ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Sickle Cell: The Sticky Cell Part III of III:Cellular Structure and Function

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Chastity Bradford
Organization:Tuskegee University
And
Author:Lauren Jackson
Organization:Tuskegee University
And
Author:Alicia Curry
Organization:Tuskegee University
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 34223

Title:

Sickle Cell: The Sticky Cell Part III of III:Cellular Structure and Function

Overview/Annotation:

This 7th grade life science educational module is designed to provide a hands-on approach to learning how genetics determine the fate of a cell. This is an interactive "student-centered" module that utilizes technology, manipulatives, and hands-on activities to provide exceptional resources for teachers and a dynamic learning experience for students with various learning styles.

Specifically, the lesson focuses on understanding how Sickle Cell Anemia is an inherited genetic disorder, illustrates how the structure of the red blood cells affect blood flow, and explains how possible gene combinations can be passed from parents to offspring. This lesson serves as lesson 3 of a 3 lesson plan module.

This lesson was created under Tuskegee University Math and Science Partnership Grant (MSP), NSF Funded. 

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 7
Life Science
12 ) Construct and use models (e.g., monohybrid crosses using Punnett squares, diagrams, simulations) to explain that genetic variations between parent and offspring (e.g., different alleles, mutations) occur as a result of genetic differences in randomly inherited genes located on chromosomes and that additional variations may arise from alteration of genetic information.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Identify and describe the relevant components of the model.
  • Develop a model for a given phenomenon involving the variations that arise between parent and offspring as a result of randomly inherited genes and alteration of genetic material.
  • Use a model to explain a given phenomenon involving the variations that arise between parent and offspring as a result of randomly inherited genes and alteration of genetic material.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Punnett square - monohybrid cross
  • Homozygous and Pure
  • Heterozygous and
  • Hybrid
  • Homologous
  • Dominant
  • Recessive
  • Models
  • Genetic variation
  • Parent
  • Offspring
  • DNA
  • Genes
  • Inheritance
  • Allele
  • Variation
  • Mitosis (introduced in Standard 2; use here for comparison to Meiosis)
  • Meiosis
  • Chromosome
  • Mutation
  • Probability
  • Gregor Mendel
  • Mendel's laws
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Asexual reproduction
  • Sperm
  • Egg
  • Zygote
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Chromosomes are the source of genetic information.
  • Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to offspring.
  • Variations of inherited traits from parent to offspring arise from the genetic differences of chromosomes inherited.
  • In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired (at random) by the offspring.
  • Individuals have two of each chromosome, one acquired from each parent; therefore individuals have two alleles (versions) for each gene. The alleles (versions) may be identical or may differ from each other.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Construct a model for a given phenomenon involving the differences in genetic variation that arise from genetic differences in genes and chromosomes and that additional variations may arise from alteration of genetic information.
  • Identify and describe the relevant components of the model.
  • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
  • Use the model to describe a causal account for why genetic variations occur between parents and offspring.
  • Use the model to describe a causal account for why genetic variations may occur from alteration of genetic information.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • During reproduction (both sexual and asexual) parents transfer genetic information in the form of genes to their offspring.
  • Under normal conditions, offspring have the same number of chromosomes (and genes) as their parents.
  • In asexual reproduction: Offspring have a single source of genetic information and their chromosomes are complete copies of each single parent pair of chromosomes. Offspring chromosomes are identical to parent chromosomes.
  • In sexual reproduction: Offspring have two sources of genetic information that contribute to each final pair of chromosomes in the offspring because both parents are likely to contribute different genetic information, offspring chromosomes reflect a combination of genetic material from two sources and therefore contain new combinations of genes that make offspring chromosomes distinct from those of either parent.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.7.12- Compare and contrast traits of animal parents and their offspring (e.g., eye color, hair/fur color, size); recognize that variations between parents and offspring are the result of randomly inherited genes; recognize that genes are located on chromosomes which are found in the cells of living things.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 7
Life Science
13 ) Construct an explanation from evidence to describe how genetic mutations result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of an organism.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use evidence and reasoning to construct an explanation describing how genetic mutations result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of an organism.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Explanation
  • Evidence
  • Gene
  • Genetic mutation
  • Chromosome
  • Protein
  • Trait
  • Structure
  • Function
  • Protein structure
  • Protein function
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of gene.
  • Genes control the production of proteins.
  • Proteins affect the structures and functions of the organism, thus changing traits.
  • Genetic information can be altered because of mutations.
  • Mutations, though rare, can result in changes to the structure and function of proteins.
  • Mutations can be beneficial, harmful, or have neutral effects on organisms.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including the relationship between mutations and the effects on organisms.
  • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation that structural changes to genes (i.e., mutations) may result in observable effects at the level of the organism.
  • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation that beneficial, neutral, or harmful changes to protein function can cause beneficial, neutral, or harmful changes in the structure and function of organisms.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Mutations are the result of changes in genes which may affect protein production and, in turn, affect traits.
  • Mutations can be harmful, beneficial, or have neutral effects on organisms.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Studying the Development and Reproduction of Organisms

