ALEX Lesson Plan

Newton's Laws of Motion

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This lesson provided by:
 Author: Lee Brownell System: Russellville City School: Russellville Middle School
General Lesson Information
 Lesson Plan ID: 6183 Title: Newton's Laws of Motion Overview/Annotation: Students use toy cars, a CBR sonic motion detector, and pennies to investigate Newton's Laws of Motion.
Associated Standards and Objectives
Content Standard(s):
 Technology Education TC2 (2009) Grade: 6-8 11 ) Use digital tools and strategies to locate, collect, organize, evaluate, and synthesize information. Examples: locating—Boolean searches, graphic organizers, spreadsheets, databases -  collecting—probeware, graphing calculators -  organizing—graphic organizers, spreadsheets -  evaluating—reviewing publication dates, determining credibility -  synthesizing—word processing software, concept-mapping software Technology Education TC2 (2009) Grade: 6-8 13 ) Use digital tools to formulate solutions to authentic problems. Examples: electronic graphing tools, probes, spreadsheets Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 8 Physical Science 9 ) Use Newton's second law to demonstrate and explain how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object (e.g., billiard balls moving when hit with a cue stick). Insight Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Constructing Explanations and Designing SolutionsCrosscutting Concepts: Stability and ChangeDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Demonstrate, using Newton's Second Law, how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object. Explain, using Newton's Second Law, how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.Teacher Vocabulary:Sir Isaac Newton Newton's Second Law of Motion Mass Acceleration Potential energy Kinetic energy Force External force Sum MotionKnowledge:Students know: The acceleration of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. Force = mass x acceleration; F=ma.Skills:Students are able to: Demonstrate Newton's second law. Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including Newton's second law and the motion of an object.Understanding:Students understand that: Newton's Second Law states that changes in an object's motion depends on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Experimenting with Forces and Motion NAEP Framework NAEP Statement: Forces have magnitude and direction. Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 8 Physical Science 10 ) Use Newton's third law to design a model to demonstrate and explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects (e.g., two cars bumping into each other, a hammer hitting a nail).* Insight Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Developing and Using ModelsCrosscutting Concepts: Systems and System ModelsDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Design a model of two colliding objects. Demonstrate Newton's Third Law, which states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction. Use Newton's Third Law to explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects.Teacher Vocabulary:Sir Isaac Newton Newton's Third Law of Motion Force Model Mass Speed Velocity Action ReactionKnowledge:Students know: Whenever two objects interact with each other, they exert forces upon each other. These forces are called action and reaction forces; forces always come in pairs. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The size of the force on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object. The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object. The momentum of an object increases if either the mass or the speed of the object increases or if both increases. The momentum of an object decreases if either the mass or the speed of the object decreases or if both decrease.Skills:Students are able to: Develop a model that demonstrates Newton's third law and identify the relevant components. Describe the relationships between components of the model. Use observations from the model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.Understanding:Students understand that: Newton's Third Law states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Experimenting with Forces and Motion NAEP Framework NAEP Statement: Forces have magnitude and direction.

Local/National Standards:

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will analyze the effects of force, mass, and acceleration. Students will follow written lab procedures.

Students will use technology in a science setting to gather, record and analyze data.

Preparation Information
 Total Duration: 31 to 60 Minutes Materials and Resources: Per group of students: Ramp, 2 equal mass Hot Wheels toy cars, 5 pennies, tape, meter stick, lab procedures (see attachments) Technology Resources Needed: CBR sonic motion detector, graphing calculator Background/Preparation: Students and teacher need to know how to use the CBR and graphing calculator.
Procedures/Activities:
 1.)The lesson is divided into 3 labs that can be completed in any order. In lab 1 (see attachment), the students explore Newton's 2nd law of motion. 2.)The lesson is divided into 3 labs that can be completed in any order. In lab 2 (see attachment), the students explore Newton's 3rd Law of Motion. 3.)The lesson is divided into 3 labs that can be completed in any order. In lab 3 (see attachment), students explore Newton's 3rd Law of Motion. 4.)After labs have been completed, facilitate a class discussion where students summarize and compare findings and relate how their findings support (or refute) Newton's Laws of Motion.

 Attachments:**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download. Experiment 2 Newtons laws.doc Experiment 3Newtons laws.doc Experiment One, Newtons laws.doc
Assessment
 Assessment Strategies The teacher will check the entries in the lab book for completeness and accuracy.
 Acceleration: Students may want to find the force of the crashes using the formula F=MA. Students will need to find the mass of the cars and the pennies. Some students may also find it interesting to find the speed of the cars. For more advanced students, a scale speed can be obtained. Intervention: Some students may need extra preparation with the Laws of Motion. Teachers may want to restate the laws in simpler terms.

Each area below is a direct link to general teaching strategies/classroom accommodations for students with identified learning and/or behavior problems such as: reading or math performance below grade level; test or classroom assignments/quizzes at a failing level; failure to complete assignments independently; difficulty with short-term memory, abstract concepts, staying on task, or following directions; poor peer interaction or temper tantrums, and other learning or behavior problems.

 Presentation of Material Environment Time Demands Materials Attention Using Groups and Peers Assisting the Reluctant Starter Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior
Be sure to check the student's IEP for specific accommodations.