# ALEX Lesson Plan

## Dam Engineering

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This lesson provided by:
 Author: Michelle Phillips System: Chickasaw City School: Chickasaw City Elementary School
General Lesson Information
 Lesson Plan ID: 35511 Title: Dam Engineering Overview/Annotation: In Math, students will draw a t-chart to represent dam and flood data obtained from their reading resource. Students will select the information they wish to use from the reading resource (their opinions). Students will then use rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch to measure lengths and construct a scale model of their own dam, which they can later construct in Science. Students will represent data in a graph and use measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Students will test their scale dams and make changes as needed. This unit was created as part of the ALEX Interdisciplinary Resource Development Summit.
Associated Standards and Objectives
Content Standard(s):
 English Language Arts ELA2015 (2015) Grade: 3 22 ) Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. [W.3.1] a. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. [W.3.1a] b. Provide reasons that support the opinion. [W.3.1b] c. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons. [W.3.1c] d. Provide a concluding statement or section. [W.3.1d] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: ELA.AAS.3.22- Compose opinion pieces by stating an opinion, providing a reason related to the opinion, and providing an appropriate conclusion related to the stated opinion. Mathematics MA2019 (2019) Grade: 3 16. For a given or collected set of data, create a scaled (one-to-many) picture graph and scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. a. Determine a simple probability from a context that includes a picture. b. Solve one- and two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems using information presented in scaled graphs. Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:Students Organize data and draw a scaled picture graph (with scales other than 1) to represent a data set with several categories. Organize data and draw a scaled bar graph (with scales other than 1) to represent a data set with several categories. Given a scaled picture graph or bar graph, solve one-And two-step problems using information presented in the graphs. Determine simple probability from a context that includes a picture or information displayed in a graph. Example: A picture graph displays data to represent the type of transportation for students traveling to school as 10 students walk, 8 students ride bikes, 38 ride the bus, and 12 ride in cars. Another student enrolls in school. What is the least likely way they will travel to school? Why? Note: Students are expected to reason about probability, not calculate a probability.Teacher Vocabulary:Data set Scale Picture graph Scaled bar graph Category ProbabilityKnowledge:Students know: Strategies for collecting, organizing, and recording data in picture graphs and bar graphs. Describe and interpret data on picture and bar graphs. Strategies for solving addition and subtraction one-And two-step problems.Skills:Students are able to: Collect and categorize data to display graphically. Draw a scaled picture graph (with scales other than 1) to represent a data set with several categories. Draw a scaled bar graph (with scales other than 1) to represent a data set with several categories. Determine simple probability from a context that includes a picture. Example: A bar graph displays data to represent students' favorite colors with data showing 4 students choose red, 11 students choose blue, 2 students choose green, and 4 students choose purple. If Jamal is a student in the class, what do you think his favorite color might be? Why? Solve one-And two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems using information presented in scaled graphs.Understanding:Students understand that: Questions concerning mathematical contexts can be answered by collecting and organizing data scaled pictographs and bar graphs. Understand that logical reasoning and connections between representations provide justifications for solutions.Diverse Learning Needs: Essential Skills:Learning Objectives: M.3.16.1: Define picture graph, bar graph, and data. M.3.16.2: Interpret the data to solve problems. M.3.16.3: Identify the parts of a graph (x-axis, y-axis, title, key, equal intervals, labels). M.3.16.4: Locate the data on a picture graph and a bar graph. M.3.16.5: Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. M.3.16.6: Directly compare two objects, with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has "more of" or "less of" the attribute, and describe the difference. Prior Knowledge Skills:Describe picture graph and bar graph. Use vocabulary related to comparing data. Examples: more than, less than, most, least, equal. Recognize attributes of data displays. Locate information on data displays. Classify objects into given categories. Sort the categories by count. Recognize different types of data displays. Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: M.AAS.3.16 Measure lengths of objects using non standard tools (paper clips). Limit to whole numbers. M.AAS.3.17 Using vocalization, sign language, augmentative communication or assistive technology, represent and interpret data on a picture or bar graph when given a model or a graph to complete. Mathematics MA2019 (2019) Grade: 3 17. Measure lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch to generate data and create a line plot marked off in appropriate units to display the data. Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Measure objects to the nearest 1/2 inch. Measure objects to the nearest 1/4 (quarter) inch. Create a line plot marked off in appropriate units (whole numbers, halves, or quarters) to represent data of several objects. Create a line plot marked off in appropriate units (whole numbers, halves, or quarters) to represent data of repeated measurements. Example: Measuring how far a marble rolls under certain conditions.Teacher Vocabulary:Halves Fourths Data Line plot Unit Quarter inch Horizontal PartitionKnowledge:Students know: Nearest half and nearest quarter inch on a ruler. A ruler is a type of number line and shows fraction of 1/2 and 1/4.Skills:Students are able to: Measure objects to the nearest half and fourth of an inch. Create a line plot to display the data of the objects measured.Understanding:Students understand that: A line plot is a graph that displays a distribution of data values, including whole numbers, halves and quarters, such that each data value is marked above a horizontal line with an X or dot. A ruler is a type of number line partitioned equally and shows halves and fourths. Diverse Learning Needs: Essential Skills:Learning Objectives: M.3.17.1: Define line plot. M.3.17.2: Identify the parts of a line plot. M.3.17.3: Measure objects to the nearest inch. M.3.17.4: Identify one-inch units on a ruler starting with 0. M.3.17.5: Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. M.3.17.6: Directly compare two objects, with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has "more of" or "less of" the attribute, and describe the difference. Prior Knowledge Skills:Define length and line plot. Use vocabulary related to comparison of length. Examples: longer, shorter, longest, shortest, taller. Demonstrate rounding up to the nearest whole unit on measurement tools. Demonstrate measuring length using standard units. Describe a line plot. Model measuring length using standard units. Identify the object length. Explore objects in relationship to length. Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: M.AAS.3.16 Measure lengths of objects using non standard tools (paper clips). Limit to whole numbers. M.AAS.3.17 Using vocalization, sign language, augmentative communication or assistive technology, represent and interpret data on a picture or bar graph when given a model or a graph to complete.

