ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Water, Water Everywhere, but Not a Drop to Drink!

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Hannah Bradley
System: Dothan City
School: Carver Magnet School
The event this resource created for:ASTA
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 34536

Title:

Water, Water Everywhere, but Not a Drop to Drink!

Overview/Annotation:

Students will examine how they use water daily and calculate their daily water consumption. In addition, students will analyze how the changing human population will affect water consumption globally. Lastly, students will develop methods to decrease their personal water consumption, and/or design a product or policy that could help citizens decrease their water consumption. 

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.

 

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 6
Earth and Space Science
15 ) Analyze evidence (e.g., databases on human populations, rates of consumption of food and other natural resources) to explain how changes in human population, per capita consumption of natural resources, and other human activities (e.g., land use, resource development, water and air pollution, urbanization) affect Earth's systems.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Analyze evidence regarding how changes in human population, per capita consumption of natural resources, and other human activities affect Earth's systems.
  • Explain how changes in human population, per capita consumption of natural resources, and other human activities affect Earth's systems.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Population
  • Per capita
  • Consumption
  • Natural resource
  • Environment
  • Earth's systems
  • Consequences
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Increases in the size of the human population or in the per capita consumption of a given population cause increases in the consumption of natural resources.
  • Natural resources are any naturally occurring substances or features of the environment that, while not created by human effort, can be exploited by humans to satisfy their needs or wants.
  • Per capita consumption is the average use per person within a population.
  • Natural resource consumption causes changes in Earth systems.
  • Engineered solutions alter the effects of human populations on Earth systems by changing the rate of natural resource consumption or reducing the effects of changes in Earth systems.
  • All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment.
  • The consequences of increases in human populations and consumption of natural resources are described by science, but science does not make the decisions for the actions society takes.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Organize given evidence regarding changes in human population, changes in per capita consumption of natural resources, human activities, and Earth's systems to allow for analysis and interpretation.
  • Analyze the data to identify possible causal relationships between changes in human population, changes in per capita consumption of natural resources, human activities, and Earth's systems.
  • Interpret patterns observed from the data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Human population growth affects natural resource consumption and natural resource consumption has an effect on Earth systems; therefore, changes in human populations have a causal role in changing Earth systems.
  • Typically as human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase, so do the negative impacts on Earth unless the activities and technologies involved are engineered otherwise.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Exploring Planetary Systems
Understanding Weather and Climate

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.15a: Human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere, and intensive farming, have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere.

NAEP Statement::
E8.15b: Studies of plant and animal populations have shown that such activities can reduce the number and variety of wild plants and animals and sometimes result in the extinction of species.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.15- Compare the relationship between human population and food consumption, water use, and land use.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 6
Earth and Space Science
16 ) Implement scientific principles to design processes for monitoring and minimizing human impact on the environment (e.g., water usage, including withdrawal of water from streams and aquifers or construction of dams and levees; land usage, including urban development, agriculture, or removal of wetlands; pollution of air, water, and land).*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Design a process for monitoring human impact on the environment using scientific principles.
  • Design a process for minimizing human impact on the environment using scientific principles.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Habitat
  • Extinction
  • Species
  • Human Impact
  • Population
  • Per-capita consumption
  • Technology
  • Object
  • System
  • Process
  • Engineer
  • Engineering Design Process (EDP)
  • Monitor
  • Minimize
  • Solution
  • Causal and correlational relationships
  • Criteria
  • Constraints
  • Limitations
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Human activities have significantly altered the environment, sometimes damaging or destroying natural habitats and causing the extinction of other species.
  • Changes to Earth's environments can have different positive and negative impacts for different living things.
  • Typically as human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase, so do the negative impacts on Earth unless the activities and technologies involved are engineered otherwise.
  • Technology is anything man-made that solves a problem or fulfills a desire.
  • Technology can be an object, system, or process.
  • Engineering is a systematic and often iterative approach to designing objects, processes, and systems to meet human needs and wants.
  • The Engineering Design Process (EDP) is a series of steps engineers use to guide them as they solve problems.
  • The EDP may include the following cyclical steps: ask, imagine, plan, create, and improve.
  • Scientific information and principles regarding human impact on the environment must be used to design a process or solution that addresses the results of a particular human activity.
  • Scientific information and principles regarding human impact on the environment must be used to design a process or solution that incorporates technologies that can be used to monitor negative effects that human activities have on the environment.
  • Scientific information and principles regarding human impact on the environment must be used to design a process or solution that incorporates technologies that can be used to minimize negative effects that human activities have on the environment.
  • Causal and correlational relationships between the human activity and the negative environmental impact must be distinguished to facilitate the design of the process or solution.
  • Criteria and constraints for the solution must be defined and quantified to include individual or societal needs or desires and constraints imposed by economic conditions (e.g., costs of building and maintaining the solution).
  • Criteria are the principles or standards by which the process or solution is judged.
  • Constraints are the limitations or restrictions on the process or solution.
  • The process or solution must meet the criteria and constraints.
  • Limitations of the use of technologies exist.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Use scientific information and principles to generate a design solution for a problem related to human impact on the environment.
  • Identify relationships between the human activity and the negative environmental impact based on scientific principles.
  • Distinguish between causal and correlational relationships to facilitate the design of the solution.
  • Define and quantify, when appropriate, criteria and constraints for the solution.
  • Describe how well the solution meets the criteria and constraints, including monitoring or minimizing a human impact based on the causal relationships between relevant scientific principles about the processes that occur in, as well as among, Earth systems and the human impact on the environment.
  • Identify limitations of the use of technologies employed by the solution.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • A process or solution must meet criteria and constraints, including monitoring or minimizing a human impact based on the causal relationships between relevant scientific principles about the processes that occur in, as well as among, Earth systems and the human impact on the environment.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Exploring Planetary Systems

