ALEX Lesson Plan

     

You Don't Have Mail!

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Lesa Roberts
Organization:Whitesburg Christian Academy
The event this resource created for:Alabama Department of Archives and History
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 35102

Title:

You Don't Have Mail!

Overview/Annotation:

This lesson will provide students with two primary documents, a drawing of a postal stagecoach and a newspaper article outlining the difficulties of mail delivery. Students will complete a graphic organizer to provide evidence that details a specific perspective described in the documents.

Students will examine the cultural and economic aspects of the early nineteenth century and will refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences. Students will be able to explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points of view.

This lesson was created in partnership with the Alabama Department of Archives and History.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
10 ) Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. [RI.4.1]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard::
Anchor Standard 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
Cognitive Target::
  • Identify textually explicit information and make simple inference with and across texts, such as: definitions, facts, supporting details.
  • Make complex inferences within and across texts to describe problems and solution or cause and effect, determine unstated assumptions in and argument. Draw conclusions and provide supporting details.
  • Determine fact from opinion.
  • Identify textually explicit information within and across text, such as locating specific information in text or graphics. Make complex references within and across texts, such as draw conclusions and provide supporting information.

NAEP Descriptor::
Use examples from article to explain interpretation. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize main questions answered by an article. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Interpret text details to select and provide one example. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize explicitly stated information from an article. (Locate and Recall)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize explicitly stated information in an informational text. (Locate and Recall)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize cause explicitly stated in an informational text. (Locate and Recall)



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.10- Answer who, what, when, and where questions to demonstrate understanding of an informational text.


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
12 ) Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. [RI.4.3]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard::
Anchor Standard 3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Cognitive Target::
Identify textually explicit information within and across texts to find evidence in support of an argument.
NAEP Descriptor::
Describe a process with text support. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Interpret information in expository passage to describe steps in a process. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize best description of character based on action described in expository passage. (Locate and Recall)



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.12- Identify events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in an informational text.


English Language Arts
ELA2015 (2015)
Grade: 4
17 ) Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. [RI.4.8]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard::
Anchor Standard 8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
Cognitive Target::
Analyze the presentation of information, evaluate the strength and quality of evidence used by the author to support his or her opinion, determine the quality of counter arguments, judge the coherence, logic or credibility of an argument.
NAEP Descriptor::
Make a text-based inference to recognize reason for action. (Advanced, Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Connect text ideas to recognize an explanation. (Advanced, Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize interpretation of a paragraph in an informational text. (Advanced, Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize purpose of action in a process explicitly described in and expository passage. (Proficient, Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor::
Recognize author's main purpose for writing an expository text. (Proficient, Integrate and Interpret)



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
ELA.AAS.4.17- Identify reasons or evidence to support the main idea or points in an informational text.


Social Studies
SS2010 (2010)
Grade: 4
Alabama Studies
6 ) Describe cultural, economic, and political aspects of the lifestyles of early nineteenth-century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.

Examples: cultural—housing, education, religion, recreation

economic—transportation, means of support

political—inequity of legal codes

•  Describing major areas of agricultural production in Alabama, including the Black Belt and fertile river valleys
Insight Unpacked Content
Strand: Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government
Course Title: Alabama Studies (Alabama)
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Describe cultural, economic, and political aspects of the lifestyles of early nineteenth-century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.
  • Describe major areas of agricultural production in Alabama, including the Black Belt and fertile river valleys.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • plantation
  • Yeoman
  • townspeople
  • inequity
  • agriculture
  • fertile
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • During this time, most families in Alabama did not own slaves; most slaves were owned by Plantation Owners.
  • Most of Alabama's families made a living through agriculture.
  • The Black Belt and fertile river valleys were major areas of agricultural production.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Compare and contrast cultural, economic, and political aspects of the lifestyles of early nineteenth-century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.
  • Describe major areas of agricultural production in Alabama, including the Black Belt and fertile river valleys.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • There were cultural, political, and economic inequities in Alabama in the early 19th Century between slaves, Yeoman farmers, and Plantation owners.
Alabama Archives Resources:
Click below to access all Alabama Archives resources aligned to this standard.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SS.AAS.4.6- Identify information about early nineteenth- century farmers, plantation owners, slaves, and townspeople.


Local/National Standards:

National Standards for History Basic Education

Standard 2A: The student understands the history of his or her local community.

Standard 3E:  The student understands the ideas that were significant in the development of the state and that helped to forge its unique identity.

 

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will work in pairs to gather information from two primary documents about early nineteenth century culture and economics. They will be able to read and explain how authors use reasons and evidence to support a particular perspective. Students will locate the main idea and details and make inferences from a newspaper article and an illustration of a postal stagecoach. By completing a graphic organizer, the students will describe the evidence that led to the selected perspective.  

Additional Learning Objective(s):

Students will highlight information from the text that will provide information about the difficulty of postal delivery during early Alabama settlement.

Students will work with a partner to infer possible problems that may arise with mail delivery.

 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

31 to 60 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

  • A copy of American Stage Coach for each partner group
  • A copy of the description of the American Mail stagecoach (see attachment)
  • A copy of Post Department article for each partner group (article is on the 4th page)
  • Be the Thing graphic organizer for each student (see attachment)
  • Highlighters
  • Pencils

Technology Resources Needed:

  • Document camera to display primary documents, if available
  • Laptops to research early postal services (Benjamin Franklin's creation of the colonial postal service; the pony express; stagecoaches; railroads, etc.), if available
  • Laptops to view primary documents and complete graphic organizer, if available

Background/Preparation:

Students will need to be familiar with the beginnings of the U.S. postal service (Benjamin Franklin and the colonial mail service). They should also be aware of the typical modes of transportation for the early nineteenth century (e.g.: horseback, wagon, stagecoaches, etc). Finally, students should be aware of the possible problems that could have occurred on the Federal Road, such as tension with the Creek Indians, bad road conditions, lack of communication, and mishaps with stages.

Be prepared to display the Federal Road map that is attached.

Teacher may read from The Encyclopedia of Alabama Federal Road in Alabama for further information about the Alabama road system and postal service in the early nineteenth century.

  Procedures/Activities: 

Before:

  • If time and equipment are available, allow students to research early US postal services (Franklin's establishment of colonial service, the Pony Express, stagecoaches, railroads, etc).
  • Allow time for students to discuss successes and failures of early postal delivery. 
  • The teacher should display the Federal Road map and photograph of the remains of the road today.
  • Discuss the path of the road (Creek territory) and the possible problems that may occur.
  • Discuss how populated the area was and how the lack of communication may have been a problem.

During:

  • Put students in pairs for this activity.
  • Distribute the illustration and description of the American Stagecoach to each set of partners.
  • Allow the students to read the description and discuss the illustration with their partner.
  • Highlight any information that may be used as evidence of the difficulty of postal service through lower Alabama.
  • Discuss the stagecoach illustration and description as a class, and allow the students to ask clarifying questions and make comments about what they found interesting in the article.
  • Distribute the newspaper article about the difficulties of the postal service in lower Alabama.
  • Display the article under the document camera, if available. The teacher should read the article and encourage the students to ask questions and discuss the information.
  • Allow partners time to re-read and discuss the article.
  • Highlight any information that may be used as evidence of the difficulty of postal service through lower Alabama.
  • Discuss the textual evidence the students highlighted.
  • Distribute the Be the Thing graphic organizer to each student.
  • Instruct the students that they will complete the graphic organizer from the perspective of someone who has mailed a letter to a family member in New Orleans. (Description)
  • The perspective should include the concerns about the letter arriving safely to their family member.
  • The students should utilize highlighted information from the texts as evidence for the concerns.

After:

  • Allow students to work with their partners to complete the graphic organizer.
  • Discuss some examples of evidence from the texts to clarify any questions, if necessary.
  • Encourage students to complete the face on the graphic organizer to be that of the letter writer.


Attachments:
**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download.
  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

Formative:

  • Students should be able to discuss the evidence that reflects the difficulty of the postal service in the early nineteenth century.
  • Students should highlight applicable evidence that reflects the difficulties of having mail delivered safely and timely.

Summative:

  • Students should complete the graphic organizer with evidence that reflects the difficulties of the early nineteenth century postal service in lower Alabama.

Acceleration:

Students may read the Mobile Centinel and select an article they can use to complete the Be the Thing graphic organizer. The teacher should remind the students that they should select an article where evidence is given to support a specific perspective.

Additional reading on the Federal Road:

Bridges, Edwin C. ALABAMA: THE MAKING OF AN AMERICAN STATE. Tuscaloosa, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 2016, pp. 45-48.

Intervention:

The teacher should pair students with lower reading abilities with students comfortable with reading primary documents.

Highlight and/or discuss words found in the text that may be difficult for students.

Allow students to turn in one graphic organizer as a team.


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.