Local/National Standards:

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will create graphs from data collected and evaluate the information to solve new problems.

Students will measure the lengths of objects using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch.

Students will write an opinion piece using data to support their reasoning.

Preparation Information
 Total Duration: Greater than 120 Minutes Materials and Resources: Student MaterialsReading *Copy for all students or project for class to view as a whole Rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch.Paper.Pencil.Possible supply list.Data chart (see attached document).Dam supplies listed on possible supply list (see attached document).Water tub.Teacher MaterialsProjector or Smartboard to show videoComputerInternet AccessWater Wheel Video (end of page) https://www.kidsdiscover.com/teacherresources/whats-good-and-whats-bad-about-hydropower/Graph Example Technology Resources Needed: InternetTeacher ComputerSmartboard/Projector Background/Preparation: Students should have read the reading article and previously studied natural disasters. Students should be comfortable using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch and have an understanding of the term “scale drawing.” Students should also understand that dams are sometimes used for power (hydroelectric).The teacher needs to be familiar with the article and natural disasters (such as floods). The teacher needs to be comfortable with the use of dams and the construction of a small class dam in a tub. The teacher may extend the activity to building a larger scale dam. The teacher should be familiar with creating a dam in a tub (such as a storage tub) full of water in the classroom and have a plan for cleanup of supplies and containers full of water.
Procedures/Activities:
 Lesson Procedures (Before, During and After):   Day 1   Before   Students will review their reading article that describes the different types of dams and their purpose. This can be done individually if copies where made or as a whole group if article was projected for the class. Students will watch the water wheel video and take notes on any pros and cons they see to the construction. (Their opinion of pros and cons) Teacher will demonstrate a T chart on the board or chart paper to help students organize their notes prior to watching the video. Students will use this information later to make connections to their data graphs and measurements of their dam construction. Students may be partnered, grouped or work individually depending on the amount of supplies and room in the classroom. Teachers may group students however they see fit to fit the needs of the students and classroom.   During Students will review the list of supplies available to them for building a dam. Students will use their data chart to list the pros and cons of each item so they can compare them easily. (student opinion, they will test tomorrow) Students will use their data graphing skills to create their organized list of pros and cons for comparison when it is time to measure and create their own dam.   After Students will create a graph to compare all the pros and cons of each of their supplies. Students will make a bar graph with the level of effectiveness on the left from 0-10 (0 worst con and 10 being best pro).  *Example in attachments Students will use this graph to select up to 5 supplies to build the most successful dam they can. Students will need to consider the size of their planned dam when selecting supplies. (must fit in water tub) Teacher will meet with students to review their graphs and conference with the students about their selected supply list.     Day 2 and Day 3   Before Students will review their selected supplies and partner talk about why they selected these materials Students will then collect their needed materials. Students should review their graph and size goal once they have collected their materials but before they move into testing. Students may make changes if need be to their materials.   During Students will use a tub of water to construct their dam (scale dam). Student will measure the tub, their supplies and their finished dams with their ruler to keep track of their data. Students should ask questions like: should the dam be larger? Smaller? Shorter? Taller? Students may use a list to keep track of this data, they should also note if the materials worked (kept the water out) or did not work. To build the dam students will take a container and fill it with water. The students will add their supplies and attempt to build a dam in the middle that will keep half the container dry and keep all the water on the other side. Teacher can use any container for this project keeping in mind that the bigger the container the more water and dam supplies that will be needed. After each build, they should record the testing data on a chart to determine what the best building material is. (student opinion but teacher may help with questions like: did the supply hold up? Did it absorb water? Did it fall apart?) Students may select the type of chart they feel is best for the data collection but the teacher should make sure to review a few ideas for students (bar graphs, t charts, etc.). Students will record the amount of supplies the dam needed, how difficult it was to build and how well it kept the water out of the dry side of the container. Students should ask questions like did it leak? Did it fall over? Did it move/float away? Student may exchange supplies if their testing fails but they must attempt to use all supplies selected first. Students may not use more than 5 supplies at any given time. Students should often refer to their pro/con list and graph from Day 1 to ensure their plan is meeting the needs of their dam and the size goal they have planned.   