# ALEX Lesson Plan

## Roller Coaster Design

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This lesson provided by:
 Author: Brian Sauls System: Albertville City School: Albertville Middle School The event this resource created for: ASTA
General Lesson Information
 Lesson Plan ID: 34532 Title: Roller Coaster Design Overview/Annotation: Students will design a roller coaster using marbles and foam pipe insulation to observe the relationship between potential and kinetic energy. Students will calculate the average speed of the marble and relate that speed to the potential and kinetic energy of the marble. Students will use various angles and track designs to see the impact it has on marble speed.This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.
Associated Standards and Objectives
Content Standard(s):
 Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 8 Physical Science 14 ) Use models to construct an explanation of how a system of objects may contain varying types and amounts of potential energy (e.g., observing the movement of a roller coaster cart at various inclines, changing the tension in a rubber band, varying the number of batteries connected in a series, observing a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate's hair). NAEP Framework NAEP Statement:: P12.13: The potential energy of an object on Earth's surface is increased when the object's position is changed from one closer to Earth's surface to one farther from Earth's surface. NAEP Statement:: P8.9a: Three forms of potential energy are gravitational, elastic, and chemical. NAEP Statement:: P8.9b: Gravitational potential energy changes in a system as the relative positions of objects are changed. NAEP Statement:: P8.9c: Objects can have elastic potential energy due to their compression, or chemical potential energy due to the nature and arrangement of the atoms. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Developing and Using ModelsCrosscutting Concepts: Systems and System ModelsDisciplinary Core Idea: EnergyEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Construct an explanation, using models, to show how a system of objects may contain varying types of potential energy. Construct an explanation, using models, to show how a system of objects may contain varying amounts of potential energy.Teacher Vocabulary:Model System Potential energy Force Electric force Magnetic force Gravitational forceKnowledge:Students know: Potential energy is stored energy. When two objects interact a distance, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from an object. The exerted forces may include electric, magnetic, or gravitational forces. As the relative position of two objects (neutral, charged, magnetic) changes, the potential energy of the system (associated with interactions via electric, magnetic, and gravitational forces) changes. Elastic potential energy is potential energy stored as a result of work done to an elastic object, such as the stretching of a spring. It is equal to the work done to stretch the spring, which depends upon the spring constant k as well as the distance stretched.Skills:Students are able to: Use a model of a system containing varying types and amounts of potential energy and identify the relevant components. Describe the relationships between components of the model. Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including how a system of objects may contain varying types and amounts of potential energy.Understanding:Students understand that: The types of potential energy in a system of objects may include electric, magnetic, or gravitational potential energy. The amount of potential energy in a system of objects changes when the distance between stationary objects interacting in the system changes because a force has to be applied to move two attracting objects farther apart, or a force has to be applied to move two repelling objects closer together, both resulting in a transfer of energy to the system.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Experimenting with Forces and Motion

Local/National Standards:

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will construct an explanation, using models, to show how a system of objects may contain varying types and amounts of potential energy.