# ALEX Lesson Plan

## Tug of War!

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This lesson provided by:
 Author: Joyce Cromer System: Mobile County School: W H Council Traditional School The event this resource created for: ASTA
General Lesson Information
 Lesson Plan ID: 34500 Title: Tug of War! Overview/Annotation: This lesson,"Tug of War!" is Day 3 in a series of lessons that help to explain how forces affect objects. In this lesson, students describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to a ball's movement.  Students will work in a whole group and then with a partner, sitting in a circle, to push and then receive a ball, with a flattened palm, from another student. Students will observe the "collision" of the ball and hand. They will then go outdoors or in the gym to kick the ball with the side of the foot to direct the ball in different directions. The ball will be stopped or redirected in the same way. Students will then pull a ball toward themselves and describe the difference in the push and pull of the ball. Students could play a "Kickball Game" to watch the "collision" of the ball. In Day 1, “Move It! students identify objects that can be moved and demonstrate how movement puts objects in motion. In Day 2, “Push Me, Pull You”  students demonstrate that objects can be moved by pushing or pulling them.This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.
Associated Standards and Objectives
Content Standard(s):
 Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: K 1 ) Investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different strengths and directions act upon them (e.g., object being pushed, object being pulled, two objects colliding). NAEP Framework NAEP Statement:: P4.13: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far. NAEP Statement:: P4.14: The motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The size of the change is related to the size of the force (push or pull) and the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is exerted. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Planning and Carrying out InvestigationsCrosscutting Concepts: Cause and EffectDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different strengths act upon them. Investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different directions act upon them. Predict the effect of the push or pull on the motion of an object, based on prior experiences.Teacher Vocabulary:Push Pull Collide Investigate Result Motion Objects Forces Strengths Directions RefuteKnowledge:Students know: Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it. When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion. A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.Skills:Students are able to: Investigate forces and interactions. Describe objects and their motions. Describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.Understanding:Students understand that: Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: *Push and Pull *Balls and Ramps, Insights *Sidewalk Safety, ETA/hand2mind Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: SCI.AAS.K.1- Investigate ways to move different objects to include pushing, pulling, and colliding objects. Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: K 2 ) Use observations and data from investigations to determine if a design solution (e.g., designing a ramp to increase the speed of an object in order to move a stationary object) solves the problem of using force to change the speed or direction of an object.* NAEP Framework NAEP Statement:: P4.13: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far. NAEP Statement:: P4.14: The motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The size of the change is related to the size of the force (push or pull) and the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is exerted. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Analyzing and Interpreting DataCrosscutting Concepts: Cause and EffectDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Use observations from investigations to determine if a design solution causes the intended change in the speed or direction of the motion of the object. Use data from investigations to determine if a design solution solves a problem of using a push or pull to change an object's motion. Describe the goal of the design solution.Teacher Vocabulary:Force Speed Direction Data Observe Describe Engineering Investigation Ask Imagine Plan Create Improve SolutionKnowledge:Students know: The relative speed or direction of the object before a push or pull is applied (e.g., faster, slower). The relative speed or direction of the object after a push or pull is applied. How the relative strength of a push or pull affects the speed or direction of an object (e.g., harder, softer).Skills:Students are able to: Conduct an investigation. Collect and record observations from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended. Organize information in a usable format. Analyze data from tests to determine change in speed or direction.Understanding:Students understand that: Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about the effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Push and Pull *Balls and Ramps, Insights *Sidewalk Safety, ETA/hand2mind Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: SCI.AAS.K.2- Observe the movement of objects in a variety of real-world environments.

Local/National Standards:

K-PS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.  [Clarification Statement: Examples of pushes or pulls could include a string attached to an object being pulled, a person pushing an object, a person stopping a rolling ball, and two objects colliding and pushing on each other.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to different relative strengths or different directions, but not both at the same time. Assessment does not include non-contact pushes or pulls such as those produced by magnets.] Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of problems requiring a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain distance, follow a particular path, and knock down other objects. Examples of solutions could include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of the object and a structure that would cause an object such as a marble or ball to turn.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include friction as a mechanism for change in speed.]

