ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Is Gatorade the Only Source of Electrolytes? 

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Emily Menard
System: Homewood City
School: Homewood High School
The event this resource created for:ASTA
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 34677

Title:

Is Gatorade the Only Source of Electrolytes? 

Overview/Annotation:

Students will consider the marketing campaigns of Gatorade to help identify what makes a substance an electrolyte.  Students will plan and conduct an investigation to test common ionic and covalent substances to determine if the substance is an electrolyte or non-electrolyte when dissolved in solution.  

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Chemistry
6 ) Use mathematics and computational thinking to express the concentrations of solutions quantitatively using molarity.

a. Develop and use models to explain how solutes are dissolved in solvents.

b. Analyze and interpret data to explain effects of temperature on the solubility of solid, liquid, and gaseous solutes in a solvent and the effects of pressure on the solubility of gaseous solutes.

c. Design and conduct experiments to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution.

d. Use the concept of pH as a model to predict the relative properties of strong, weak, concentrated, and dilute acids and bases (e.g., Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Cause and Effect; Scale, Proportion, and Quantity; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Determine the molarity of a solution given mass or moles of a solute and volume of a solvent.
  • Represent the process of dissolving to identify the solute and solvent at the atomic/molecular/particulate level.
  • Use data to predict how changes in temperature and pressure will affect solubility.
  • Plan an investigation and in the design decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Evaluate investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time).
  • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
  • Use evidence from investigation to describe the relationship between conductivity of a solution and the components of the solution (ionic and covalent substances).
  • Determine whether substances are acids or bases using the concept of pH.
  • Predict the relative properties of acids and bases using the concept of pH.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Molarity
  • Moles
  • Volume
  • Solution
  • Solute
  • Solvent
  • Concentrations
  • Dissolving
  • Solubility
  • Ionic
  • Covalent
  • atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
  • macroscopic level
  • pH
  • hydronium ion
  • hydroxide ion
  • concentration
  • concentrated
  • dilute
  • acids and bases (strong/ weak)
  • properties
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The mole is used to convert between the atomic/ molecular and macroscopic levels.
  • Concentrations of solutions can be compared quantitatively using molarity.
  • Mathematical representations may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
  • Solutions are a type of mixture that appears homogeneous at the macroscopic level but may be heterogeneous at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • Solutes are the portion of a solution present in the lesser amount.
  • Solvents are the portion of a solution present in the greater amount.
  • Both temperature and pressure affect the solubility of solutes.
  • The effect of temperature on the solubility of a liquid or solid solute differs from that of gaseous solutes.
  • The effect of pressure on the solubility of gaseous solutes differs from that of liquid or solid solutes.
  • The ability of a substance to conduct electricity is determined by the presence of charged particles that are able to move about freely.
  • Ionic compounds typically conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water because the charged particles are able to move about freely.
  • Covalent compounds typically do not conduct electricty when melted or dissolved in water because there are no charged particles.
  • Exceptions to the typical conductivity of solutions include strong acids, which ionize in water solutions.
  • An acid has more hydronium ions than hydroxide ions.
  • A base has more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions. pH is a measure of the number of hydronium ions present in a solution.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Identify solute and solvent in a solution.
  • Calculate the molarity of a solution.
  • Represent the process of dissolving using a model.
  • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/ or models to identify relationships within the datasets.
  • Use analyzed data as evidence to describe the relationships between temperature changes and pressure changes on solubility.
  • Plan an investigation that outlines the experimental procedure, including safety considerations, how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
  • Conduct a planned investigation to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in solution.
  • Analyze collected and recorded data from investigation to determine conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances.
  • Use the pH scale to determine if a substance is acidic or basic.
  • Determine the concentration of hyfronium or hydroxide ions in a solution based on pH value.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to describe explanations.
  • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • Proportional relationships among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties.
  • Models are used to predict the relationships between systems or components of a system.
  • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • Proportional relationships among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties.
  • Data can be analyzed using tools, technologies, and/ or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims.
  • Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and ca provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
  • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
  • Scientists plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • The function of a material and its macroscopic properties are related to the atomic/ molecular level structure of the material.
  • Models are used to predict the relationships between systems or components of a system.
  • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • Proportional relationships among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Temperature and Solubility; Conducting Solutions; Determining the Concentration of a Solution; Spectroscopy; Molarity; Acid Ionization; Acid Titrations

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.1: Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged and the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.

NAEP Statement::
P12.7: A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond. An important example is carbon atoms, which can bond to one another in chains, rings, and branching networks to form, along with other kinds of atoms (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur), a variety of structures, including synthetic polymers, oils, and the large molecules essential to life.


Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Learning Targets:

  • I can identify a substance as being an electrolyte or a nonelectrolyte. 
  • I can design and conduct an experiment to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution. 

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

61 to 90 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

Water

Electrical conductivity testers (1 per group is ideal)

Sugar

Salt

Epson Salt

Moth Balls

Mortar and pestle (1 per group is ideal)

Beakers (250 mL- about 4 per group)

Stirring rods (about 4 per group)

Electrolyte Nonelectrolyte Card Sort activity (attached)- print and cut 1 set of cards for each group.  Make certain to shuffle the cards.  If you print on cardstock and laminate the cards can be reused multiple times.

"What Makes a Substance an Electrolyte" activity (attached)

Technology Resources Needed:

Background/Preparation:

Students should have a strong understanding of ionic and covalent bonding.

  Procedures/Activities: 

Before:

Start a class discussion by asking students if they have heard of electrolytes before and then continue the conversation by asking them where.  Many students are familiar with electrolytes from advertisements for Gatorade. Discuss how electrolytes are important for many processes in the human body, and ask students if they know of other sources for obtaining electrolytes.  You may wish to tell students what an electrolyte is or have them look up the definition.  

During:

  1. Students will work collaboratively to complete "What Makes a Substance an Electrolyte?" activity (attached) by designing their own investigation with a set of given materials to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution.  After the teacher approves the investigation, students will conduct their experiment.  By working collaboratively students will develop teamwork, communication, and problem-solving skills. 
  2. Students will work collaboratively to complete the card sort activity to classify common ionic and covalent substances in a solution as electrolytes or nonelectrolytes based on conductivity.  The card sort activity is attached.  Print one set per group and cut the cards apart.  Students will use the knowledge gained from "What makes a substance an electrolyte" activity to sort the compounds listed into 2 groups: electrolytes and nonelectrolytes.

After:

Watch Video: What happens when stuff dissolves? and discuss as a class why ionic compounds are good conductors (electrolytes) and why covalent compounds are nonelectrolytes.  Relate back to the introduction discussion and have students list other sources of electrolytes.  Discuss why Gatorade may emphasize electrolytes in advertising campaigns.



Attachments:
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  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

  • The students will be assessed on their ability to design and conduct an experiment to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution during the activity "What makes a substance an electrolyte?"
  • The students will be assessed for understanding of conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution during the card sort activity.
  • The students will be informally assessed during class discussion to identify preconceptions and especially any misconceptions.
  • Sample test question:  Have students draw a diagram that shows what happens on the atomic level when sugar dissolves in water and when salt dissolves in water and use the picture to explain why ionic compounds are electrolytes.  

Acceleration:

 

Intervention:

The website below is useful for students who need further instruction on the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution.

https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/aqueous-reactions-4/types-of-aqueous-solutions-45/electrolyte-and-nonelectrolyte-solutions-235-1024/

 


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.