ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Bond Polarity and Determining Molecular Geometry

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Emily Menard
System: Homewood City
School: Homewood High School
The event this resource created for:ASTA
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 34636

Title:

Bond Polarity and Determining Molecular Geometry

Overview/Annotation:

In this lesson, students will examine electronegativities of atoms relative to one another to determine if a covalent bond will be classified as polar or nonpolar.  Students will use an online simulation to help them understand the importance of lone pairs of electrons as well as bonding pairs of electrons.  Students will use ball-and-stick models to examine and identify the shapes of various molecules.

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA. 

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Chemistry
3 ) Use the periodic table as a systematic representation to predict properties of elements based on their valence electron arrangement.

a. Analyze data such as physical properties to explain periodic trends of the elements, including metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity and electron affinity, ionization energy, and atomic-covalent/ionic radii, and how they relate to position in the periodic table.

b. Develop and use models (e.g., Lewis dot, 3-D ball-and-stick, space-filling, valence-shell electron-pair repulsion [VSEPR]) to predict the type of bonding and shape of simple compounds.

c. Use the periodic table as a model to derive formulas and names of ionic and covalent compounds.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use the periodic table as a model to predict relationships between the arrangements of elements on the periodic table and the structure of the atom.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns of behavior of the elements based on the attraction and repulsion between electrically charged particles.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns of behavior of the elements based on the patterns of the valence electrons.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns in bonding and shape based on the patterns of the valence electrons.
  • Use the arrangement of elements on the periodic table to name compounds.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Nucleus
  • Electrons
  • Valence
  • Main group elements
  • Properties
  • Atoms
  • Elements
  • Periods/ Rows
  • Groups/ Families/ Columns
  • Atomic/ molecular level
  • Macroscopic level
  • Periodic trends
  • metal/ nonmetal/ metalloid behavior
  • electrical/ heat conductivity
  • electronegativity
  • electron affinity
  • ionization energy
  • atomic-covalent/ ionic radii
  • Molecular modeling
  • Lewis dot
  • 3-D ball-and-stick
  • space-filling
  • VSEPR
  • Types of bonds
  • ionic bonds
  • covalent/ molecular bonds
  • metallic bonds
  • Molecular shapes
  • Ions
  • Ionic compounds
  • Covalent/ molecular compounds
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The atom has a positively-charged nucleus, containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by negatively-charged electrons.
  • The periodic table can be used to determine the number of particles in an atom of a given element.
  • The relationship between the arrangement of main group elements on the periodic table and the pattern of valence electrons in their atoms.
  • The relationship between the arrangement of elements on the periodic table and the number of protons in their atoms.
  • The trends in relative size, reactivity, and electronegativity in atoms are based on attractions of the valence electrons to the nucleus.
  • The number and types of bonds formed (i.e. ionic, covalent, metallic) by an element and between elements are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
  • The shapes of molecules are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
  • The rules for naming chemical compounds are based upon the type of bond formed.
  • The number and charges in stable ions that form from atoms in a group of the periodic table are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Predict relative properties of elements using the periodic table.
  • Predict patterns in periodic trends based on the structure of the atom.
  • Predict patterns in bonding and shape based on the structure of the atom.
  • Use the periodic table to determine how elements will bond.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Models are based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
  • Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
  • The periodic table arranges elements into periods/ rows by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus.
  • Elements with similar properties are placed into groups/ families/ columns based on the repeating pattern of valence electrons in their atoms.
  • Attraction and repulsion between electrical charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properites, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.
  • The attraction and repulsion of charged particles in the atom creates patterns of properties of elements.
  • The arrangement of valence electrons in an atom also creates patterns of properties of elements.
  • Elements form bonds based upon their valence electron arrangement.
  • Chemical compounds are named based upon the type of bonds formed by their constituent atoms/ ions.
  • Different patterns may be observed at the atomic/ molecular level and the macroscopic level.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Chemicool People; It's In The Cards; Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism; Periodic Trends; Properties of Elements; Chem Cubes; Chemical Nomenclature; Bond Types and Physical Properties; Covalent Bonding and Lewis Structures; Molecular Shape and Polarity; Elephant Toothpaste

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.6: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.


Digital Literacy and Computer Science
DLIT (2018)
Grade: 9-12
25) Utilize a variety of digital tools to create digital artifacts across content areas.

Insight Unpacked Content
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students will:
  • use digital tools to create digital artifacts across content areas.
  • seek and use feedback to revise digital artifacts.
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • how to use a variety of digital tools.
  • how to use a digital tool to create a digital artifact.
  • the appropriate use of digital tools and artifacts for specific content areas.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • use a variety of digital tools.
  • create digital artifacts using a variety of digital tools.
  • appropriately match digital artifacts and content areas for effective communication.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • digital tools are used to create digital artifacts that can be used for effective communication of competency across content areas.

Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

  • The student will distinguish between bond types including ionic bonds, polar covalent bonds, and nonpolar covalent bonds.
  • The student will use a model to predict the type of bonding and shape of simple compounds. 
  • The student will determine how electronegativity and electron density determines if a covalent bond is polar or nonpolar.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

91 to 120 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

Materials Located in Attachments:

  • Worksheet: Dipoles and Bond Polarity pHet Activity
  • Answer Key: Dipoles and Bond Polarity pHet Activity

Technology Resources Needed:

Background/Preparation:

  • Prior to this lesson, students should have some knowledge on periodic trends, specifically electronegativity.  
  • Students should also be comfortable with drawing Lewis structures.
  Procedures/Activities: 

Before:

Have students pick a partner in the classroom and pretend that their partner is their twin sibling.  Have students assume that they are nearing their 16th birthday and that their parents are requiring them to share a car.

Have students brainstorm ways that they could share the car.  Hold a classroom discussion to identify the different ways the car could be shared.  Be sure that the following explanations arise in the discussion:

  • The car could be shared 50/50 where each sibling gets the car for the same amount of time each week.
  • The car could be shared based on need so the sibling that has more extracurricular activities or events gets the car for a larger percentage of the time; the car is shared unequally.
  • One sibling could take complete control of the car and not share at all with the other.

Relate the ways that the twins can share the car to the way two atoms can share (or transfer) electrons. Use the Image of Bond Types from UC Davis ChemWiki for visualization.  

  • If the twins share 50/50 then the car spends equal time with each twin similarly to in a nonpolar covalent bond where electrons are evenly distributed around both (or all) atoms.  Emphasize that the prefix co- (in covalent) means to share and give examples such as the co-captain of a team.
  • If the twins share the car depending on who needs/wants the car the most they are sharing unequally.  Since electrons are still being shared this is still a covalent bond, however, the unequal distribution makes the bond polar covalent.  Ask students what they know of that has poles and encourage them to think about the north/south poles of the earth.  Describe that the earth is polar because it has 2 distinct poles (north and south) and polar covalent bonds are polar because they also have 2 distinct poles (positive and negative).  
  • In the case that one twin takes complete control of the car, discuss the comparative strengths of the twins.  The one with the most strength (the most electronegative) will take complete control of the car.  This is similar to an ionic bond.  Emphasize the "i" in ionic and remind students that generally "i" is selfish so the electrons are being completely taken by one of the atoms and not being shared at all.  Encourage students to think of why this is still considered a bond and not called an ionic transfer (the positive and negative charges that result from the transfer attract one another holding the ions together). 

During:

  1. Students will complete "Dipoles and Bond Polarity pHet Activity" worksheet located within the attachments section with their partner using the pHet website  to develop a rule for determining if a molecule is polar or nonpolar.  Be certain to discuss the role and importance of lone pairs of electrons.  
  2. Students will be assessed using a Jigsaw Cooperative Learning strategy.  
  3. Assign each group a set of questions from the student activity worksheet that they will be responsible for sharing the correct answers with the class.  After the individual groups complete the activity the class will come together for a discussion and each group will be responsible for discussing their assigned question(s).
  4. Students will complete Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) activity Molecular Shape and Polarity using 3-D ball and stick model kits and VSEPR Geometries Chart to determine the shape and polarity of various molecules.  

After:

Allow students to individually access the Madison College website to complete the Intermolecular Forces: Review to reinforce calculating number of lone pairs of electrons, bonding pairs of electrons, and molecular geometry to review.  To assess student mastery the teacher will actively walk around the room and check individual student work before students leave.



Attachments:
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  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

  • The student will be assessed on their completion of "Dipole and Bond Polarity pHet Activity" worksheet as a group using the jigsaw approach where each group will be responsible for completing the sheet on their own and then sharing the answers to assigned questions with the class.
  • The student will be assessed on completion of Molecular Shape and Polarity chart from ASIM.
  • The student will be assessed on individual completion of the Intermolecular Forces: Review from Madison College website by the teacher walking around the room and checking individual progress before students leave.

Acceleration:

Students who are already familiar with polarity and molecular shape can use the pHet activity: Molecule Shapes to look at the bond angles for the different shapes.  

Intervention:

Students who do not reach mastery on their individual assessment will be pulled for individual or small group instruction drawing molecules on small dry erase boards and discussing molecular arrangement with the teacher.


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.