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E8.15a: Human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere, and intensive farming, have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere.

NAEP Statement::
E8.15b: Studies of plant and animal populations have shown that such activities can reduce the number and variety of wild plants and animals and sometimes result in the extinction of species.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.6.16- Assess how human behaviors impact the environment (e.g., recycling, conservation, pollution); suggest processes to minimize human impact on the environment.


Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will be able to analyze world population data and describe how the changing population will affect water consumption.

Students will be able to relate how a global increase in water consumption will affect Earth's hydrosphere.

Students will be able to describe and/or design methods to decrease water usage in order to decrease the human impact on the environment.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

Students will perform basic math calculations with very large numbers. 

 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

31 to 60 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

Pencil/pen (one per student)

Notebook paper (one sheet per student)

Student handout (see attachment)

Calculator (if needed)

Technology Resources Needed:

Teacher computer with internet access

Interactive whiteboard and/or projector

Student digital devices - tablet/laptop (if available)

"American's Dwindling Water Supply" - CBS News video clip (7:20 minutes)

"What is Your Water Footprint?" - National Geographic Interactive: If students have access to a digital device, they will access this website during the lesson.

"Calculate Your Daily Water Usage" - Time for Kids: If students do not have access to a digital device, the teacher can make copies of this resource to use during the lesson (instead of the previous online calculator).

"World Population Clock" Website: Students can use this website to see the current world population.

"Big Numbers" - The Almighty Guru: This website may be helpful for students as they calculate the world's water usage.

For Extension:

"The Drying of the West" - The Economist: This website provides information about water consumption policies in the western U.S. 

"The 6 Best Water Saving Technologies for Your Home" - Clean Technica. Teacher and students can view the following website to help inspire ideas for designing a product to decrease water consumption.

"World Population: 1950-2050" - U.S. Census Bureau: Students can use world population predictions for future years to calculate how the world's water usage will change over time. 

For Remediation:

"100+ Ways to Conserve" Website

Background/Preparation:

Approximately 71% of Earth's surface is covered by water. However, only 2.5% of this water is freshwater. The majority of freshwater is frozen in glaciers, ice caps, and permafrost. This means there is very little freshwater available for human consumption. As the human population exponentially increases, we may begin to face water shortages. In this lesson, students will develop methods to help themselves and others decrease water usage.

