ENGAGE: The teacher will read Push and Pull by Charlotte Llewellyn (or another book on the concepts of push and pull) to the class. The students will review the concepts/terms of push and pull.
The students will be called to sit in a big circle. Each student will push the ball with his/her palm flat to another student so that the ball will keep moving across the circle. The students will discuss the ball's movement and why it acted that way. The receiving student will stop the ball by holding up his/her palm flat on the receiving hand. This process of sending and receiving with a flat palm will be repeated as students pass the ball across the circle to others. Students will discuss what the ball was doing, what happened when it was stopped, and what happened to get the ball started again. Students will pay attention to the "collision" of the hand and ball.
EXPLORE: The students will then be taken outdoors or to the gym. Students will stand in a circle. The teacher will demonstrate how the ball will be kicked with the side of the foot only hard enough to reach the other side of the circle. The teacher should then demonstrate how the ball will be stopped by the receiver by turning the foot and directing the ball to another student. Students should pay attention to the "collision" of the foot and the ball each time and how it affects the motion of the ball.
Students will then kick the ball across the circle to another student who will stop it with his/her foot, directing the ball to another student. The students will discuss what was observed throughout the lesson.
The students will then spread out the circle and investigate ways to push, pull, start, stop, change the direction of, speed up, or slow down the action of the ball. Attention should be paid to the "collision" of foot and ball as well as ways to change the movement and the direction of the ball. This may be done in small groups of 2-4 students sharing a ball. The teacher will question, observe, and record student thoughts on the Student Observations of Movement of Objects sheet, available for download in Attachments.
EXPLAIN: The students will discuss what was observed with the motion of the ball. The discussion should include the "collision" of the foot and the ball and how that changed the movement of the ball, ways the ball was stopped, started, and its change of direction.
Students should use their science notebook to illustrate and further explain what they observed through the testing of kicking the ball.
ELABORATE: Students could brainstorm further questions they would like answered about the movement of the balls. These could be written in their science notebook, or the teacher could record them on chart paper for future reference.