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will:

• investigate forces and interactions.
• describe objects and their motions.
• describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.

Students will know:

• pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
• pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
• when objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
• a bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.
Preparation Information
 Total Duration: 31 to 60 Minutes Materials and Resources: Push and Pull by Charlotte LlewellynGive it a Push! Give it a Pull! by Jennifer BoothroydPush and Pull by Patricia MurphyAnd Everyone Shouted, "Pull!" by Claire Llewellynkickball or soccer ball, or enough playground balls that every 2-4 students could share during the EXPLORE portion.Science notebook, pencil, crayonschart paper, markersgoggles Technology Resources Needed: Pushes and Pulls BBC Science Clipscomputer with an internet connectionInteractive White Board Background/Preparation: The prior experience with the motion of objects reinforces the investigation of "push" and "pull" of playground balls in this activity. Students will investigate push and pull as they roll a ball to others in a circle. They will investigate how the strength of the push or pull affects the ball's speed and movement.NOTE: Safety measures should be taken when forces are applied to objects. Goggles should be worn during the rolling/kicking of balls.
Procedures/Activities:
 ENGAGE:  The teacher will read Push and Pull by Charlotte Llewellyn (or another book on the concepts of push and pull) to the class. The students will review the concepts/terms of push and pull.  The students will be called to sit in a big circle. Each student will push the ball with his/her palm flat to another student so that the ball will keep moving across the circle. The students will discuss the ball's movement and why it acted that way. The receiving student will stop the ball by holding up his/her palm flat on the receiving hand. This process of sending and receiving with a flat palm will be repeated as students pass the ball across the circle to others. Students will discuss what the ball was doing, what happened when it was stopped, and what happened to get the ball started again. Students will pay attention to the "collision" of the hand and ball. EXPLORE:    The students will then be taken outdoors or to the gym. Students will stand in a circle. The teacher will demonstrate how the ball will be kicked with the side of the foot only hard enough to reach the other side of the circle. The teacher should then demonstrate how the ball will be stopped by the receiver by turning the foot and directing the ball to another student. Students should pay attention to the "collision" of the foot and the ball each time and how it affects the motion of the ball. Students will then kick the ball across the circle to another student who will stop it with his/her foot, directing the ball to another student. The students will discuss what was observed throughout the lesson. The students will then spread out the circle and investigate ways to push, pull, start, stop, change the direction of, speed up, or slow down the action of the ball. Attention should be paid to the "collision" of foot and ball as well as ways to change the movement and the direction of the ball. This may be done in small groups of 2-4 students sharing a ball. The teacher will question, observe, and record student thoughts on the Student Observations of Movement of Objects sheet, available for download in Attachments.  EXPLAIN:  The students will discuss what was observed with the motion of the ball. The discussion should include the "collision" of the foot and the ball and how that changed the movement of the ball, ways the ball was stopped, started, and its change of direction.  Students should use their science notebook to illustrate and further explain what they observed through the testing of kicking the ball. ELABORATE:  Students could brainstorm further questions they would like answered about the movement of the balls. These could be written in their science notebook, or the teacher could record them on chart paper for future reference.

 Attachments:**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download. StudentObservationsofMovementofObjects.docx
Assessment
 Assessment Strategies Teacher observation of student inquiry and recording of thoughts on "Student Observations of Movement of Objects" sheet. Misconceptions should be addressed with the student(s) following the lesson or during the EXPLAIN stage of the lesson.Class discussion of comments posted on chart paperDrawings/recording of thoughts in their science notebook
 Acceleration: The students will select a question they would like to find the answer to regarding the motion of the balls. They should be encouraged to develop a hypothesis about the question, then plan the investigation they would conduct. The students would then be encouraged to carry out the investigation, recording in their science notebook what was discovered. They should share their findings with other students. Intervention: The teacher should provide additional opportunities for students to kick and receive the ball and observe its movement. Another student who understands the concept should be partnered with this student to further explore/explain.

 View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.