Total Duration: 
31 to 60 Minutes 
Materials and Resources: 
Computer with Internet access Projection equipment Newton's Car handout  1 per team Materials:

Technology Resources Needed: 
Computer with Internet access Projection equipment 
Background/Preparation: 
Background Newton's First Law: objects in motion stay in motion; objects at rest stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force Newton's Second Law: Force= mass x acceleration Newton's Third Law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Mass: the amount of matter in an object Acceleration: change in velocity; measured in m/s^{2} Preparation You will need a smooth area for the cars to roll. Creating Newton's Cars Materials
1. Cut the board into 12 8" lengths. (Optional: Bevel one edge as shown on the Newton's Car handout.) 2. Drill three 1/4" holes 3/8" deep for the dowels. If using screws for posts instead of dowels, skip Step 3. 3. Glue the dowels into the holds. If desired, bevel the upper end of the dowels with sand paper. Note: Dimensions of lumber are based on rough cuts. When planed, thickness and width are smaller. A 1x3" board is actually 0.75 by 2.5 inches. 
Engagement (5 minutes) Show video clip of NASA's Newton's Second Law 1. Ask students orally, "How do you think mass affects a force?" 2. Ask students orally, "How do you think acceleration affects a force?" Explore (30 minutes) 1. Assign roles for teams of four students.
2. Provide teams with handout on how to set up the Newton Car and data sheet. You just have to give them the last two pages of the handout. The first two pages just provide background information for the teacher. 3. Clear areas for each team to set up their experiment. 4. Provide a station where teams can fill their bottles with different materials to change their total mass. Place the popcorn seeds, washer, etc. in different bowls for easy access. The bottles do not have to be filled to the top. However, the rubber bands should be positioned around the approximate center of mass of the bottle to get a uniform toss. 5. Check each team to ensure they are being consistent with procedures. For instance, placing straws differently for each test would introduce a new variable into the experiment that could affect the results. Tip: Provide masking tape so that students can use small tape pieces to mark the positions of the straws for consistency. Explain (10 minutes) Ask the students orally, "How did mass affect how far the car moved?" Ask students, "What kind of trends did you see with your graph in the lab?" Tell the students to think a minute on their own and develop an equation to show the relationship between mass and acceleration. To guide students in their development of the equation, have them think about how a train (which has a large mass) hitting a vehicle would have an effect on force of impact compared to a smaller car hitting the same object. Also, ask the students to think about how one car accelerating faster than another car would have an effect on force of impact. Pair the students with a partner, and have them compare their equations they developed to see if they are the same or different. Then have the students share their equations orally as a group. Compare their equations as groups. Students should be able to defend their answers orally for the equation they developed using the examples of a train vs. a smaller car on force of impact, and they should use the example of two similar cars in mass but with different velocities. Finally, explain orally to the students that there is a relationship, and it is: Force = mass x acceleration. This will allow for students to check their answers. Elaboration (10 minutes) Think Pair Share 1. Have students individually come up with an example of Newton's Second Law in reallife or when they have experienced Newton's Second Law. 2. Have students share with a partner their example. 3. One person from each pair shares the group's example. Write the list of examples on the board for the students. 4. Have students complete an exit ticket. Students should list 3 things they learned from lesson and one thing they still need help with. Have students also reflect on how they performed with their roles (eg: Principal Investigator, Materials Manager, Task Manager, Checker). Students should list one thing they did well as a group and one thing they can improve upon. 
Attachments: **Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download. 
Assessment Strategies 
Possible assessments include:

Acceleration: 
Newton's second law of motion can also be demonstrated using a water rocket. More information can be found within the NASA Rockets Educator Guide. 
Intervention: 
Students who need extra support should be placed in groups with teammates sensitive to the needs of that student. The teacher may need to more closely supervise groups that contain students who are struggling with the concept 
View the Special Education resources for
instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations
for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.
