ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Predicting Periodic Trends

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Shaunna Aker
System: Cullman County
School: Cullman County Board Of Education
The event this resource created for:ASTA
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 34546

Title:

Predicting Periodic Trends

Overview/Annotation:

In this lesson, students will gather quantitative information to construct a graph to show the period trends in electronegativity, electron affinity, and ionization energy. Once, the trends are recognized they will construct a model of these periodic trends using the Alabama Science in Motion Lab (Periodic Trends: Graphs and Straws). 

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Chemistry
3 ) Use the periodic table as a systematic representation to predict properties of elements based on their valence electron arrangement.

a. Analyze data such as physical properties to explain periodic trends of the elements, including metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity and electron affinity, ionization energy, and atomic-covalent/ionic radii, and how they relate to position in the periodic table.

b. Develop and use models (e.g., Lewis dot, 3-D ball-and-stick, space-filling, valence-shell electron-pair repulsion [VSEPR]) to predict the type of bonding and shape of simple compounds.

c. Use the periodic table as a model to derive formulas and names of ionic and covalent compounds.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use the periodic table as a model to predict relationships between the arrangements of elements on the periodic table and the structure of the atom.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns of behavior of the elements based on the attraction and repulsion between electrically charged particles.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns of behavior of the elements based on the patterns of the valence electrons.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns in bonding and shape based on the patterns of the valence electrons.
  • Use the arrangement of elements on the periodic table to name compounds.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Nucleus
  • Electrons
  • Valence
  • Main group elements
  • Properties
  • Atoms
  • Elements
  • Periods/ Rows
  • Groups/ Families/ Columns
  • Atomic/ molecular level
  • Macroscopic level
  • Periodic trends
  • metal/ nonmetal/ metalloid behavior
  • electrical/ heat conductivity
  • electronegativity
  • electron affinity
  • ionization energy
  • atomic-covalent/ ionic radii
  • Molecular modeling
  • Lewis dot
  • 3-D ball-and-stick
  • space-filling
  • VSEPR
  • Types of bonds
  • ionic bonds
  • covalent/ molecular bonds
  • metallic bonds
  • Molecular shapes
  • Ions
  • Ionic compounds
  • Covalent/ molecular compounds
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The atom has a positively-charged nucleus, containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by negatively-charged electrons.
  • The periodic table can be used to determine the number of particles in an atom of a given element.
  • The relationship between the arrangement of main group elements on the periodic table and the pattern of valence electrons in their atoms.
  • The relationship between the arrangement of elements on the periodic table and the number of protons in their atoms.
  • The trends in relative size, reactivity, and electronegativity in atoms are based on attractions of the valence electrons to the nucleus.
  • The number and types of bonds formed (i.e. ionic, covalent, metallic) by an element and between elements are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
  • The shapes of molecules are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
  • The rules for naming chemical compounds are based upon the type of bond formed.
  • The number and charges in stable ions that form from atoms in a group of the periodic table are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Predict relative properties of elements using the periodic table.
  • Predict patterns in periodic trends based on the structure of the atom.
  • Predict patterns in bonding and shape based on the structure of the atom.
  • Use the periodic table to determine how elements will bond.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Models are based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
  • Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
  • The periodic table arranges elements into periods/ rows by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus.
  • Elements with similar properties are placed into groups/ families/ columns based on the repeating pattern of valence electrons in their atoms.
  • Attraction and repulsion between electrical charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properites, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.
  • The attraction and repulsion of charged particles in the atom creates patterns of properties of elements.
  • The arrangement of valence electrons in an atom also creates patterns of properties of elements.
  • Elements form bonds based upon their valence electron arrangement.
  • Chemical compounds are named based upon the type of bonds formed by their constituent atoms/ ions.
  • Different patterns may be observed at the atomic/ molecular level and the macroscopic level.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Chemicool People; It's In The Cards; Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism; Periodic Trends; Properties of Elements; Chem Cubes; Chemical Nomenclature; Bond Types and Physical Properties; Covalent Bonding and Lewis Structures; Molecular Shape and Polarity; Elephant Toothpaste

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.6: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.


Digital Literacy and Computer Science
DLIT (2018)
Grade: 9-12
25) Utilize a variety of digital tools to create digital artifacts across content areas.

Insight Unpacked Content
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students will:
  • use digital tools to create digital artifacts across content areas.
  • seek and use feedback to revise digital artifacts.
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • how to use a variety of digital tools.
  • how to use a digital tool to create a digital artifact.
  • the appropriate use of digital tools and artifacts for specific content areas.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • use a variety of digital tools.
  • create digital artifacts using a variety of digital tools.
  • appropriately match digital artifacts and content areas for effective communication.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • digital tools are used to create digital artifacts that can be used for effective communication of competency across content areas.
Digital Literacy and Computer Science
DLIT (2018)
Grade: 9-12
31) Create interactive data visualizations using software tools to help others understand real-world phenomena.

Insight Unpacked Content
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students will:
  • collect data to depict real-world phenomena.
  • create displays to share collected data.
  • create interactive data visualizations using software tools to help others understand real-world phenomena.
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • data can be communicated with visual representations.
  • tools exists to share data via interactive visualizations.
  • how to create interactive visualizations to represent real-world phenomena.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • gather data.
  • share data using an interactive visualization tool.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • visualizations of data can be much more powerful than a database full of numbers.

Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

  • Students will research the periodic trends exhibited by various elements and collect quantitative information.
  • Students will construct bar graphs that show these periodic trends going down each group on the periodic table and across each period on the periodic table.
  • Students will use 3 blank periodic charts to illustrate the periodic trends based on the information they collect from their graphs.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

61 to 90 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

Materials located in the attachments:

  • Chemicool People Manipulative (Alabama Science in Motion)
  • Periodic Trends Worksheet
  • Blank Periodic Table Charts

Technology Resources Needed:

Computer with Internet Access

Background/Preparation:

  • Students should be familiar with how to read a periodic table and locating metals, nonmetals, metalloids.
  • Students should know where to find the atomic numbers and atomic masses of elements on the periodic table.
  • Students should know how to work a spreadsheet program in order to create a graph.
  Procedures/Activities: 

Engage:

Students will begin by working through a Chemistry manipulative called Chemicool people. This is an activity provided by Alabama Science in Motion (attached). Students will use this activity as a way to see that the periodic table is organized in a specific way.

Explain:

Students will then complete the Periodic Trends Computer Activity (attached). With this activity, they will be obtaining various quantitative data on Atomic Radius, Ionization Energy, and Electronegativity. Once the data is collected, students will input their data into a spreadsheet to create a graph of all 3 trends and save/print from the computer.

Elaborate:

After completing all 3 trend charts, students will use their collected information to answer the various discussion questions on the Periodic Trends Computer Activity sheet (attached). And lastly, they are to take 3 of the blank periodic table sheets (located in attachments) and create their own diagrams that show how these trends are decreasing and increasing across a period and down a group. 



Attachments:
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  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

  • Students will be observed as they are working in their groups with the Chemicool people. 
  • Students will be assessed on their graphs that they create using their gathered information.
  • Students will be assessed on their responses to their discussion questions and their completed periodic graphs.

Acceleration:

Once students understand the overall trends that are associated with the elements, they should be able to complete various discussion questions about the properties of elements based on their placement on the periodic table. 

Intervention:

For remediation on Periodic Trends, students can work through the Periodic Trends webquest, located in the attachments section. It is a step by step process that will explain to them what each trend demonstrates.


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.