# ALEX Lesson Plan

## Gallon Man Meets Fraction Friend: An Introductory Lesson on Adding Fractions with Unlike Denominators

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This lesson provided by:
 Author: Deborah Hill System: Blount County School: Locust Fork Elementary
General Lesson Information
 Lesson Plan ID: 32651 Title: Gallon Man Meets Fraction Friend: An Introductory Lesson on Adding Fractions with Unlike Denominators Overview/Annotation: This hands-on, minds-on activity helps students use what they already know about customary measurement (CCRS 2010 #18 [5.MD.1]: Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system.) to help them add and subtract fractions with like and unlike denominators.
Associated Standards and Objectives
Content Standard(s):
 Mathematics MA2019 (2019) Grade: 5 9. Model and solve real-word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate mentally, and assess the reasonableness of answers. Example: Recognize an incorrect result 2/5+ 1/2= 3/7 by observing that 3/7 < 1/2. Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Model and solve real-world problems involving sums and differences of fractions (including mixed numbers) with unlike denominators. Use visual models to illustrate the problem situation involving fractions. Use fraction understanding and estimation strategies to assess the reasonableness of answers.Teacher Vocabulary:Fraction Benchmark fraction Denominator Fraction model Estimate Reasonableness Equation Unlike denominator Unlike unitsKnowledge:Students know: The meaning and magnitude of fractions expressed in units of halves, fourths, eighths, thirds, sixths, twelfths, fifths, tenths, and hundredths. Strategies to find sums of two or more fractions with like denominators. Strategies to find the difference of two fractions with like denominators. How to decompose a fraction greater than 1 and express as a mixed number. Example: 7/3 = 3/3 + 3/3 + 1/3 = 2 1/3.Skills:Students are able to: Solve real-word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators. Represent problems using fraction models or equations. Assess reasonableness of answers using estimation and benchmark fractions.Understanding:Students understand that: solving word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike units Require strategies to find equivalent fractions in a common unit, and the sum or difference will be expressed in the common unit. Can be assessed for reasonableness of answers using estimation strategies. Diverse Learning Needs: Essential Skills:Learning Objectives: M.5.9.1: Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators. M.5.9.2: Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. M.5.9.3: Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. M.5.9.4: Recognize a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram. M.5.9.5: Recognize key terms to solve word problems. M.5.9.6: Apply properties of operations for addition and subtraction. M.5.9.7: Recall basic addition and subtraction facts. Prior Knowledge Skills:Use fraction equivalence to add and subtract fractions and mixed numbers with unlike denominators. Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: M.AAS.5.9 Illustrate equivalent fractions using models of wholes, halves, thirds, and fourths to add fractions with like denominators. Mathematics MA2019 (2019) Grade: 5 10. Add and subtract fractions and mixed numbers with unlike denominators, using fraction equivalence to calculate a sum or difference of fractions or mixed numbers with like denominators. Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Use a variety of strategies and fraction equivalence to find sums and differences of fractions and mixed numbers with unlike denominators.Teacher Vocabulary:Fraction Denominator Numerator Visual Model Sum Difference Equivalence Unlike denominators Unlike unitsKnowledge:Students know: Strategies to determine if two given fractions are equivalent. How to use a visual model to illustrate fraction equivalency. Contextual situations for addition and subtraction.Skills:Students are able to: Use fraction equivalence to add and subtract fractions and mixed numbers with unlike denominators.Understanding:Students understand that: Addition and subtraction of fractions and mixed numbers with unlike units, Require strategies to find equivalent fractions in a common unit, and the sum or difference will be expressed in the common unit. Can be assessed for reasonableness of answers using estimation strategies. Diverse Learning Needs: Essential Skills:Learning Objectives: M.5.10.1: Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. M.5.10.2: Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size. M.5.10.3: Identify two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size or the same point on a number line. M.5.10.4: Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions. M.5.10.5: Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. M.5.10.6: Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. M.5.10.7: Recall basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts. Prior Knowledge Skills:Use fraction equivalence to add and subtract fractions and mixed numbers with unlike denominators.

Local/National Standards:

Develop understanding of fractions as parts of unit wholes, as parts of a collection, as locations on number lines, and as divisions of whole numbers (NCTM 3-5).

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will represent fractions and add fractions with like and unlike denominators using pieces of Fraction Friend and their own body.

Mathematical Practice Standards:

1. Make sense of problems and preserver in solving them.

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

4.  Model with mathematics.

5. Use appropriate tools strategically.

6. Attend to precision.

7. Look for and make use of structure.

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Preparation Information
 Total Duration: 31 to 60 Minutes Materials and Resources: Gallon Man (commercial or student made), construction paper (five colors for each child: purple, red, orange, blue, and yellow), and magic markers, students’ journals and pencils. Technology Resources Needed: Computer with Internet access and digital document camera (ELMO) Background/Preparation: Students need to understand customary capacity. Students should be able to convert gallons to quarts, pints, and cups.  Group students heterogeneously in groups of 2 to 4 so that they may work with a partner and discuss their findings as a group.http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/dailylp/dailylp/gallon_man.shtml
Procedures/Activities: