ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Can you catch your shadow?

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Samantha Maynor
System: Madison County
School: Madison County Board Of Education
And
Author:Courtney Hamilton
System: Madison County
School: Madison County Board Of Education
The event this resource created for:NASA
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 34216

Title:

Can you catch your shadow?

Overview/Annotation:

This is an interdisciplinary lesson about shadows and light where we track the motion of the sun across the sky. It involves components of sunrise, sunset, involving Mathematics, Science, and English Language Arts. This lesson will involve NASA resources, hands- on inquiry, and observational data.

This lesson was created as part of the 2016 NASA STEM Standards of Practice Project, a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
2 ) Construct explanations from observations that objects can be seen only when light is available to illuminate them (e.g., moon being illuminated by the sun, colors and patterns in a kaleidoscope being illuminated when held toward a light).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Explain based on observations that objects can be seen only when there is a light source.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • light
  • illuminate
  • construct
  • explanation
  • observation
  • available
  • objects
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Light comes from different sources (natural/man-made).
  • Objects can be seen only when there is a light source.
  • Objects can be seen if they give off their own light.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather evidence from observations to support the explanation that objects can only be seen when illuminated.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Objects can be seen only when a light source causes it to be illuminated.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Sound, Light, and Sky
Sound and Light, FOSS
Sundial, GLOBE
Sky, Delta

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.2- Recognize that light illuminates objects so they can be seen.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
8 ) Observe, describe, and predict patterns of the sun, moon, and stars as they appear in the sky (e.g., sun and moon appearing to rise in one part of the sky, move across the sky, and set; stars other than our sun being visible at night, but not during the day).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Observe, describe, and predict patterns of objects visible in the day and night sky.
  • Observe, describe, and predict the position of the sun and moon in the day or night sky.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • observe
  • describe
  • predict
  • pattern
  • sun
  • moon
  • star
  • sky
  • day
  • night
  • sunset
  • sunrise
  • motion
  • appear
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Stars are not seen in the sky during the day, but are seen in the sky at night.
  • The sun is at different positions in the sky at different times of the day, appearing to rise in one part of the sky in the morning and appearing to set in another part of the sky in the evening.
  • The moon can be seen during the day and at night, but the sun can only be seen during the day.
  • The moon is at different positions in the sky at different times of the day or night, appearing to rise in one part of the sky and appearing to set in another part of the sky.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Organize data from observations in order to describe objects in the day/night sky
  • Use patterns found in data from observations to describe and predict the position of objects in the day/night sky.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Patterns related to the appearance of objects in the sky can be observed and used to provide evidence that future appearances of those objects can be predicted.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Organisms, STC
Wild Feet, ETA/hand2mind

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.1: Objects in the sky have patterns of movement. The Sun, for example, appears to move across the sky in the same way every day, but its path changes slowly over the seasons. The Moon appears to move across the sky on a daily basis much like the Sun.

NAEP Statement::
E4.2: The observable shape of the Moon changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts about a month.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.8- Identify major celestial objects (e.g., moon, sun, other stars) and when they can be seen in the sky.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
9 ) Observe seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset to describe the relationship between the number of hours of daylight and the time of year (e.g., more hours of daylight during summer as compared to winter).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Make observations, firsthand or from media, to collect data and use it to describe the relationship between the number of hours of daylight and the time of the year.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • observe
  • seasonal
  • patterns
  • sunrise
  • sunset
  • describes
  • relationship
  • hours
  • daylight
  • year
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • There is a relationship between the relative length of the day and the season of the year.
Skills:
Students are able to:
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Seasonal patterns of sunrise and sunset can be observed, described and predicted.
    AMSTI Resources:
    AMSTI Module:
    Sound and Light, Foss
    Sundial, GLOBE
    Sky, Delta

    NAEP Framework
    NAEP Statement::
    E4.1: Objects in the sky have patterns of movement. The Sun, for example, appears to move across the sky in the same way every day, but its path changes slowly over the seasons. The Moon appears to move across the sky on a daily basis much like the Sun.

    NAEP Statement::
    E4.2: The observable shape of the Moon changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts about a month.

    NAEP Statement::
    E4.8: Weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

    NAEP Statement::
    E4.9: Scientists use tools for observing, recording, and predicting weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.



    Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
    AAS Standard:
    SCI.AAS.1.9- Identify the four seasons of the year in Alabama using common representations.


    Local/National Standards:

     

    Primary Learning Objective(s):

    Students will be able to investigate shadows and conduct an experiment where they measure and document their observations.