Local/National Standards:

National Science Education Standards for Life Science Content, Standard C, grades 5 – 8 (structure and function in living systems, reproduction and heredity)

Primary Learning Objective(s):

The students will be able to identify how the structure of the red blood cells affect blood flow.

 

The students will be able to identify how Sickle Cell Anemia is an inherited genetic disorder.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

The students will be able to identify basic patterns of inheritance (e.g., dominance, recessive, and codominance).

 

The students will be able to determine what possible gene combinations can be passed from parents to offspring.
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

91 to 120 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

7th Grade Life Sciences textbook (optional resource)

2 Large Tables (set-up)

2 Large Bowls or 2 Wacky Noodles (Chromosome Structures)

Velcro

Parent (Paper Alleles) 60 Total [15 SS & 15 ss in each bowl or pinned to wacky noodles]

Amino Acids (Chemistry molecule model set)

Bag of Red Hots Candy (Red Blood Cells)

Bag of Runts banana candy (Sickle Cells)

(15) 25 mL or 50 mL Erlenmeyer flasks (labeled by genotype)

(15) 15 mL Conical Tubes

Tape

Name tag stickers

Sharpies

Technology Resources Needed:

  • Computer with Internet access 
  • Projector & screen 
  • Microsoft PowerPoint accessibility
  • Laptops and/or iPads are optional

Background/Preparation:

This lesson plan is most effective after students have been introduced to the concepts of the cell’s structure and function, understand how the cell’s structure and function affects blood flow, understand how to complete a Punnett square to determine their genotype, and the students should understand the role of hemoglobin.

After reviewing the lesson plan and giving the Pre-Test (included in the assessment section of this lesson), utilize the results of the Pre-Test to determine the vocabulary focus and additional instructional activities or strategies that may be needed before teaching this lesson.

Teachers should review the following: how to draw a Punnett square, the difference between phenotype and genotype, and be familiar with probability. Please keep in mind this is lesson #3 of a 3 part lesson plan module.   

 

  Procedures/Activities: 

Important Note: Teachers may want to give the Pre-Test at least a day before teaching the lesson to assess the students' prior knowledge and identify possible vocabulary foci.  

1. The teacher will engage the students in a discussion about any previous knowledge of an inherited disease and a Punnett square. The teacher may want to also use a KWL chart to assess knowledge before, during, and after this lesson. Optional KWL Chart

Suggested Engagement Questions:

How can someone get an inherited disease?

Is Sickle Cell Anemia an inherited disease? Why? or Why Not?

What is a Punnett square?

2. Students will watch a video from the American Society of Hematology that illustrates a real life example of an inherited disease. 

Note:  This short clip should be used as an example of an inherited disorder that can be determined through traits from parents.

3. After reviewing the video, the teacher will replay the video and pause at various segments in the video clip to assess/facilitate learning. The teacher will clarify unclear or confusing information as needed for each segment. 

