ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Newton's Laws of Motion Part 3: Newton's 2nd Law & Review

You may save this lesson plan to your hard drive as an html file by selecting "File", then "Save As" from your browser's pull down menu. The file name extension must be .html.

  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Jesse Bouldin
System: Alexander City
School: Alexander City Board Of Education
The event this resource created for:ASTA
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 34564

Title:

Newton's Laws of Motion Part 3: Newton's 2nd Law & Review

Overview/Annotation:

The third installment of a three-part lesson on Newton's Laws of Motion, this lesson focuses on Newton's 2nd Law and offers review of all three laws. Students will complete graphic organizers to demonstrate their understanding of the three laws of motion. Students will work in tiered groups to prepare a brief presentation to share with the class on a real-life scenario demonstrating Newton's 2nd Law.

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
8 ) Use Newton's first law to demonstrate and explain that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force (e.g., model car on a table remaining at rest until pushed).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Demonstrate, using Newton's First Law, that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.
  • Explain Newton's First Law.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Newton's First Law of Motion
  • Constant velocity
  • Balanced force
  • Unbalanced force
  • External force
  • Rest
  • Motion
  • Inertia
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • An object at rest remains at rest unless acted on by an external force.
  • An object in motion remains in motion unless acted upon by an external force.
  • Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
  • An object subjected to balanced forces does not change its motion.
  • An object subjected to unbalanced forces changes its motion over time.
  • Constant velocity indicates that an object is moving in a straight line at a constant speed.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Demonstrate Newton's first law.
  • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including Newton's first law and the motion of an object.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Newton's First Law states that an object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by an external force.
  • Newton's First Law states that an object at in motion remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement:
P8.14a: An object's motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it is moving. An object's position can be measured and graphed as a function of time. An object's speed can be measured and graphed as a function of time.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16b: Forces can be added.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
9 ) Use Newton's second law to demonstrate and explain how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object (e.g., billiard balls moving when hit with a cue stick).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Demonstrate, using Newton's Second Law, how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
  • Explain, using Newton's Second Law, how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Newton's Second Law of Motion
  • Mass
  • Acceleration
  • Potential energy
  • Kinetic energy
  • Force
  • External force
  • Sum
  • Motion
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The acceleration of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change.
  • The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion.
  • For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. Force = mass x acceleration; F=ma.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Demonstrate Newton's second law.
  • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including Newton's second law and the motion of an object.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Newton's Second Law states that changes in an object's motion depends on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement:
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16b: Forces can be added.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.


Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 8
Physical Science
10 ) Use Newton's third law to design a model to demonstrate and explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects (e.g., two cars bumping into each other, a hammer hitting a nail).*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Design a model of two colliding objects.
  • Demonstrate Newton's Third Law, which states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction.
  • Use Newton's Third Law to explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Newton's Third Law of
  • Motion
  • Force
  • Model
  • Mass
  • Speed
  • Velocity
  • Action
  • Reaction
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Whenever two objects interact with each other, they exert forces upon each other.
  • These forces are called action and reaction forces; forces always come in pairs.
  • For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
  • The size of the force on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object.
  • The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object.
  • The momentum of an object increases if either the mass or the speed of the object increases or if both increases.
  • The momentum of an object decreases if either the mass or the speed of the object decreases or if both decrease.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a model that demonstrates Newton's third law and identify the relevant components.
  • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
  • Use observations from the model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Newton's Third Law states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement:
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16b: Forces can be added.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement:
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.


Local/National Standards:

ISTE Standards:

Standard 1- Create original works as a means of personal or group expression

Standard 4b – Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Student Learning Targets:

I can work with a group to prepare a presentation explaining how forces and the mass of an object can predict an object's motion.

I can provide examples and explain the differences in Newton's three laws of motion.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

91 to 120 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

Presentation Rubric, Graphic Organizer, Graphic Organizer Rubric, hair dryer, ping-pong ball, basketball

 

 

Technology Resources Needed:

laptops or computers for each group of students to complete research and create presentations. 

Background/Preparation:

Basic concepts and definitions of Newton's Laws should be taught prior to this lesson.

  Procedures/Activities: 

Before/Engage:

Prepare a demonstration where you will use a hair dryer to propel objects of different masses to provide a visual representation of Newton's 2nd law of Motion. Show students that you have a hairdryer that you will use to push different objects with different masses across the room. Then show students the basketball and the ping pong ball. Ask students to write in a journal which ball they expect to accelerate most quickly and why they think so. Call on a few students to share their reasoning. Then perform the demonstration using the hair dryer to accelerate the two objects one at a time. Ask the students to write if their hypothesis was supported by the experiment.

(As an optional review of key terms -  Ask students if this experiment measured qualitatively or quantitatively. Ask students how this experiment could be changed to measure quantitatively).

In concluding the demonstration, explain how this demonstrates Newton's 2nd Law. After you share the definition of the 2nd Law, have students "turn and talk" to restate the Law in their own words. 

During/Explore/Explain:  

Within groups (Recommended group size of 3-4 with varying skill levels) students will work together to create a presentation explaining Newton's 2nd Law, providing examples and questions concerning Newton's 2nd Law. Students can use research articles, online journals, or textbooks as resources. Presentations should be prepared according to the rubric provided in the attachments. The presentations should explain how forces and the mass of an object can predict an object's motion. 

Emphasize the development of authentic scenarios as questions and well-explained answers to the questions. Students will then share these presentations with the class and can be graded with the presentations rubric attached. 

After/Elaborate:

Direct students to work individually to complete the graphic organizer attached as collect all of their experiences with Newton's 1st, 2nd, & 3rd Law of Motion back together into one chart. Allow students to complete the organizer using chrome books/laptops or by designing a hard copy from scratch. Encourage students to define and creatively explain the Laws through written & picture form without outside resources. You may choose to give more time or resources to struggling students.  

Allow students to share examples from the graphic organizers and solidify their understanding through verbal explanations of the laws of motion. The graphic organizers will provide examples and explain the differences in Newton's three laws of motion.



Attachments:
**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download.
  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

The rubric for the group activity presentation requires that students collaboratively create a technology product that requires a high depth of knowledge to explain Newton's 2nd Law through collaborative research and critical thinking to create authentic scenarios and questions for other students. The presentations will explain how forces and the mass of an object can predict an object's motion. 

The rubric for the graphic organizer is a good checklist for students to self-evaluate their own products as a form of formative assessment. The graphic organizer should provide examples and explain the differences in Newton's three laws of motion.

Acceleration:

Presentations can be expanded to include Newton's 1st and 3rd Laws as well as other motion related concepts.

Intervention:

Peer support within tiered groups

Varying roles within presentations

 

Each area below is a direct link to general teaching strategies/classroom accommodations for students with identified learning and/or behavior problems such as: reading or math performance below grade level; test or classroom assignments/quizzes at a failing level; failure to complete assignments independently; difficulty with short-term memory, abstract concepts, staying on task, or following directions; poor peer interaction or temper tantrums, and other learning or behavior problems.

Presentation of Material Environment
Time Demands Materials
Attention Using Groups and Peers
Assisting the Reluctant Starter Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior
Be sure to check the student's IEP for specific accommodations.