# ALEX Lesson Plan

## Touchdown Challenge: A Physical Science Mission to Mars

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This lesson provided by:
 Author: Laura Crowe System: Auburn City School: Auburn City Board Of Education The event this resource created for: NASA
General Lesson Information
 Lesson Plan ID: 34315 Title: Touchdown Challenge: A Physical Science Mission to Mars Overview/Annotation: This is a hands-on, cooperative learning activity where students are using items purchased from a grocery store to design a device and construct a shock-absorbing system out of paper, straws, and miniature marshmallows that will protect two astronauts when landing on Mars. Students are able to develop engineering skills to develop a spacecraft to land on Mars, a mission NASA is currently working on. Students propose a model of a spacecraft to land astronauts safely on the moon, test it, and then revise.This lesson was created as part of the 2016 NASA STEM Standards of Practice Project, a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
Associated Standards and Objectives
Content Standard(s):
 Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 8 Physical Science 8 ) Use Newton's first law to demonstrate and explain that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force (e.g., model car on a table remaining at rest until pushed). Insight Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Constructing Explanations and Designing SolutionsCrosscutting Concepts: Cause and EffectDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Demonstrate, using Newton's First Law, that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force. Explain Newton's First Law.Teacher Vocabulary:Sir Isaac Newton Newton's First Law of Motion Constant velocity Balanced force Unbalanced force External force Rest Motion InertiaKnowledge:Students know: An object at rest remains at rest unless acted on by an external force. An object in motion remains in motion unless acted upon by an external force. Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. An object subjected to balanced forces does not change its motion. An object subjected to unbalanced forces changes its motion over time. Constant velocity indicates that an object is moving in a straight line at a constant speed.Skills:Students are able to: Demonstrate Newton's first law. Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including Newton's first law and the motion of an object.Understanding:Students understand that: Newton's First Law states that an object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by an external force. Newton's First Law states that an object at in motion remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Experimenting with Forces and Motion NAEP Framework NAEP Statement: P8.14a: An object's motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it is moving. An object's position can be measured and graphed as a function of time. An object's speed can be measured and graphed as a function of time.NAEP Statement: P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.NAEP Statement: P8.16b: Forces can be added.NAEP Statement: P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.NAEP Statement: P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.NAEP Statement: P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line. Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 8 Physical Science 10 ) Use Newton's third law to design a model to demonstrate and explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects (e.g., two cars bumping into each other, a hammer hitting a nail).* Insight Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Developing and Using ModelsCrosscutting Concepts: Systems and System ModelsDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Design a model of two colliding objects. Demonstrate Newton's Third Law, which states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction. Use Newton's Third Law to explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects.Teacher Vocabulary:Sir Isaac Newton Newton's Third Law of Motion Force Model Mass Speed Velocity Action ReactionKnowledge:Students know: Whenever two objects interact with each other, they exert forces upon each other. These forces are called action and reaction forces; forces always come in pairs. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The size of the force on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object. The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object. The momentum of an object increases if either the mass or the speed of the object increases or if both increases. The momentum of an object decreases if either the mass or the speed of the object decreases or if both decrease.Skills:Students are able to: Develop a model that demonstrates Newton's third law and identify the relevant components. Describe the relationships between components of the model. Use observations from the model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.Understanding:Students understand that: Newton's Third Law states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Experimenting with Forces and Motion NAEP Framework NAEP Statement: P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.NAEP Statement: P8.16b: Forces can be added.NAEP Statement: P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.NAEP Statement: P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.NAEP Statement: P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.

Local/National Standards:

Primary Learning Objective(s):

The students can create a model of an apparatus that will safely land two astronauts when landing on Mars.

Students can apply examples of Newton's three laws of motion when a spacecraft uses a shock-absorbing system during landing.

Students will be able to re-design and make improvements on their shock-absorbing for astronauts when landing on Mars based upon testing results.

Preparation Information
 Total Duration: 61 to 90 Minutes Materials and Resources: For each group of 4 students you will need:1 piece of stiff paper or cardboard (approximately 4 inches by 5 inches (10 cm by 13 cm)1 small paper or plastic cup3 index cards (3 inches by 5 inches (8cm by 13 cm)2 regular size marshmallows10 miniature marshmallows3 rubber bands8 plastic strawsscissorstapeTouchdown Challenge: A Physical Science Mission to Mars handoutTouchdown Challenge: A Physical Science Mission to Mars RubricTouchdown Challenge original NASA handout (for teacher reference) Technology Resources Needed: A computer with internet access.A projection device to show video link from computer. Background/Preparation: Background1. Newton's first law of motion-Objects in motion stay in motion, objects at rest stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force2. Newton's second law-Force = mass  x acceleration; the gravitational constant for gravity is 9.8 m/s23. Newton's third law-For every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction4. Inertia- also Newton's first law; it is the resistance to change in motion5. Mass is measured in kg; force is measured in Newtons; acceleration is measured in m/s2PreparationFold an index card by folding it back and forth several times to where it has several folds in it.
Procedures/Activities: