ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Comparing Intermolecular Forces

You may save this lesson plan to your hard drive as an html file by selecting "File", then "Save As" from your browser's pull down menu. The file name extension must be .html.

  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Shaunna Aker
System: Cullman County
School: Cullman County Board Of Education
The event this resource created for:ASTA
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 34499

Title:

Comparing Intermolecular Forces

Overview/Annotation:

Students will be conducting a series of investigations in order to compare and contrast the various intermolecular forces that exist between compounds. First, students will rank 4 substances according to their melting points. Second, students will work together using the jigsaw research approach to understand the 4 types of intermolecular forces. And lastly, students will use the information gained to go back to their data collected and compare their original compounds and type of intermolecular bond they exhibit.

This lesson plan results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Literacy Standards (6-12)
LIT2010 (2010)
Grade: 9-10
Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
7 ) Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Insight Unpacked Content
Strand: Writing (WHST)
CCR Anchor:
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students conduct short as well as more sustained research projects that:
  • answer self-generated questions or solve problems
  • narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate
  • synthesize multiple sources on a subject
  • demonstrate understanding of a subject
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • conduct
  • short research project
  • more sustained research project
  • answer a question
  • self-generated question
  • solve a problem
  • narrow the inquiry
  • broaden the inquiry
  • synthesize multiple sources
  • demonstrate understanding
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • research answers a self-generated question or solves a problem
  • research needs to be narrowed or broadened when appropriate
  • research synthesizes multiple sources
  • research is a way to demonstrate understanding of a subject
  • VOCABULARY: synthesize
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • use research to answer a self-generated question or solve a problem
  • narrow or broaden research when appropriate
  • synthesize multiple sources
  • demonstrate understanding of a subject through research
Understanding:
Students understand that research is a process that involves answering a question or solving a problem, investigating and synthesizing several varied sources, and developing subject-specific understanding.
Literacy Standards (6-12)
LIT2010 (2010)
Grade: 9-10
Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
8 ) Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

Insight Unpacked Content
Strand: Writing (WHST)
CCR Anchor:
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students learn relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources by:
  • effectively using advanced searches
  • assessing the usefulness of each source in answering research questions
  • integrating information into the text to maintain flow of ideas
  • avoiding plagiarism
  • following standard citation format
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • gather relevant information
  • multiple authoritative print sources
  • multiple authoritative digital sources
  • using advanced searches effectively
  • integrate information
  • maintain flow of ideas
  • avoiding plagiarism
  • standard format for citation
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • advanced search types and procedures
  • qualities of authoritative sources
  • common print and digital sources
  • techniques for assessing usefulness of sources
  • techniques for integrating information into original writing to maintain flow of ideas
  • rules regarding use of outside sources in original writing
  • definition and detection of plagiarism
  • techniques for avoiding plagiarism
  • standard citation format
  • VOCABULARY: plagiarism, citation, authoritative
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • use advanced search types and procedures
  • identify authoritative print and digital sources
  • assess usefulness of sources
  • integrate information into original writing to maintain flow of ideas
  • apply rules regarding use of outside sources in original writing
  • avoid plagiarism
  • follow standard format for citation
Understanding:
Students understand that research involves systematically gathering information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources while avoiding plagiarism, integrating the strongest information, and creating a standard bibliography.
Literacy Standards (6-12)
LIT2010 (2010)
Grade: 9-10
Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
9 ) Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Insight Unpacked Content
Strand: Writing (WHST)
CCR Anchor:
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students critically read informational text and:
  • write analysis, reflection, or research-based texts
  • include textual evidence to support analysis, reflection, and research
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • draw evidence
  • informational text
  • support
  • analysis
  • reflection
  • research
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • elements of analytical, reflective, and research-based writing
  • techniques for critical reading of informational texts
  • techniques for note-taking during and after reading
  • techniques for composing academic writing including descriptions, explanations, and comparisons and contrasts
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • compose an analytical, reflective, or research-based piece in response to reading an informational text
  • analyze a teacher-provided prompt or question about a text to determine what is being asked
  • form ideas in response to a teacher-provided prompt or questions about a text
  • support ideas with evidence from a text
Understanding:
Students understand that analysis, reflection, and research are strengthened by citing relevant evidence from appropriate texts.
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Chemistry
4 ) Plan and conduct an investigation to classify properties of matter as intensive (e.g., density, viscosity, specific heat, melting point, boiling point) or extensive (e.g., mass, volume, heat) and demonstrate how intensive properties can be used to identify a compound.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Plan an investigation, considering the types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Evaluate investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time).
  • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
  • Use evidence from investigation to classify properties as intensive or extensive.
  • Use evidence from investigation to identify substances based on their intensive properties.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Properties
  • Intensive properties and examples (e.g., density, viscosity, melting point, etc.)
  • Extensive properties and examples (e.g., mass, volume, heat, etc.)
  • Matter
  • Macroscopic level
  • Atomic/ molecular level
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Properties of matter can be classified as intensive or extensive.
  • Some examples of intensive properties of matter are, but are not limited to, density, boiling point, and specific heat.
  • Some examples of extensive properties of matter are, but are not limited to, heat, mass, and volume.
  • Intensive properties can be used to identify a substance.
  • Some properties of matter are visible on the macroscopic level, while others are evident at the atomic/ molecular/ particulate level.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Plan an investigation that outlines the experimental procedure, including safety considerations, how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
  • Determine the types, quantity, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to classify properties of matter as intensive or extensive.
  • Classify properties of matter as intensive or extensive.
  • Evaluate investigation design to determine the accuracy and precision of the data collected, as well as limitations of the investigation.
  • Identify a compound based on its intensive properties.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it.
  • The data generated from an investigation serves as the basis for evidence.
  • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of atomic/ molecular level structure.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Density of a Liquid; Thickness of Aluminum Foil; Intensive and Extensive Properties; Extraction and Identification of Dyes (Kool-Aid); Flame Test; Specific Heat; Melting Points
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Chemistry
9 ) Analyze and interpret data (e.g., melting point, boiling point, solubility, phase-change diagrams) to compare the strength of intermolecular forces and how these forces affect physical properties and changes.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Evaluate data to describe the relationship between the strength of intermolecular forces of a substance and the effect of those forces on the measureable properties (melting point, boiling point, solubility, etc.) of a substance.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • physical properties
  • melting point
  • boiling point
  • solubility
  • phase-change diagrams
  • Atomic/ molecular level
  • Macroscopic level
  • Particles
  • ions
  • atoms
  • molecules
  • networked materials (like graphite)
  • Intermolecular/ electrical forces
  • System
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • As kinetic energy is added to a system, the forces of attraction between particles can no longer keep the particles close together.
  • Patterns of interactions between particles at the molecular level are reflected in the patterns of behavior at the macroscopic scale.
  • Patterns observed at multiple levels (macroscopic, atomic/ molecular/ particulate) can provide evidence of the causal relationships between the strength of the electrical forces between particles and the structure of the substance at the macroscopic level.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Analyze and interpret data to describe why properties provide information about the strength of electrical forces between the particles of chosen substances, including phase-change diagrams.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Data is analyzed using tools, technologies, and/ or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims.
  • The structure and interactions of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms.
  • Different patterns may be observed at each of the levels at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole). Fractional Distillation; Paper Chromatography - Ransom Notes; Melting Points; Evaporation and Intermolecular Forces