Suggested Engagement Questions:

Did the video mention blood flow? Why is this important?

Did the patient have Sickle Cell Anemia?

What does this suggest about the parents?

4. The teacher may facilitate an additional discussion using an interactive PowerPoint. (Optional PowerPoint--see uploaded attachments for document.)

Activity Stations 

5. The teacher will walk around the room with 2 bowls or large noodle chromosome structures labeled mother and father, each containing alleles (letters).  The students must select one pair from each bowl. Each student will also receive a punnett square and complete it to determine their genotype.

The teacher will model step #5 and walk around and monitor the students as they complete this task. Additional clarification will be provided as needed.

6. Once the students have determined their genotype, they will write it on their name tag and place it on their shirts. Based upon their genotypes, the students will then be divided into five groups of 6 students each. Each group will have 2 heterozygous (Ss), 2 homozygous recessive (ss), and 2 homozygous dominant (SS) genotypes per group.

The teacher will walk around and monitor the students as they complete this task, additional clarification will be provided as needed. (make sure at-risk students are paired with proficient students)

7. The students will then proceed to Station 1: Build Your Hemoglobin Protein Station. At this station, the students will use the chemistry molecule model set (colored balls that represents amino acids) to build the protein hemoglobin. The teacher will model and show a visual example. (See attachment entitled Teacher Notes for pictures.)

Notes:  (Black = glutamate/normal,  Red = Valine/Sickle cell substitution)

8. After building their protein (hemoglobin), the students will proceed to Station 2: The Red Blood Cell Station to demonstrate how a simple change in protein structure can have a devastating effect on protein function. 

The students will exchange their hemoglobin (model set) for the appropriate red blood cell shape. The Red Hots represent normal red blood cells composed of normal hemoglobin. The banana Runts represent sickle-shaped red blood cells composed of abnormal hemoglobin. The students with heterozygous (Ss) genotype will obtain 2 Red Hots and 2 banana Runts. The students with homozygous recessive (ss) genotype will obtain 4 banana Runts. The students with homozygous dominant (SS) genotypes will obtain 4 Red Hots.

Each group will take three 25 mL Erlenmeyer flasks and their shaped red blood cells. (See attachment entitled Teacher Notes for pictures.)

9. Using their 25 mL Erlenmeyer flasks, the students will conduct the hands on demonstration of blood flow. The students will place red blood cells in the appropriate genotype labeled flask. The students will attach a conical tube representing blood vessels to the neck of flask using tape, and rock back and forth 5 times.

They will record their observations in a table or science journal. Crescent-shaped blood cells clog blood vessels, impeding blood flow. (See attachment entitled Teacher Notes for pictures.)

10. After all the stations have been completed, the teacher will tell the students to display their results/journals on their tables, and do an additional "chat and check" with each group and give each group an opportunity to ask questions if needed. 

11. The teacher will provide each group with a digital camera or iPad and allow them to take pictures of each item they made in each station. 

12. The students will use the pictures to create a photo journal and summarize what each picture represents or illustrates.  

13. The teacher will provide the groups with a time they can share their items and journals with their classmates (may be completed on a different day). 



Attachments:
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  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

The teacher may utilize the test included in this lesson (see attachment), modify the included test, or create a different test. The teacher may use the same test for the Pre-Test and the Post-Test. Remember, you give the Pre-Test before teaching the lesson and the test again (Post-Test) at the end of the lesson. The teacher may review the scores on the test and provide remediation accordingly. The lesson utilizes informal and formal assessment strategies.  

Informal Assessment: activities/photo summary

Formal Assessments: Pre-Test/Post-Test

Acceleration:

The teacher will allow the students to work in groups to come up with a different way they can create their own hemoglobin and red blood stations. Students must include a written plan with their created model. 

Intervention:

At-risk students or students with learning disabilities will receive accommodations by working in small groups (pair at-risk students with proficient students) during the interactive activities. The teacher will also monitor that group closely. 


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.