ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Primary Sources: Making Meaning From Photographs

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Melinda Staubs
Organization:Jacksonville State University
The event this resource created for:Alabama Department of Archives and History
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 35090

Title:

Primary Sources: Making Meaning From Photographs

Overview/Annotation:

This lesson introduces students to the world of primary sources.  Students will analyze two photographs concerning Alabama's second governor, Thomas Bibb, in order to construct meaning.  Students will analyze a primary source from their past and present it to the class. 

This lesson was created in partnership with the Alabama Department of Archives and History.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 3
10 ) Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. [RI.3.1]


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.3.10- Answer who, what, and where questions to demonstrate understanding of an informational text.


Local/National Standards:

NCSS National Standard II. Time, Continuity, and Change

NCSS National Standard III. People, Places, and Environments

NCTE/IRA Standards for the English Language Arts 8. Students use a variety of technological and information resources to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will reconstruct the past using primary sources.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

Students will ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding.

 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

31 to 60 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

  • Computer or tablet
  • internet accessibility
  • Screen/white board
  • Projector
  • Paper and pencil option in the event these resources are not available
  • Various primary sources
    • maps
    • letters
    • photo album
    • birth certificate

  • Various secondary sources
    • encyclopedia
    • textbook
    • biography

Students will provide a primary source of their own (to use with the Personal Primary Source Analysis sheet) 

Attached documents:

  • Official Photograph of Thomas Bibb
  • Photograph of the Bibb Home
  • Primary Source Analysis sheet
  • Personal Primary Source Analysis handout
  • Letter for parents/guardian
  • Primary Secondary Sources Information PowerPoint

Technology Resources Needed:

  • Computer or tablet
  • internet accessibility
  • Screen/white board
  • Projector

Background/Preparation:

Students should have basic collaboration, reading, and writing skills. Students should have basic technology skills and be able to create a powerpoint.

The teacher should download the attached photographs (Official Photograph of Thomas Bibb and Photograph of the Bibb Home) onto a computer to project during the lesson development. The teacher should also download these photographs on student computers for better viewing if available.  The teacher should download the attached Primary Secondary Sources Information PowerPoint onto a computer to project during the lesson.

The teacher should gather some primary and secondary sources to share with the students as examples; placing primary sources on one table and secondary sources on another table. The teacher will need to print copies of the Primary Source Analysis sheet and Personal Primary Source Analysis handout for students to use. The teacher can download photographs of the current governor and the governor's residence for additional modeling of primary sources.

Background information for teachers: This lesson should be done in two days, with the exploration and lesson development on the first day and the expansion on the second. The teacher should read over the attachments and become familiar with the content.  The Library of Congress has good information on incorporating primary sources at http://teachingprimarysources.illinoisstate.edu/MCTPS/PD_Guide/Section_4.pdf  Information concerning Thomas Bibb can be found in the Encyclopedia of Alabama: http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-1531

  Procedures/Activities: 

Exploration: The teacher will engage the students by pointing out the two tables with different items on each (primary sources on one table and secondary sources on another).  The teacher will tell the students that both tables contain items that help to learn about the past but there is a big difference between the items on one table as opposed to the items on the other table. The teacher will refer to the day's objective on the Primary Secondary Sources Information PowerPoint.  The teacher will draw a big circle on the board and write Primary Sources in the middle if a whiteboard is not available (the concept map is on the powerpoint). The teacher will explain this assessment will tell what they think they already know about the day's objective, reconstructing the past using primary sources. The teacher will complete the concept map while students brainstorm and share any ideas they think they may already know about primary sources.  The teacher will tell the students they will revisit this concept map at the end of the lesson to see what they need to add or change.

Lesson Development: The teacher will pull up the official portrait of Thomas Bibb, and model how to analyze the photograph using the questions on the Primary Source Analysis sheet.  The teacher will ask and answer questions while analyzing the photograph is modeled. (The teacher can further model analyzing primary sources using a photograph of the current governor.)  The teacher will pass out the Primary Source Analysis sheet to students (the analysis can be done independently, peer partners, or small group) and have the students pull up the photograph of the Bibb home to analyze. The teacher will explain this assessment will tell what they know about the day's objective, reconstructing the past using primary sources. The teacher will have the students complete the handout as they analyze the photograph.  The teacher will walk around and assist as needed.  The teacher and students will discuss their findings when students are finished. The teacher and students will revisit the original concept map to determine what needs to be added or changed.

Expansion: The teacher will tell the students there are ways to find out about every person because there are primary sources on each person, often before they are even born (ultrasounds, announcements, etc.). The teacher will pass out the Personal Primary Source Analysis handout with the parent/guardian letter attached.  The teacher will explain this assessment will tell what they think they already know about the day's objective, reconstructing the past using primary sources. Students will take these forms home to share with the parents/guardians and bring in the completed Personal Primary Source Analysis form and primary source the next day to share.  (The "show and tell" can be altered to fit the teacher's schedule.) Students will make a three slide PowerPoint on their primary source. Slide one: a photograph of the student, slide two: a photograph of the primary source, slide three: information telling what the primary source is, when it was created, and what it tells about the student. The checklist is included in the PowerPoint to display while students work on their PowerPoint slides. The teacher can compile the presentations and create a visual presentation to share with the students and/or parents.



Attachments:
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  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

All assessments listed below are directly tied to the primary learning objective: reconstructing the past using primary sources, as specifically outlined in the procedures, handouts, and attached powerpoint. 

Exploration: Concept Map

Lesson Development: Primary Source Analysis sheet, Concept Map

Expansion: Personal Primary Source Analysis handout, PowerPoint

Acceleration:

Students can used the Primary Source Analysis sheet to analyze different forms of primary sources provided by the teacher or the student can search the Alabama Department of Archives & History at http://digital.archives.alabama.gov/  

Students can make a "Classroom Primary Source" book of class pictures and objects gathered throughout the school year.

Suggested reading: 

Interactive Maps for Kids: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/kids-world-atlas/maps.html

Kid Friendly Primary Sources: http://dppl.org/blog/post/kid-friendly-primary-sources

Intervention:

Students will be placed with an appropriate peer partner and assisted by the teacher throughout the lesson as needed. The Personal Primary Analysis handout will be provided days before the lesson to those students who may need extra time. 


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.