbit around the sun because of the change in the directness and intensity of the solar energy at that place over the course of the year. Summer occurs in the Northern Hemisphere at times in the Earth's orbit when the northern axis of Earth is tilted toward the sun. Summer occurs in the Southern Hemisphere at times in the Earth's orbit when the southern axis of Earth is tilted toward the sun. Winter occurs in the Northern Hemisphere at times in the Earth's orbit when the northern axis of Earth is tilted away from the sun. Winter occurs in the Southern Hemisphere at times in the Earth's orbit when the southern axis of Earth is tilted away from the sun. A tide is the daily rise and fall of sea level. Low tide is the lowest sea level at a particular time and place on Earth. High tide is the highest sea level at a particular time and place on Earth. Tides occur as a result of the moon's gravitational pull on the Earth. Solar energy is prevented from reaching the Earth during a solar eclipse because the moon is located between the sun and Earth. Solar energy is prevented from reaching the moon (and thus reflecting off of the moon to Earth) during a lunar eclipse because Earth is located between the sun and moon. Because the moon's orbital plane is tilted with respect to the plane of the Earth's orbit around the sun, for a majority of time during an Earth month, the moon is not in a position to block solar energy from reaching Earth, and Earth is not in a position to block solar energy from reaching the moon. A lunar eclipse can only occur during a full moon. The moon rotates on its axis approximately once a month. The moon orbits Earth approximately once a month. The moon rotates on its axis at the same rate at which it orbits Earth so that the side of the moon that faces Earth remains the same as it orbits. The moon's orbital plane is tilted with respect to the plane of the Earth's orbit around the sun. Solar energy coming from the sun bounces off of the moon and is viewed on Earth as the bright part of the moon. The visible proportion of the illuminated part of the moon (as viewed from Earth) changes over the course of a month as the location of the moon relative to Earth and the sun changes. This change in illumination is known as the lunar phase. The moon appears to become more fully illuminated until "full" and then less fully illuminated until dark, or "new," in a pattern of change that corresponds to what proportion of the illuminated part of the moon is visible from Earth. The lunar phase of the moon is a result of the relative positions of the Earth, sun, and moon.Skills:Students are able to: Develop a model of the Sun-Earth-Moon systems and identify the relevant components. Describe the relationships between components of the model. Use patterns observed from their model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.Understanding:Students understand that: Patterns in the occurrences of day/night cycles, length of year, seasons, tides, eclipses, and lunar phases can be observed and explained using models based on observed motion of celestial bodies.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Researching the Sun-Earth-Moon System

Local/National Standards:

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Learning Target: I can investigate and explain the phases of the moon.

Students will be able to identify and explain the lunar phases and construct a model that represents the phases of the moon.

Preparation Information
 Total Duration: 61 to 90 Minutes Materials and Resources: Teacher Materials: Faces of the Moon by Bob CrelinPopplet Lite app iOS or MindMeister Android (concept mapping apps) Popsicle sticks (class set)5' centimeter Styrofoam balls (8)Bare light bulb on stand- light bulb should be 100 watts or largerA room that can be marked, with enough open floor space to fit students standing in a circle. Technology Resources Needed: Interactive White Boardlaptop with protectorspeakers for listeningtablet or iPadinternet access Background/Preparation: Teacher Preparation: Teacher will gather the following materials: popsicle sticks and Styrofoam balls and place in a location where students can freely access materials.If desired, teacher can prepare model 'moons' for  students. To do this, place a popsicle stick in the middle of the Styrofoam ball. Leave enough of the popsicle stick out of the ball so students can hold model in their hand. Students and teachers should be familiar with the 'snowball' strategy. Review http://nccscurriculum.org/2014/03/18/the-snowball-technique/ for more details. Teacher should access videos regarding moon phases to ensure that links and audio are working properly: NASA Moon phases- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8V-atMqjYrkMr. Parr: Moon phases https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HkvlrWpsnuQTeacher should have space available for students to move into a circle to model lunar phases and a classroom that can be completely dark. Students will need to already know how to use Popplet Lite or MindMeister app to create concept maps.
Procedures/Activities:
 Step 1 Students and teachers will complete 'snowball' activity to pique interest and engage students in learning more about the moon. Teacher will have students to write the following question on their paper, "What do you wonder or know about the moon?" After students write question, have them to write their response. Then, equally divide students in half and have them to move to opposite sides of the classroom. On the count of '3', the teacher will say "snowball fight'. Students will then (gently) throw their 'snowball' across the class. Another student will grab a 'snowball' open, read response and then write their own. The teacher may complete this process 2 more times or as desired.  After that, have students to share our responses from their 'snowball' through Popplet Lite app. Students will create a Popplet based on their thought of the moon.  Step 2 The teacher should read Faces of the Moon to students aloud (whole group). After reading the book, teacher should engage in guided discussion with students by asking the following questions regarding the moon. The teacher may want to record responses on chart paper to refer back to during discussions.  1. What is meant by a 'phase' of the moon? 2. How many phases does the moon have? 3. Why does the moon appear to have phases?  4. What is the best place to view the phases as they occur?  5. What other questions do you have about the moon? Once the discussion is over, students add new learning to their Popplet.    Step 3 Students will watch introductory video on moon phases.  NASA Sci-Files  The teacher will discuss with students the moon phases activity that was represented in the video. Inform students that this process takes about 30 days for the moon to orbit around the Earth.  Students and teacher will then complete the moon phases demonstration.   Moon Phase Demonstration   Step 4 Teacher will review phases of the moon with students. Students will then add new learning to their Popplet and share aloud.  Share Mr. Parr video
Assessment
 Assessment Strategies Teacher ObservationStudents' Popplet will be reviewed as formative assessment just to identify what the students have said they learned. Moon Phases- Science Notebook/ Journal- Informal evaluation for correctness and completeness.
 Acceleration: Students will illustrate and label each phase of the moon in their science journal. Intervention: Pull students who are having difficulty in small group to play Moon Phase Yahtzee to review the lunar phases.

Each area below is a direct link to general teaching strategies/classroom accommodations for students with identified learning and/or behavior problems such as: reading or math performance below grade level; test or classroom assignments/quizzes at a failing level; failure to complete assignments independently; difficulty with short-term memory, abstract concepts, staying on task, or following directions; poor peer interaction or temper tantrums, and other learning or behavior problems.

 Presentation of Material Environment Time Demands Materials Attention Using Groups and Peers Assisting the Reluctant Starter Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior
Be sure to check the student's IEP for specific accommodations.