# ALEX Lesson Plan

## Tower of Terror: Creating a Free Fall Ride

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This lesson provided by:
 Author: Katrina McGrady System: Talladega County School: Talladega County Board Of Education The event this resource created for: ASTA
General Lesson Information
 Lesson Plan ID: 34799 Title: Tower of Terror: Creating a Free Fall Ride Overview/Annotation: In this activity, the students will be engineers who compete to create their own "safe" and fast free fall ride.  Using graphing and calculations, the students will calculate the fastest ride and determine the minimum and maximum passenger sizes that their ride will hold.  The team that designs the fastest ride that doesn't "hurt" the passenger(s) wins! This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.
Associated Standards and Objectives
Content Standard(s):
 Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 9-12 Physical Science 7 ) Analyze and interpret data for one- and two-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration (e.g., velocity versus time graphs, displacement versus time graphs, acceleration versus time graphs). NAEP Framework NAEP Statement:: P12.17: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Analyzing and Interpreting DataCrosscutting Concepts: Cause and EffectDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Analyze (break into parts) data for one-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Interpret (describe in own words) data for one-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Analyze (break into parts) data for two-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Interpret (describe in own words) data for two-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.Teacher Vocabulary: Distance Displacement Scalar Vector Speed Velocity Acceleration Equation of a line Slope Trend lineKnowledge:Students know: A body is in motion if its position changes with respect to its surroundings. A particle moving in a straight line undergoes one dimensional motion. A particle moving along a curved path in a plane has two dimensional motion.Skills:Students are able to: Create graphs from sets of data points. Identify distance and displacement as a scalar/ vector pair. Identify speed and velocity as a scalar/ vector pair. Describe motion mathematically in terms of an object's change of position, distance traveled, and displacement. Apply concepts of average speed and average velocity to solve conceptual and quantitative problems. Explain velocity as a relationship between displacement and time. (Δd=vΔt) Explain acceleration as a relationship between velocity and time. (a=Δv/Δt) Use graphical analysis to understand conceptual trends in displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time. Use graphical analysis to solve for displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time. Calculate velocity and acceleration from displacement vs. time graphs.Understanding:Students understand that: Motion graphs (displacement vs. time, velocity vs. time, and acceleration vs. time) for one- and two- dimensional motion may be used to derive (conceptual and mathematical) relationships of motion.AMSTI Resources:ASIM Physics Module: Analyzing Motion Using Graphs; Run for It; Batter Up Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 9-12 Physical Science 8 ) Apply Newton's laws to predict the resulting motion of a system by constructing force diagrams that identify the external forces acting on the system, including friction (e.g., a book on a table, an object being pushed across a floor, an accelerating car). Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Developing and Using ModelsCrosscutting Concepts: Systems and System ModelsDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Predict the motion of a system by application of Newton's laws. Construct force diagrams. Identify external forces acting on a system.Teacher Vocabulary: Weight Mass Gravity Acceleration Velocity Terminal velocity Free fall Friction Static friction Rolling friction Fluid friction Inertia Force Balanced forces Unbalanced forces Net force Action-reaction pairs VectorsKnowledge:Students know: An object will remain at rest or in uniform motion unless acted on by an outside force. The velocity of an object changes when it is subjected to an external force. Gravity's acceleration is different on different planets. Air resistance is responsible for terminal velocity for objects in free fall. The property of inertia as related to mass. Forces must be unbalanced for an object to change its motion. Friction is a force that opposes motion.Skills:Students are able to: Organize data that represent the net force on an object (mass and acceleration) via tables and graphs. Construct force diagrams that identify all external forces acting on the system. Explain (conceptually and mathematically) the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. (The greater the force on an object, the greater its change in motion but the same amount of force applied to an object with more mass will result in less acceleration.) Relate the difference between mass and weight. (Weight is a force dependent upon acceleration and mass is constant regardless of acceleration.) Calculate weight when given mass. (Fg=mg) Explain acceleration due to gravity as an example of uniformly changing velocity. (g=9.8 m/s2) Relate the presence of air resistance to the concept of terminal velocity of an object in free fall. Identify friction as a force that opposes motion of an object. Classify the frictional forces present in different situations. (Sofa resting on the floor is static friction. A box pushed across the floor is sliding friction. A ball rolling across the floor is rolling friction. A boat moving through a river is fluid friction. An object in free-fall is fluid friction.) Explain the property of inertia as related to mass. (An object at rest or at constant speed in a straight line will remain in that state unless acted upon by a force causing an unbalanced net force.) Explain balanced and unbalanced forces mathematically and graphically with respect to acceleration to establish the relationship between net force, acceleration, and mass.Understanding:Students understand that: The motion of a system may be predicted by applying Newton's laws of motion to force diagrams that identify all external forces acting on the system. Forces acting on an object affect the motion of that object.AMSTI Resources:ASIM Physics Module: Force Diagrams; Horizontal Friction

Local/National Standards:

Primary Learning Objective(s):

I can use speed calculations, the engineering model, and force diagrams to create the fastest free fall ride that will not “hurt” the passenger.

Learning Targets:

Behavior:  I can create a fast AND safe free fall ride using engineering practices.

Content:  I can calculate and graph the speed of the free fall ride with different passenger sizes to determine the minimum and maximum passenger size.

Content:  I can identify and label the forces acting upon the free fall ride.

This lesson addresses the following scientific and engineering practices:

• Asking questions and defining problems
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics
• Constructing explanations and designing solutions
• Engaging in argument from evidence
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
Preparation Information
 Total Duration: 91 to 120 Minutes Materials and Resources: Styrofoam cupsMasking tapeMeter stickLong Wooden dowel or piece of PVC (one per group)ScissorsCardboard Various Sizes of Balls for Passengers:  small, medium, large  (Make sure that you have enough per group so that various sizes of passengers can be used and tested.)Graph paper (or computer with software that can be used to create a graph)Calculators (if allowed for calculations)Rulers (for scaled diagram and drawing the graph on paper)*You may add or subtract materials from this list based on your students and your specialization of the lesson.* Technology Resources Needed: Computer with internet access linked to a projector or screen with sound capabilityDocument camera linked to a TV or projector OR iPad with app like Doceri connected to a TVYouTube video to demonstrate a free fall ride Know/Need to Know Graphic Organizer *Optional:  Devices with software that can be used for graphing* Background/Preparation: Students:  The students should have some BASIC knowledge of speed, displacement, velocity, and forces before completing this activity.  Teacher:  Before starting this lesson, the teacher should decide whether groups will be limited to the same amounts of each resource or whether they can pick as many resources as they can from the “construction” items.  The teacher will also need to decide how students will be grouped.  The teacher will also need to obtain and arrange the “construction” materials prior to the lesson.
Procedures/Activities: