ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Modeling Mitosis

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Shirley Scarbrough
Organization:Alabama State University Math-science Pa
And
Author:Ruth Liddell
System: Informal Education Partner
School: Informal Education Partner
And
Author:Debbie Payne
Organization:ResultSearch Consulting
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 33344

Title:

Modeling Mitosis

Overview/Annotation:

This module provides three different methods for learning about mitosis and includes hands-on, inquiry-based activities. Students will prepare and examine slides of their cheek cells and compare them to those of other students. This will demonstrate the relationship between the structure and function of cells and the similarity of the same types of cells within the same species. Using yarn and popsicle sticks, students will model and explain each of the stages of mitosis. The students will observe prepared slides of onion root tips and whitefish blastula to discover the differences in mitosis in plant and animal cells.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 7
Life Science
2 ) Gather and synthesize information to explain how prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in structure and function, including the methods of asexual and sexual reproduction.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Gather and synthesize information with attention given to accuracy, credibility, and bias.
  • Explain, based on gathered information, the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells as they relate to structure, function, and methods of reproduction.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Cell
  • Prokaryotic cells
  • Eukaryotic cells
  • Structure
  • Function
  • Asexual reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Mitosis
  • Meiosis
  • Chromosome
  • DNA
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Prokaryotic cells are microscopic, single-celled organisms that have neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
  • Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
  • The function of prokaryotic cells.
  • The reproductive methods of prokaryotic cells.
  • Eukaryotic cells consist of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus.
  • Eukaryotes include all living organisms other than the eubacteria and archaebacteria.
  • The function of eukaryotic cells.
  • The reproductive methods of eukaryotic cells.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Obtain information about cells, including structure, function, and method of reproduction, from published, grade-level appropriate material from multiple sources.
  • Determine and describe whether the gathered information is relevant.
  • Use information to explain how prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in structure and function, as well as method of reproduction.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Investigating Biodiversity and Interdependence
Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L8.1e: All organisms are composed of cells, from one cell only to many cells. About two-thirds of the weight of cells is accounted for by water, which gives cells many of their properties. In multicellular organisms, specialized cells perform specialized functions. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells and function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L8.2: Following fertilization, cell division produces a small cluster of cells that then differentiate by appearance and function to form the basic tissues of an embryo.

NAEP Statement::
L8.9a: Reproduction is a characteristic of all living systems; because no individual organism lives forever, reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species.

NAEP Statement::
L8.9b: Some organisms reproduce asexually.

NAEP Statement::
L8.9c: Other organisms reproduce sexually.


Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

1. The student will prepare a wet mount slide with a sample of his or her cheek cell and identify the cellular structures displayed in the sample.

2. The student will model mitosis to identify and describe the process in full or in any one of the stages.

3. The student will recognize and sketch one of the stages of mitosis from prepared slides of an onion root tip and a whitefish blastula.

4. The student will explain mitosis to group members while modeling the process.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

Greater than 120 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

Student Materials (per student)

Pencil or pen

Pre-/Post-Test – Mitosis (see attached document)

The Human Cheek Cell Lab Sheet (see attached document)

Student Lab Guide 1-Modeling Mitosis (see attached document)

Student Lab Guide 2-Mitosis Observation (see attached document)

Website for before activity: UD Virtual Compound Microscope

Accleration Activities

Website for acceleration activity: Wound Healing Process” from ck12.org.

Karyotyping Activity (see attached document)

The Human Cheek Cell Lab

Toothpick (throw away after use)

Coverslip (throw away after use)

Student Materials (per group)

The Human Cheek Cell Lab

Dropper bottle of water

Blank slides

Methylene Blue dropper bottle

Microscope

Plastic container with dilute bleach solution for used slides

Modeling Mitosis Lab

4’ long by 2’ wide bulletin board paper

Scissors

Scotch tape

Rubber bands

Four red popsicle sticks

Four blue popsicle sticks

Yarn:

One 100 inch piece of black yarn

One 60 inch piece of purple yarn

Two 30 inch pieces of rust yarn (green twist tie)

Two 32 inch pieces of rust yarn (blue twist tie)

Two 36 inch pieces of rust yarn (red twist tie)

