# ALEX Lesson Plan

## Rocket Activity: Heavy Lifting

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This lesson provided by:
 Author: Cynthia Thomas System: Trussville City School: Trussville City Board Of Education The event this resource created for: NASA
General Lesson Information
 Lesson Plan ID: 34372 Title: Rocket Activity: Heavy Lifting Overview/Annotation: Raising heavy payloads to orbit is challenging.  Rockets require powerful engines and massive amounts of propellants. NASA is looking for creative ideas for launching heavy lift vehicles to deliver supplies to Mars.  Student teams receive identical parts to build rockets. The team that is able to lift the greatest payload into space (the ceiling) is the winner.This lesson was created as part of the 2016 NASA STEM Standards of Practice Project, a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
Associated Standards and Objectives
Content Standard(s):
 Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 9-12 Physics 1 ) Investigate and analyze, based on evidence obtained through observation or experimental design, the motion of an object using both graphical and mathematical models (e.g., creating or interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration versus time graphs for one- and two-dimensional motion; solving problems using kinematic equations for the case of constant acceleration) that may include descriptors such as position, distance traveled, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. NAEP Framework NAEP Statement:: P12.17: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time. NAEP Statement:: P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied. NAEP Statement:: P12.22: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Planning and Carrying out InvestigationsCrosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and QuantityDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Describe the motion of an object in terms of time, displacement, velocity, and acceleration in both one and two dimensions by analyzing a graph of that motion. Use data obtained from observation or experimental design of an investigation to analyze and explain the motion of an object in one and two dimensions. Use kinematic equations to solve for the displacement, velocity and acceleration of an object undergoing constant acceleration in both one and two dimensions using correct units.Teacher Vocabulary:model graph instant interval position velocity acceleration displacement distance speed average speed average velocity experimental design kinematic equations investigation analyze trajectory projectile range slope area under curve intercepts vector scalar coordinates origin magnitude units of measure significant figures trigonometric functionsKnowledge:Students know: How to use mathematical computations to solve for the motion of an object. How to analyze both linear and nonlinear graphs of motion. Laboratory safety procedures. Appropriate units of measure. Basic trigonometric functions of sine, cosine and tangent. How to determine area under a curve on a graph.Skills:Students are able to: Manipulate kinematic equations of motion. Interpret graphical data. Create graphical representations of data. Collect and organize experimental data. Follow written and verbal instructions. Make measurements of distance and time using standard units. Manipulate laboratory equipment. Work safely in collaborative lab groups.Understanding:Students understand that: The motion of an object can be predicted using mathematical models and graphical models.AMSTI Resources:ASIM Module: Intro to Graphing; Traveling Washer in 1D; Match the Graph; Motion of a Toy Car; Constant Velocity; Comparing Linear Speed and Circular Speed; Changing Velocity; Motion of a Falling Marble; Motion on an Incline; Motion Graphs; Treasure Hunt; Journey of a Physics Student; Tractor Pull; Projectile Motion Photo Worksheet; Horizontal Launch; Range vs. Angle; Basketball Toss; Acceleration on an Incline; Coefficient of Friction; Horizontal Circular Motion; Impulse Momentum; Collisions in 2D; Rotational Motion; Moment of Inertia; Conservation of Angular Momentum; Energy Exchange; Simple Harmonic Motion Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 9-12 Physics 2 ) Identify external forces in a system and apply Newton's laws graphically by using models such as free-body diagrams to explain how the motion of an object is affected, ranging from simple to complex, and including circular motion. a. Use mathematical computations to derive simple equations of motion for various systems using Newton's second law. b. Use mathematical computations to explain the nature of forces (e.g., tension, friction, normal) related to Newton's second and third laws. NAEP Framework NAEP Statement:: P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied. NAEP Statement:: P12.20: The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Developing and Using Models; Using Mathematics and Computational ThinkingCrosscutting Concepts: Systems and System ModelsDisciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Identify external forces in a system graphically using models such as free body diagrams. Determine the sum of the forces on an object. Apply Newton's laws to explain the motion of an object. Explain how motion, from simple to complex including circular motion, is affected by external forces. Derive kinematics equations for variables like displacement, time, velocity and acceleration from Newton's second law. Solve kinematics equations for variables like displacement, time, velocity and acceleration from Newton's second law. Explain the nature of forces related to Newton's second and third laws using computations.Teacher Vocabulary:model graph instant interval position velocity acceleration displacement distance speed average speed average velocity kinematic equations analyze slope intercepts vector scalar coordinates origin magnitude units of measure significant figures circular motion centripetal force friction tension normal trigonometric functions perpendicular radius circumference period frequency pi trajectory projectile range free-body diagram force diagram net force inertia action-reaction proportional force mass systemKnowledge:Students know: How to use mathematical computations to solve for net force on an object. How to use mathematical computations to solve for kinematics variables. Appropriate units of measure. How to identify the system. Basic trigonometric functions of sine, cosine and tangent.Skills:Students are able to: Manipulate equations. Complete mathematical computations. Interpret graphical data. Create graphical representations of data. Follow written and verbal instructions. Draw force diagrams. Identify the forces acting on an object.Understanding:Students understand that: Net force causes objects to change their motion.AMSTI Resources:ASIM Module: Forces Poster; Weight Versus Mass; Forces as Vectors; Force Tables; Newton's 3rd Law; Free Body Diagrams; Force and Motion; Newton's 2nd Law; Acceleration on an Incline; Coefficient of Friction; Horizontal Circular Motion; Pool Ball Inertia; Hooke's Law; Archimedes' Principle; Work and Kinetic Energy; Simple Harmonic Motion

Local/National Standards:

ALABAMA COURSE OF STUDY
Scientific and Engineering Practices:

• Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)
• Developing and using models
• Planning and carrying out investigations
• Analyzing and interpreting data
• Using mathematics and computational thinking
• Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)
• Engaging in argument from evidence
• Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

Crosscutting Concepts:

• Patterns
• Cause and effect: mechanisms and explanation
• Scale, proportion, and quantity
• Systems and system models

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Learning Targets:

I can design and construct a balloon powered rocket to launch the greatest payload possible to the classroom ceiling.

When analyzing the forces acting on an object:

• I can draw and label a force diagram for the object
• I can recognize that balanced forces always result in constant velocity (including v = 0) and unbalanced forces always cause an acceleration in the same direction as the Fnet.

I can apply F=mg to calculate the gravitational force on an object with mass m in a gravitational field of strength g in the context of the effects of a net force on objects and systems.

I can predict the motion of an object subject to forces exerted by several objects using an application of Newton’s second law in a variety of physical situations with acceleration in one dimension.

I can construct explanations of physical situations involving the interaction of bodies using Newton’s third law and the representation of action-reaction pairs of forces.

Video Analysis Extension Activity:
I can re-express a free-body diagram representation into a mathematical representation and solve the mathematical representation for the acceleration of the object.