ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Solutions from Nature, Stability

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Deborah LoBue
System: St Clair County
School: Springville Elementary School
The event this resource created for:ASTA
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 34694

Title:

Solutions from Nature, Stability

Overview/Annotation:

This is one of three lessons that can be taught alone, or as the second part of a series, "Solutions from Nature." In this lesson, students explore the structure of plants, and the parts that provide stability. They choose from different materials to construct a house that is sturdy (like the stem) and has a foundation (like the roots). Students test the strength of their design to determine which elements/materials provide increased stability.

This lesson results from a collaboration between the Alabama State Department of Education and ASTA.

 

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 1
5 ) Design a solution to a human problem by using materials to imitate how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs (e.g., outerwear imitating animal furs for insulation, gear mimicking tree bark or shells for protection).*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use given materials to design a device that imitates how plants and/or animals survive, grow and/or meet their needs.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • materials
  • design
  • solution
  • human problem
  • imitate
  • external parts
  • survive
  • needs
  • insulation
  • mimicry
  • camouflage
  • protection
  • ask
  • plan
  • imagine
  • create
  • improve
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • How plants use their external parts to survive, grow and meet their needs.
  • How animals use their external parts to survive, grow and meet their needs.
  • People can imitate how plants and animals survive and grow to help us solve a human problem.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Design a device that attempts to solve a human problem.
  • Use materials to imitate external structures of plants and animals.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Organisms, STC
Wild Feet, ETA/hand2mind

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

NAEP Statement::
L4.7: Different kinds of organisms have characteristics that enable them to survive in different environments. Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.1.5- Match an environmental situation with an appropriate human action (e.g., wearing a jacket when it is cold; animals growing a thick coat during the winter; wearing protective gear like a turtle has a shell).


Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will: 

  • identify parts of a plant that provide stability.
  • construct a model of a house, including a design element acting as a foundation.
  • test the stability of their structures.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

Scientific & Engineering Practices:

  • Asking questions and defining problems
  • Constructing explanations and designing solutions

Crosscutting Concepts

  • Structure and function
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

91 to 120 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

  • Copy of the book to read aloud—“The Three Little Pigs” (classic fairy tale version)
  • Small plant(s) from a garden store (they can be planted in a pot or the ground, after students examine it—you can do this with the students during the lesson or afterwards)
  • Chart Paper or Chalk/Dry Erase Board
  • Small paper or plastic cups, one per child
  • Large flat tub of soil, at least 3-4 inches deep
  • Various Materials to construct houses with (Consider that students will be selecting materials and will need enough to build a small "house."  If your students are in groups, think about how many projects will be constructed, and the quantity of materials you might need to have on hand) such as…
  • Cardboard 
  • Paper Plates
  • Large and small Popsicle sticks  
  • Drinking straws
  • Toothpicks
  • Clothespins
  • Pipe cleaners
  • Rubber bands
  • Pennies or metal washers
  • Liquid glue
  • Glue sticks
  • Modeling clay
  • Masking tape
  • Scissors
  • Copies of Student Recording Sheet (see attached file)
  • Small fan
  • Hair dryer

Technology Resources Needed:

Computer and projection system to show the following YouTube videos: 

https://youtu.be/BFTj0hM3DHM

This is a 5-6 minute video showing a massive oak tree being relocated.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVRgwxuMBHU 

This video is a 3-4 minute slide show that shows construction of a house.  

Background/Preparation:

Students should have prior knowledge about the basic parts of a plant.  

  Procedures/Activities: 

This lesson can be divided into 3-5 smaller chunks, depending on your schedule or the attention spans of your children; suggested stopping points are listed below.    

**Before the lesson, ensure that the YouTube video links are working properly.  Also, you might take a walk around the school grounds and see if you can find trees that are large, or have many visible roots around the base—part of the lesson is to examine these with the students. 

Engage:  Read a story, then pose introductory questions and create interest by examining a plant. 

  1. Read the story “The Three Little Pigs” to the children.  As you read, have students discuss the problem in the story (needing a sturdy shelter to protect the pigs from the hungry wolf).  What kind of houses did the different pigs build?  What materials did they use?  Which ones worked the best?  Finally, discuss that this is a made-up fairy tale.  In real life, a pig wouldn’t build a house like that, and a wolf wouldn’t try to blow it down.  But ask, do the students know of real life things that might cause a building to fall down?  (wind, storms, tornadoes, etc.)
  2. Tell the students that today’s design problem is about Stability, and we will also be looking for more ideas from nature. 
  3. If you completed the “Solutions from Nature-Insulation” lesson, remind students that their previous design problem was about ways to insulate from the cold temperatures.  Remind them of the gloves they constructed.  Remind them of how they looked for ideas from animals who have insulation in or on their bodies.  Today we will look at plants in nature that are sturdy or stable—they do not fall over easily. 
  4. Begin by showing students the small potted plant—remove the plastic covering and expose the root system.  Review the parts of a plant (leaves, flower, stem, roots).  Remind students that stems and roots help deliver water and nutrients, but they also provide stability to the plants. 
  5. Introduce the word “Stability,” which means an object or system of objects that stays balanced and in place without falling over.  Plants are living things, but they don’t have muscles and body parts that let them move around like animals and people do.  So they have body parts that help them stay stable and in place.  We can examine these features to help us create stable things.  Just like the little pigs in the story needed a stable house that wouldn’t fall over when the wolf huffed and puffed, humans need stable shelters, and we can look at plants for ideas on how to build them. 

[***This might be a good place to stop the lesson and continue later, as the next part of the lesson will be a nature walk outside.***]

Explore: Have students examine trees to discuss their stability, and experiment with a paper cup to propose variables that might make the cup more stable. 