Two 12” pieces of red yarn

Two 12” pieces of blue yarn

Microscope Observation of Mitosis

Microscope

Prepared slides of Onion Root Tip and Whitefish Blastula

For Taboo Vocabulary Review 

Taboo Cards (see attached document)

Teacher Materials

Teacher Preparation Guide (see attached document)

Pre-/Post-Test – Mitosis Answer Key (see attached documents)

The Human Cheek Cell Lab Answer Key (see attached document)

Mitosis Presentation (see attached PowerPoint presentation)

Teacher Notes for Mitosis, Meiosis, and Fertilization Vocabulary Review Game (See attached document)

Technology Resources Needed:

Teacher Technology Resources

Teacher computer

Interactive whiteboard or projector

Student Technology Resources

Student technology device

Background/Preparation:

Student Background: This lesson requires students to have background knowledge about the structure and function of cells. If students do not possess background knowledge on these concepts, the teacher should prepare to provide instruction on this topic prior to beginning the lesson.  As written, this lesson requires students to use a microscope and create a wet mount slide with their cheek cells. If students have not had experience with using a microscope or preparing slides, the following video clips provide detailed, illustrated steps to perform these tasks:

"How to Prepare a Wet Mount Slide" from youtube.com-2:30

"Using a Microscope" from youtube.com-6:59

Teacher Background: The teacher should preview the Teacher Preparation Guide prior to teaching the lesson to ensure that the lab activities are prepared for students prior to beginning the lesson’s activities. In addition, this preparation packet includes the expected outcomes of the experiments included in this lesson and an answer key for the reflection questions. As written, the activities included in this lesson will require at least five class days to complete. The teacher can view the attached Mitosis Presentation for additional background information about the concepts taught in this lesson. The teacher should review lab safety precautions with students and ensure students follow these procedures for the duration of the lesson.

Prior to teaching day three of the module, the teacher will need to set up the Modeling Mitosis Lab for the eight student groups. Prior to teaching day four of the module, the teacher will need to set up the microscopes with the prepared onion root tip and whitefish blastula slides. Detailed instructions for setting up this lab are provided in the Teacher Preparation Guide. If the teacher plans to use the Taboo Cards to review vocabulary words associated with the lesson, the teacher should ensure adequate copies are made for all student groups. Detailed instructions for creating the cards for this review are provided in the Teacher Notes for Mitosis, Meiosis, and Fertilization Vocabulary Review Game (see attached document).

  Procedures/Activities: 

Before Strategy/Engage: 100 minutes (Day 1 and 2)

1. The teacher should give each student a copy of the Pre-/Post-Test – Mitosis (see attached document). The teacher should give students approximately ten to fifteen minutes to complete the pre-test. The teacher should stress to students that the purpose of the pre-test is to demonstrate the student’s background knowledge about the concepts of osmosis and diffusion.

2. After students complete the pretest, the teacher should check students’ answers to determine their current knowledge base of the concepts using the Pre-/Post-Test – Mitosis Answer Key (see attached document). Alternatively, the teacher could allow students to check their own paper or check a partner’s paper.

3. After the students have completed the pretest, the teacher should post the following “Questions to Ponder” on the board. The teacher should allow student volunteers to share their answers, then record student responses on the board.

  • How does a human being grow from a single fertilized cell into an individual containing billions of cells?

Possible Answer: Cells increase their number through a process called cytokinesis or cell division. Cell division is preceded by nuclear division or mitosis.  The genetic information of the parent cell is reproduced exactly in each daughter cell, whereas division of the other cell components is not exact.

  • Do all of the cells of the body look like one another? Do they perform the same jobs?

Possible Answer: There are many different types of cells in the body which serve many different functions. A nerve cell which conducts electrical messages looks very different from a cheek cell. Cheek cells are a type of epithelial tissue which are tightly arranged to help protect against bacterial invasion.

  • Do all cells of the body contain the same genetic information?

Possible Answer: All cells in the body with the exception of the egg and the sperm have identical copies of an individual’s genetic information. Different genes are activated in different cell types.

  • How is the genetic blueprint that makes you who you are transmitted continuously from one cell to the next?

Possible Answer: The consistent transmission of genetic material from one cell generation to the next is accomplished through DNA replication during Interphase and division in the process of mitosis. This nuclear replication and division occur billions of times with great accuracy as a human being grows and develops.

