ALEX Lesson Plan

     

ABO Blood Groups and How They Contribute to Blood Transfusions

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Leigh Hester
System: College/University
School: Athens State University
The event this resource created for:ASTA
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 34638

Title:

ABO Blood Groups and How They Contribute to Blood Transfusions

Overview/Annotation:

This lesson will demonstrate why blood transfusions are possible between certain types of blood. ABO blood types will be reviewed and students will determine which blood types are the universal donor and recipient. This lesson was adapted from Blood Types activity, Discovery Science Center, 2500 N Main St Santa Ana, CA 92705.

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
7 ) Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and functions of the cardiovascular system (e.g., components of blood, blood circulation through the heart and systems of the body, ABO blood groups, anatomy of the heart, types of blood vessels).

a. Engage in argument from evidence regarding possible prevention and treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system (e.g., myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, anemia, high blood pressure).

b. Design and carry out an experiment to test various conditions that affect the heart (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram [ECG] output).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Obtain information about the structure of the cardiovascular system, including various types of structures that aid in circulation through the heart and throughout the systems of the body.
  • Obtain information about the function of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use models to explain the structure and function of the cardiovascular system and its accessory structures.
  • Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and function of the cardiovascular system.
  • Obtain information about the structure of blood and it's function, including information about the ABO blood groups.
  • Use models to describe how structure is related to function in the components of blood.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on pathological conditions that may affect the cardiovascular system.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on possible prevention options related to pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on possible treatment options related to pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use appropriate sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend claims and explanations about possible prevention or treatment options related to pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system.
  • Defend a claim against counter-claims and critique by evaluating counter-claims and by describing the connections between the relevant and appropriate evidence and the strongest claim.
  • Obtain and evaluate information about common tests that can be used to monitor cardiovascular system function.
  • Design an experiment that can be used to test cardiovascular function in varying conditions.
  • Describe the data that wil be collected and the evidence to be derived from the data during the experiment.
  • Conduct the experiment and collect data and record changes to the external environment and organism responses.
  • Evaluate experiment by assessing the accuracy and precision of the data as well as limitations of the investigation.
  • Make suggestions for refinement if needed.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • blood pressure
  • blood vessels
  • circulatory system
  • heart
  • pulse
  • vascularization
  • arteries
  • veins
  • lymphatic vessels
  • hydrostatic pressure
  • microcirculation
  • tunica adventitia
  • tunica media
  • tunica intima
  • lumen
  • constriction/ vasoconstriction
  • dilation/ vasodilation
  • arterioles
  • venules
  • capillaries
  • circulation (systemic, pulmonary)
  • pericardium (fibrous, serous, epicardium)
  • myocardium
  • endocardium
  • coronary arteries, veins
  • cardiac infarction
  • vasculature
  • septum
  • chambers
  • atrium
  • ventricle
  • valves (atrioventricular, semilunar, mitral, bicuspid, tricuspid)
  • Papillary muscles
  • venae cavae
  • superior/ inferior vena cava
  • aorta
  • pulmonary artery, valve, veins
  • SA node, AV node
  • bundle of His
  • Purkinje system
  • diastole
  • systole
  • heart rate
  • stroke volume
  • cardiac output
  • electrocardiogram
  • plasma
  • RBC's/ erythrocytes
  • hemoglobin
  • reticulocytes/ erythroblasts
  • complete blood count (CBC)
  • blood type
  • ABO blood group system
  • Rh factor
  • erythroblastosis fetalis
  • WBC's/ leukocytes
  • neutrophils
  • lymphocytes
  • eosinophils
  • monocytes
  • basophils
  • differential white blood cell count
  • granulocytes/ polymorphonuclear WBC
  • agranulocytes/ mononuclear WBC
  • B or T lymphocytes
  • platelet/ thrombocyte
  • megakaryocyte
  • percent saturation
  • carbon dioxide intoxication
  • phagocytosis
  • macrophages
  • kupffer cell
  • prostacyclin
  • clotting factors
  • prothrombin
  • thrombin
  • Fibrinogen/ fibrin
  • plasminogen
  • erythropoiesis
  • hematopoietic stem cell