    Additional Learning Objective(s):

     
     Preparation Information 

    Total Duration:

    61 to 90 Minutes

    Materials and Resources:

    Teacher Materials:

    “Bear’s Shadow” by: Frank Asch

    Compass

    List of students in groups of 5-7

    Break students into groups from 5-7. Groups will need the following materials in each group:

    Yardsticks

    Large coffee can of rocks

    Large flat piece of cardboard or heavy paper ( at least 2X3)

    Markers

    Technology Resources Needed:

    Interactive White Board, laptop with a projector, speakers for listening, internet access.

    Padlet app or website at www.Padlet.com

    Background/Preparation:

    Teacher Preparation: Teachers should go in before the lesson and create a Padlet account in order to save their own Padlet that is made with their class.

    Students and teachers should be familiar with using a Know-Want to Know- and Learned (KWL) chart.

    The teacher will need to review the book “A Bear’s Shadow” before reading it aloud to the class in order to have a general understanding of the book.

    Teacher should access interest video regarding shadows to ensure that link and audio are working properly: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bI6k7rLFVfs.

    Teacher should find some open outdoor space-preferably in the school yard-that can be used every day.  Be sure to choose a spot unobstructed by trees or tall buildings which would shade this area early or late in the day.

    Teachers should place a yardstick upright in a large coffee can filled with stones or soil.  This should be done for each group. 

    Be sure to remind students that looking into the sun can cause permanent eye damage-never look directly at the sun.

      Procedures/Activities: 

    Step 1 Students and teachers will create a KWL chart together using: www.Padlet.com.  Each section will need its own Padlet.  The K and W are the only Padlets that should be completed at this time.

    The teacher should read “Bear’s Shadow” to students aloud (whole group).  After reading the book, students should engage in a guided discussion with the students by asking the following questions regarding shadows. The teacher may want to record the responses on chart paper to refer back to during discussions.

    1. What do you know about shadows that makes this book funny?
    2. Why did their shadow disappear when he hid behind the tree?
    3. Why did the shadow disappear when he buried it?
    4. What makes a sun shadow fall one direction at one time and another direction earlier or later in the day?
    5. What other questions do you have about shadows?

    Once the discussion is over, the teacher should refer to the KWL Padlet (K and W Padlets only) to update information that they may have learned about shadows as well as any other information that they would like to continue to learn about shadows.

    Step 2 Students will watch an interest/introductory video regarding shadows.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bI6k7rLFVfs

    A new shadow friend on the ground causes Dawn to find out more about what makes shadows come and go! Shadow play becomes the game of the day when Dawn plays hide and seek with the sun! Our audience learns how to make an eagle and alligator as hand shadows. Our audience learns how to make an eagle and alligator as hand shadows.

    The teacher should pose the following question after reviewing the video:

    1. What do you think a shadow is?
    2. Is it real or make believe?
    3. Do all things have shadows?
    4. How can you make a shadow?

    After viewing the video, Padlet information should be updated.

    Step 3- Begin early on a sunny day and plan to make measurements throughout the day.  Select a suitable spot and the teacher will use a compass to determine North, East, South, and West. 

    • Place the cardboard on level ground such that the edges are aligned with the compass directions.
    • Take the coffee filled with rocks and the yardstick in the middle and put it at the center of the southern edge of the cardboard.
    • Mark the direction of magnetic north on the cardboard with a marker.
    • Mark the line and tip of the shadow cast by the yardstick with a marker and record the time of the observation
    • Ask students to predict where the shadow will fall after a certain time interval, such as 15 minutes or an hour.
    • Each student or group of students can mark the place that they predict with a marker.  The class can check their markings against the actual position.
    • Throughout the course of the day, periodically (every hour or half hour) record the movement of the shadow of the yardstick by marking the line in the tip of the shadow.
    • Discuss shadow observations by posing the following questions:  How do shadow lengths change during the day?  Why do they change?  Is there a pattern?  Why is there a pattern?  Is the sun directly overhead at any time?  Why is the shortest shadow around noon?  Why does the shortest shadow point north?  Why doesn’t it point in the same direction as the magnetic compass?
    • Complete the KWL Padlets as needed to include information learned during the observation.

      Assessment  

    Assessment Strategies

    Teacher Observation

    KWL Chart (L Padlet- What Students Learned)

    Acceleration:

    Compare the North South line marked by the shadows with a compass.  Do they agree?  Discuss the difference between true and magnetic North.  A compass is simply attracted by the magnetic force.  Demonstrate how a nearby magnet can easily fool the compass.

    Intervention:

    Students who are having difficulty can be pulled to the small group table and retaught the lesson.  They may also receive additional support from the teacher during the measuring process.


    View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.