  • How long does it take for one parent cell to become two daughter cells?

Possible Answer: In humans, rapidly dividing cells such as skin and gut divide as often as once a day. Other cells, such as brain and nerve tissue, rarely divide in adult cells.

  • Are cells alive?

Possible Answer: Yes, they are the smallest units of life. They are considered to be living because they are capable of respiration, nutrient intake, the release of waste materials, reproduction of themselves, movement, responsiveness and other processes which are characteristic of other living things.

  • What is a cell anyway?

Possible Answer: Cells are sometimes referred to as the basic units of life; they are small compartments in your body which house your DNA and perform all the essential tasks to sustain life. They are surrounded by a cell membrane, contain a nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane and have many other organelles performing various functions.

4. For the next portion of the lesson, students will need access to a technology device. Students should visit UD Virtual Compound Microscope and complete the online tour to review the correct usage of a compound microscope.

5. For the next activity in the lesson, students will need to be divided into collaborative groups of approximately four students each. Each student will need a copy of The Human Cheek Cell Lab Sheet (see attached document). Each group will need the required materials for the lab activity. Students should follow the procedures listed on the lab sheet. This lab sheet will also direct students to collect data during their investigation and answer reflection questions at the conclusion of the lab.

During Strategy/Explore & Explain: 100 minutes (Day 3 and 4)

1. For the next portion of the lesson, students will need to be divided into eight collaborative groups. Each student will need a copy of Student Lab Guide 1-Modeling Mitosis (see attached document). Each group will need the required materials for the lab activity. Students should follow the procedures listed on the lab sheet. This lab sheet will also direct students to collect data during their investigation and answer reflection questions at the conclusion of the lab.

2. Students will continue to work in eight collaborative groups during the next lab activity. Each student will need a copy of Student Lab Guide 2-Mitosis Observation (see attached document). Each group will need the required materials for the lab activity. Students should follow the procedures listed on the lab sheet. This lab sheet will also direct students to collect data during their investigation and answer reflection questions at the conclusion of the lab.

After Strategy/Explain & Elaborate: 50 minutes (Day 5)

1. After all groups have completed the lab activities on mitosis, the teacher should lead a class discussion among all of the groups to compare each group’s data.

Note: If the teacher identifies that students need additional review before the summative assessment, the teacher may show students the attached Mitosis Presentation to review the concepts demonstrated during the lab activities (see attached PowerPoint presentation).

2. The teacher should give the students the Pre-/Post-Test – Mitosis, that students completed as a pre-test at the beginning of the lesson. The teacher should explain to students that this post-test will allow students to demonstrate the knowledge they acquired during the lab activities.



Attachments:
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  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

Formative: The teacher will informally assess students' background knowledge by administering the Pre-/Post-Test – Mitosis prior to teaching the lesson. The teacher should carefully monitor students as they complete the lab activities with their groups to certify that students are correctly following the lab procedures. The teacher should review each student’s Human Cheek Cell Lab Sheet, Student Lab Guide 1-Modeling Mitosis, and Student Lab Guide 2-Mitosis Observation to ensure that students are collecting accurate data during the lab investigations.

Summative: The teacher will formally assess students at the conclusion of each lab experiment by reviewing each student’s answers to the reflection questions on the Human Cheek Cell Lab Sheet, Student Lab Guide 1-Modeling Mitosis, and Student Lab Guide 2-Mitosis Observation. The teacher will administer the Pre-/Post-Test – Mitosis as a summative assessment at the end of the lesson.

Acceleration:

Students can further explore the concepts taught in this module by completing the interactive game “Wound Healing Process” from ck12.org.

Students can expand their understanding of the concept of mitosis by completing the Karyotyping Activity (see attached document). 

 

Intervention:

Students who require additional preparation prior to the lesson or review after the lesson can view the Mitosis Presentation which succinctly summarizes the concepts demonstrated during this lesson’s lab activities (see attached PowerPoint presentation).

Students who need extra assistance learning the vocabulary words associated with this lesson can play the Taboo Vocabulary Review Game (see attached document). This game will allow students to practice identifying the meaning of scientific terms associated with mitosis. 

 

 


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.