After Students will use their testing data charts to determine what they would use to build a large scale dam (writing). Students will be given the scenario that the back field of the school floods every time it rains. The Principal is worried about the cost of the dam but wants to make sure it will hold back the flood waters. Students are in charge of building a dam that doesn’t cost too much, but that is strong enough to hold back the flood waters. Students should again refer to their pro/con list, graph from day 1, data from day 2 and 3 and size goal for the dam. If students need help reading or analyzing their graphs and information they may use prior math notes, teacher help or peer help. Students should now be focused on real life materials such as concrete and metal. Students will connect things such as if they used toothpicks to hold up the dam in their scale project, they would need supports for a large scale dam so what would they use (wood, concrete, metal, etc.). Teacher will walk around and watch the students as they test and rethink their dams. Teacher will ensure students are meeting the math standards by using their rulers for accurate measurements and putting their data into charts and graphs after each test.   Day 4 and Day 5   Before Students will review their data from the past few days and verify they are happy with their choices and tests run. Teacher will ask a few students to share out some things that worked well for them and some that didn’t. Students will practice analyzing and understanding the data that has been collected during this week and apply it to new challenges. Students will need to refer to their measurements to ensure the size of the dam fits the need. Teacher will review how to move from a scale drawing to a life size object. For example if they needed a foot of dirt in their model and their life sized dam is three times as large they would need to multiple 1x3 to get 3 feet. The size of the life size dam should be determined by the classroom teacher based on the area where students could build it. *actual construction of the life sized dam is optional and would be completed later or with a different subject (such as Science), this part of the activity can also be used as a writing piece where students would write about their real life dam construction instead of building a larger scale dam.   During Students will use a ruler to measure their supplies, making a list of the sizes of all items they will use for their dam. Students will use a ruler to measure the size of their water tub. Students will use their measurements to create a scale drawing of the final dam they will build to keep the flood waters out. (final test, students should use failed attempts in prior days as a learning experience to get a dam that works) Students will complete the needed calculations and create a scale on their dam drawings. (refer students to teacher led activity in the before section)   After Students will review all their data and drawings to check for accuracy. Students will build their dam, to scale, using their rulers and measurement data. (tub dams, life size dams are optional) Students will present and test their dams using water tub. Students will collect data from their final test to rate the performance of their dam. Students will do this using a 0-10 scale with 0 being the worse (let all the water pass) to 10 being the best (no water passed to the other side). Dams will be rated on how well they are able to keep the water from leaking from one side of the container to the other side. Students will reflect on the performance of their scale dam and write an opinion piece about if their dam should be used for the school field (students must include data that they have collected as evidence in their writing). W.3.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. Teacher will review the effectiveness of the dams during the presentation and check for math understanding of measurements and graphs by reading the student paragraphs.

 Attachments:**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download. Data-Chart.docx Graph-Example.docx Possible-Supply-List.docx
Assessment
 Assessment Strategies InformalStudent data charts and graphs: the teacher will check for accuracy of charts and graphs.Teacher observation: the teacher will check for use of information from charts and graphs, as well as, use of a ruler to ensure proper measurements.FormalScale Model Drawing: The teacher will check for accurate ruler measurements.
 Acceleration: Students will use their scale drawing and model to create a full-size dam. Students must include a scale to scale the size of the dam from their drawing, to their model to their full-size dam. The teacher may select any size dam from a table top to an outside larger dam. The materials needed would depend on the size selected but would need to be strong (such as wood). Intervention: Students may use the water wheel video link to help them with their pros and cons list.Students may work with a partner.

 View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.