  • Myeloid stem cell
  • lymphoid stem cell
  • myocardial infarction
  • mitral valve prolapse
  • varicose veins
  • arteriosclerosis,
  • anemia
  • hypertension
  • angina
  • systolic
  • diastolic
  • electrocardiogram
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Arteries and arterioles carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
  • Veins and venules carry blood from the body to the heart.
  • Capillaries are small blood vessels that exchange materials with tissues.
  • Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of a vessel while vasodialation is the widening of a vessel.
  • The heart is made of mycardium covered by pericardium and is composed of four chambers.
  • The left half of the heart controls systemic circulation while the right half controls pulmonary circulation.
  • One pumping action of the heart is called the cardiac cycle—diastole is the filling of the atria and ventricles and systole is the emptying of the ventricles.
  • Blood is composed of plasma and formed elements and transports materials needed to maintain body homeostasis.
  • Blood cell types: 1) RBC's—contain the protein hemaglobin which transports oxygen and carbon dioxide 2) WBC's—granulocytic (basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils) produce secretions that kill micoorganisms and agrnulocytic (lymphocytes and monocytes)—lymphocytes produce an immune respons and monocytes are phagocytic. 3) Platelets—assist with blood clotting.
  • Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow by hematopoiesis and are derived from a multipotent stem cell.
  • Blood type is a way of categorizing RBCs according to variations in proteins on the cell membrane surface—these proteins can be classified as types A, B or D.
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system affect either blood vessels or the heart and are either congenital, produced by lifestyle factors, or produced by microorganisms.
  • Common vascular diseases interrupt blood flow while common heart diseases prevent the chambers and/or valves from working properly.
  • Electrocardiography measures the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Pulse is an indicator of heartbeat and heartbeat is produced by blood pressure.
  • Heart rate is the number of cardiac cycles per minute.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the cardiovascular system, including its structures and their function.
  • Use a model to predict and show relationships among variables between the cardiovascular system and its components.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the ABO blood groups.
  • Use models to relate structure to function for the components of blood.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about pathological conditions that may affect the cardiovascular system.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about possible prevention options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about possible treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use evidence to form an argument about possible prevention or treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use evidence to defend an argument about possible prevention or treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Evaluate counter-claims and revise argument based on evidence.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about common tests that can be used to monitor cardiovascular function.
  • Design a experiment to collect data in relation to cardiovascular function.
  • Determine how the change in the variables will be measured or identified.
  • Determine how the response within the cardiovascular system will be measured or identified.
  • Use a tool to collect and record changes in the external environment (variables) and the organism responses.
  • Evaluate experiment for accuracy and precision of data collection, as well as limitations.
  • Make revisions to experiment if needed to produce more accurate and precise results.
  • Manipulate variables that will cause changes in cardiovascular test investigation results.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The cardiovascular system's main function is to transport various items throughout the body (oxygen, digested nutrients, systemic waste, etc.).
  • Various cardiovascular organs serve in different capacities to move blood (its transport agent) around the body.
  • Cardiovascular organs are made up of various tissues that work together to carry out the organs' functions.
  • Several variables such as exercise, diet, disease, caffeine, etc. affect cardiovascular health.
  • Lifestyle changes can be used to prevent or treat cardiovascular disease.
  • Several variables such as exercise, diet, disease, caffeine, etc. change cardiovascular output.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Blood Typing; Electrocardiogram

Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will:

1. Categorize the four different blood types and how they relate to blood transfusions.

2. Determine the role antigens play in a person's blood type.

3. Model the process of blood typing to determine which transfusions would be successful and which blood type is the universal donor and recipient.