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.1: Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged and the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.

NAEP Statement::
P12.12: Heating increases the translational, rotational, and vibrational energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the translational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a sample of a crystalline solid increases the vibrational energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy becomes great enough, the crystalline structure breaks down and the solid melts.


Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

  • Students will compare the relative melting points of various substances and arrange them from the lowest to the highest.
  • Students will define intermolecular forces and be able to give a description of each.
  • Student will use phase-change diagrams and other data to interpret how the different forces affect physical properties and changes.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

91 to 120 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

  • Bonds Types and Physical Properties Lab Sheet (Alabama Science In Motion) 
  • (Following items provided by Alabama Science in Motion)

 

well plate, 24-hole

sodium chloride

 

small test tubes

magnesium sulfate

 

Mel-Temp/capillary tubes

stearic acid

 

thermometer

vanillin

 

water

cooking oil

 

isobutanol

 

  • Safety Equipment: Always wear safety glasses and an apron in the lab. The Mel-Temp can become very hot.  Avoid touching the metal surfaces.

Technology Resources Needed:

Computer with Internet Access

Background/Preparation:

  • Students will need to know the difference between covalent and ionic bonds and what types of elements make them up.
  • Students should know the difference between physical and chemical properties.
  • Students should be familiar with polar and nonpolar molecules and how they affect the strength of bonds.
  Procedures/Activities: 

Day 1:

Engage Activity:

Students will complete the Bond Types and Physical Properties lab from Alabama Science in Motion. Their goal is to create a ranking of their substances from the lowest melting point to the highest. Lab procedure and lab sheet are available to view in attachments.

Day 2

Explore/Explain Activity:

During this time, students will be divided up into four groups. They will complete a jigsaw activity where they are researching the 4 types of intermolecular forces that act on compounds within small groups. After each group completes their research, they will come back together in different groups to turn, talk and share their specific intermolecular force that they have researched with other members of the group. To conduct their research, they will complete a quick write which is simply made up of the definition of their force as well as 2 compound examples.

Explain

The last part of the lesson is to have students reference back to their original Bond Types and Physical properties lab to check if they placed each of their compounds into a specific intermolecular force category. For example, which of the 4 intermolecular forces will Vanillin fall under based on the information gained during your research. Students will follow the Intermolecular Jigsaw Activity sheet and complete each of the parts inside their Chemistry notebook. See attached Jigsaw Activity handout.



Attachments:
**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download.
  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

  • Students will first be observed on their laboratory skills and the information collected during their lab. 
  • Each student group should have collected melting points and solubilities on each compound. Also, they should have arranged each from the highest melting point to the lowest.
  • Students will be monitored during their group research and on how they interact within each of their groups.
  • Students should answer the questions given on the Intermolecular Forces worksheet in the attachment section.These questions should be answered for all types of intermolecular forces.
  • Students will be assessed on this comparison information that should be written in their Chemistry notebooks.

Acceleration:

 

Intervention:

 

View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.