  1. Tell the students that today they are going to be engineers—scientists who solve problems.  Today’s problem is: How can we build a house that is stable?  Write this on the chart paper or the board.
  2. Ask students to think about how builders can get ideas from trees about stability.  Take a nature walk around the school grounds and examine the different trees.  Is there a breeze blowing?  Which parts of the trees move more?  Which parts move less?  Examine the trunk and feel how sturdy it is.  Examine the ground—do you see evidence of the root system?  How thick are the roots?  How far can you see them stretch out along the ground? 
  3. Return to the class and discuss what you saw—explain to the students that the root system of a tree is very large.  Remind them of all the roots they saw on the small plant—think about how many roots it took for a small plant.  How many roots would go down into the ground for a very large tree? 
  4. Show the first YouTube video link, of the relocation of a 100 year old oak tree.  Point out the size of the root ball they dug up with the tree, and how many machines it took to haul the tree to its new spot.  That is a lot of power to move a very stable tree!!

[***This might be another good place to stop the lesson and continue later, as the next parts of the lesson transition to the construction phase.***]

      5.  Tell students that they are going to test some ideas about stability on a cup, to give them ideas for the “houses” they will build later in the lesson.  Distribute the cups and have students place them on their desks, pretending they are buildings.  Have them blow gently on the side of the cup, and it will probably fall over or move around.  Ask the students, “How can you make this cup more stable, so it won’t fall or move around?”  Let them suggest and try ideas (perhaps manipulating the cup top or bottom side up, placing weight on or in it, etc.).  Record these ideas on the chart paper.  

Explain: Review vocabulary, make connections from the tree roots to the cup experiment to the real construction process of a house, plan small group investigation. 

  1. When a student or students begin to discuss solutions about a foundation, anchoring it to the desk, etc., bring out the tub of soil.  See if this sparks any new ideas.  One idea to try would be to nestle part of the cup down in the soil, and then blow on it.  This should be more stable.
  2. When students begin to try this, ask them to think back to the root system of a tree—part of it is buried in the ground.  Tell the students that most houses start with a foundation—part of the house that is secured underground to keep it from falling over. 
  3. Have students return the cups, and then view the second YouTube video, with the time-lapse photos of building a house.  As you view the photos, look closely at the beginning, where they lay the foundation.  How do they work up from there?   What materials are they using?  What shapes are being constructed?  What might make a building less likely to fall or collapse? 
  4. Write the words “Stability, Shape, Size, Weight, and Foundation” on the chart or board.  Explain that these words are very important to builders and architects.  They will need to think about them as they plan their designs with their partner, and look for ways to imitate the stability of the trees in nature. 

[***This might be another good stopping point, before students will begin the construction process.***]

Elaborate: Allow students to work in groups to create houses that are stable, include some kind of foundation element, and can stand up to wind blowing on them. 

  1. Tell students, “Today you are going to build a house with a partner.  Make sure you think about a foundation for your house.  When your houses are finished, we will place them in the soil tub, and test to see if they are stable when wind blows on them.” 
  2. Divide students into groups of 2 and distribute the Student Record Sheets.  Have them copy the Problem off the board from the beginning of the lesson.  Show students the various materials they have to work with, and let students talk about what materials they will choose, writing them in the Materials section of the Record Sheet.   
  3. As students begin making their plans, allow them to come and choose materials from the supply table and begin working.  As they finish building, remind them to complete the Design and Predict portions of the Student Record Sheet. 

 [***This might be another good place to stop the lesson and continue later, as students finish their buildings.  Some students may need less time and transition to a different activity, some may need more time, some may have glue that needs to dry overnight, etc.***] 

Evaluate:  Test the student models, compare results, and discuss findings and applications

  1. Let partners bring their houses to the soil tub and place them firmly in the soil, anchoring the foundation.  Have them blow on the houses and see if they move.  You can also use a small fan and/or hair dryer to increase the force of the wind.  Have them record what happened on the Results section of their record sheet. 
  2. After all the houses have been tested, let students think about the Reflect section.  Why did something work well, or not work?  What did you learn about building a stable house?  Would you change something on your house and try it again?  Allow students to share their reflections. 
  3. Conclude by discussing the following questions:  “Were there any changes when we increased the force of the wind?  Which materials provided the best stability?  Which shapes had good stability?  Did your foundations imitate the objects we examined from nature?  How could builders and architects make more stable buildings?”  


Attachments:
**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download.
  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

  • Observe the student houses during the test.  How well do they withstand the added element of wind? 
  • Examine the Student Record Sheets.  Did the student include any of the suggested elements of design?  Did the student accurately use pictures and/or words to express the design and test process?  

Acceleration:

If students successfully build a structure that withstands wind force from a fan or hair dryer on the first attempt, pull them in a small group and discuss how scientists can change one thing (variable) about their experiment to test it in new ways.  Let them propose new ways to test their experiment, such as changing the size or shape.  Does the structure still stay stable?  What if you tested the effects of an earthquake instead of wind by shaking the tray of soil?  Allow students to test and recreate their experiment in new ways. 

Intervention:

If students are not able to build a structure that withstands wind force on the first attempt, pull them in a small group to discuss possible solutions.  Discuss the fact that scientists often have to "try, try again" or go "back to the drawing board."  Let them examine and compare their structures, and recreate them.   Encourage them to talk with students who were successful and get input, or observe the trees again, particularly if there are windy conditions.  Allow students to repeat the experiment, using suggestions from the teacher and peers to adjust their structures, providing assistance as necessary. 


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.