This website shows a graphical depiction of this information: "Where is Earth's Water?" - U.S. Geological Society

  Procedures/Activities: 

Before Strategy/Explain 15 minutes

1. Students will brainstorm 10 ways they use water daily (this can be done independently or with a partner/group).

2. Teacher will discuss the following question with students: "Is water an unlimited resource? Why or why not?"

3. Teacher will show "American's Dwindling Water Supply" - CBS News (7:20 minutes). As students watch video clip, they should look at their list created in step #1 and check off examples of water usage from the video. If the video lists an example of water usage the student did not write on his/her list, the student should add that example to their list.

During Strategy/Explore & Explain: 25 minutes

1. If students have a digital device, they should access the website "What is Your Water Footprint?" from National Geographic. If students do not have access to a digital device, the teacher can make a copy of "Calculate Your Daily Water Usage" from Time for Kids. After calculating their water footprint, students should write this number on their handout.

2. Students will calculate how many gallons of water would be used by the world population if everyone used as much water as them. Students will then calculate how many gallons of fresh water is present on our Earth. Lastly, students will calculate the amount of water that would be left over if everyone consumed as much water as they do. (See "Water, Water Everywhere" Handout for detailed instructions.)

"World Population Clock" Website: Students can use this website to see the current world population.

After Strategy-Explain & Extend-15+ minutes

Note: Teacher can choose an after strategy depending on his/her time constraints and materials available.

Option #1. Students can create a list of ten commandments they will begin applying in their daily life to reduce their water consumption. (If you are under time constraints, use this option.)

Option #2. Students will work in partners or groups to create a persuasive proposal for a local, state, or national policy to reduce water consumption. After drafting their proposal, students will create a final copy of their proposal in a business letter format to send to local, state, or national policy makers. (If you have more time, use this option.)

Note: Teacher and students can view the following article for examples of water consumption policies in the western U.S.: "The Drying of the West" from The Economist.

Option #3. Students will design a product that could help citizens decrease their water usage. Depending on the materials available, the students could create a blueprint of the product or build and test the actual product. (If you have time and access to engineering materials, use this option.)

Note: Teacher and students can view the following website to help inspire ideas for designing a product to decrease water consumption. "The 6 Best Water Saving Technologies for Your Home" from Clean Technica.



Attachments:
**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download.
  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

Teacher will informally assess students during the "Before Strategy" by observing and discussing students' brainstorms.

Teacher will informally assess students as they calculate their water usage to ensure they are using the website correctly. If the students are using the paper copy to calculate their water usage, teacher should ensure the students are completing the math problems correctly.

Teacher can informally assess student understanding as they calculate the world's water usage, or the teacher can use the completion of this handout as a formal assessment.

The teacher will formally assess students upon their completion of the teacher's chosen "After Strategy." If the teacher decides to use option #2 or #3 for his/her "After Strategy", please see the attached rubrics to assess student work.

Option #2 Rubric: "Writing a Proposal: Minimizing Water Usage"

Option #3 Rubric: "Building a Structure: Minimizing Water Usage"

The rubrics will assess the student's ability to use scientific principles to construct an idea or design a product that could minimize human impact on the environment (specifically water usage). 

Note: Rubrics were created using Rubistar: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php

Acceleration:

Options #2 and #3 of the "After Strategy" can also be used as extensions:

Option #2. Students will work in partners or groups to create a persuasive proposal for a local, state, or national policy to reduce water consumption. After developing their proposal, students will draft the proposal in a business letter format to send to local, state, or national policy makers. (If you have more time, use this option.)

Note: Teacher and students can view the following article for examples of water consumption policies in the western U.S.: "The Drying of the West" from The Economist.

Option #3. Students will design a product that could help citizens decrease their water usage. Depending on the materials available, the students could create just a blueprint of the product or build and test the actual product. (If you have time and access to engineering materials, use this option.)

Note: Teacher and students can view the following website to help inspire ideas for designing a product to decrease water consumption. "The 6 Best Water Saving Technologies for Your Home" from Clean Technica.

Additional Extension: Students can use world population predictions for future years to calculate how the world's water usage will change over time. The following website contains the U.S. Census Bureau's Predictions: "World Population: 1950-2050".

Intervention:

Students who struggle with performing calculations on large numbers may use a calculator or work with a partner who excels in math. The teacher should provide assistance to those students during the mathematical portion of the lesson.

If students need extra assistance to complete the "After Strategy", the following website will help them brainstorm methods to decrease their water consumption:

"100+ Ways to Conserve" website


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.