4. Apply these principles in solving real-life scenarios involving blood transfusions.

5. Create a model to demonstrate the presence and/or absence of structures that determine a specific blood type.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

Greater than 120 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

Four (6oz) plastic cups of water

Four (6oz) empty plastic cups

Food coloring-blue, green, yellow

Sharpie pen

Paper towels

Materials for students to create models (these can also be provided by the students)

Technology Resources Needed:

Background/Preparation:

Students should have had an introduction to the cardiovascular system and the components of blood.

  Procedures/Activities: 

Engage

  1. The teacher will pose a real-life scenario to students (example below).

    Scenario:

    You are a doctor working in the emergency room when a patient who has been in a motorcycle accident is admitted . This patient has lost a lot of blood, and he must receive a blood transfusion.  After performing a test to determine his blood type, you discover that is A+. What type of blood can he safely receive during the blood transfusion?

    Note: The teacher can provide a different scenario for each group or use the same one for each group.

  2. Allow time for students to ponder this scenario. They can provide answers through a free write individually or a think-pair-share where they discuss with a partner then share with the whole group.
  3. Students will revisit this scenario after the activity to determine if their conclusions were correct.
  4. The teacher will show the video, “100 Greatest Discoveries: Blood Transfusions” (2 minutes).
    http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/29280-100-greatest-discoveries-blood-transfusion-video.htm

Explore

Students (groups of 2 or 3) will participate in a hands-on laboratory activity in which they will “mix” blood types using colored water to see what results.

Lab Procedure:

  1. Make a small cup of yellow water, and label it “Blood Type A”.
  2. Make a small cup of blue water, and label it “Blood Type B”.
  3. Make a small cup of green water, and label it “Blood Type AB”.
  4. Pour a small amount of plain water into a cup, and label it “Blood Type O”.
  5. Pour a small amount of one of the blood types into an empty cup (recipient).
    Add a second blood type to it (donor), simulating a “blood transfusion”.
  6. Students will create a data table to display results and observations.  From this information, they will determine if the transfusion was successful and which blood types are the universal donor and recipient. A color change indicates that the transfusion failed. (In a real blood transfusion, this failure would be evidenced by agglutination of the red blood cells).
    Note: For a more inquiry-based lesson, allow the student groups to create their own way to display results as long as they can determine which transfusions were successful.

Explain

The teacher will allow groups to share their results. The teacher will explain and discuss information related to ABO blood types and their role in blood transfusions.  This information can include the following:

  • What is a blood type?
  • How do you determine a patient’s blood type?
  • How do you perform safe blood transfusions?
  • What is a universal donor and recipient?

Elaborate or Extend

Students will visit the following websites individually to practice understanding ABO blood types:

1. The Blood Typing Game - Brainpop:

https://www.brainpop.com/games/bloodtyping/

2. Blood Type Game - American Red Cross:

http://www.redcrossblood.org/donating-blood/donor-zone/games/blood-type

3. There is also a quiz that can be utilized on the BrainPop website for formative assessment.

https://www.brainpop.com/games/bloodtyping/ (linked below the game)

After practicing with blood-typing games, students will then revisit the opening scenario and determine if their original answers were correct and why or wrong and why. This can again be shared in a variety of ways--free write, think-pair-share, exit slips, etc.

After students feel comfortable with ABO blood types and transfusions, they will individually create a model of the four blood types demonstrating the specific presence or absence of antigens that determine each blood type. The following website or others may be used for reference.

http://www.redcrossblood.org/learn-about-blood/blood-types


  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

Students are assessed in the following ways:

  1. Summarizing and explaining accurately the results of the blood transfusion lab activity.
  2. Students completing the BrainPop quiz either online or on a hard copy.
  3. Provided answers to the real-life scenario.
  4. Student self-assessment will take place during practice with interactive blood typing games.
  5. Creation of correct ABO blood type models.

Acceleration:

Extension activities could include researching and presenting on various blood disorders such as Sickle Cell Anemia, Hemophilia, Anemia, etc.

Intervention:

If students struggle with creating a way on their own to display and share lab results, teacher may provide a model data table. Printed charts summarizing the four blood types can also be used during the interactive games.


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.