ALEX Lesson Plan

Making Matter Change: Microwave Mug Cake

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This lesson provided by:
 Author: Hannah Bradley System: Dothan City School: Carver Magnet School
General Lesson Information
 Lesson Plan ID: 35561 Title: Making Matter Change: Microwave Mug Cake Overview/Annotation: The lesson will begin with students comparing and contrasting the physical properties of ice and water using a Venn diagram graphic organizer. Next, the students will describe the physical properties of ingredients needed for a microwave mug cake. The students will bake a chocolate microwave mug cake to demonstrate that some changes in matter caused by heating and cooling are irreversible. Lastly, the students will create a written and pictorial response comparing the water and ice to the microwave mug cake to provide evidence that some changes in matter can be reversed, while others can not.This lesson results from the ALEX Resource Gap Project.
Associated Standards and Objectives
Content Standard(s):
 Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 2 1 ) Conduct an investigation to describe and classify various substances according to physical properties (e.g., milk being a liquid, not clear in color, assuming shape of its container, mixing with water; mineral oil being a liquid, clear in color, taking shape of its container, floating in water; a brick being a solid, not clear in color, rough in texture, not taking the shape of its container, sinking in water). NAEP Framework NAEP Statement:: E4.6: Some Earth materials have properties either in their present form or after design and modification that make them useful in solving human problems and enhancing the quality of life, as in the case of materials used for building or fuels used for heating and transportation. NAEP Statement:: P4.1: Objects and substances have properties. Weight (mass) and volume are properties that can be measured using appropriate tools.* NAEP Statement:: P4.3: Matter exists in several different states; the most common states are solid, liquid, and gas. Each state of matter has unique properties. For instance, gases are easily compressed while solids and liquids are not. The shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Planning and Carrying out InvestigationsCrosscutting Concepts: PatternsDisciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Conduct an investigation to produce data that is used as evidence to describe and classify various substances according to physical properties.Teacher Vocabulary:Solid Liquid Physical Properties Investigate Classify Opaque Transparent Translucent Rough Smooth Float Sink Shape Various Substances Conduct DescribeKnowledge:Students know: Different kinds of matter exists. Properties of both solids (opaque, transparent, translucent, rough, smooth, float, sink, has its own shape) and liquids (color, assumes shape of container, opaque, transparent, translucent). Many types of matter can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature.Skills:Students are able to: Plan and conduct an investigation to produce data that is used to describe and classify substances according to physical properties.Understanding:Students understand that: Observable patterns in the properties of materials provide evidence to classify the different kinds of materials.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Matter Solids and Liquids, FOSS Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: SCI.AAS.2.1- Participate in investigations to describe and sort various substances according to physical properties. Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 2 4 ) Provide evidence that some changes in matter caused by heating or cooling can be reversed (e.g., heating or freezing of water) and some changes are irreversible (e.g., baking a cake, boiling an egg). NAEP Framework NAEP Statement:: P4.6: One way to change matter from one state to another and back again is by heating and cooling. Unpacked Content Scientific And Engineering Practices:Engaging in Argument from EvidenceCrosscutting Concepts: Cause and EffectDisciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its InteractionsEvidence Of Student Attainment:Students: Construct an argument with evidence to support a claim that some changes in matter caused by heating and cooling can be reversed and some cannot.Teacher Vocabulary:Properties Evidence Change Matter Heating Cooling Reversible IrreversibleKnowledge:Students know: Characteristics of materials before heating or cooling. Characteristics of materials after heating and cooling. Characteristics of materials when heating or cooling is reversed.Skills:Students are able to: Analyze evidence to support a claim that heating and cooling causes change in matter.Understanding:Students understand that: Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible and sometimes they are not.AMSTI Resources:AMSTI Module: Matter Solids and Liquids, FOSS Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards AAS Standard: SCI.AAS.2.4- Predict changes to matter, reversible and irreversible, that may occur when matter is heated or cooled (e.g., heating or freezing water, boiling an egg, baking a cake).

Local/National Standards:

Primary Learning Objective(s):

• Students will describe various substances according to their physical properties.
• Students will provide evidence that some changes in matter caused by heating and cooling are reversible, while some are not.
• Students will conduct an investigation to show that some changes in matter caused by heating and cooling are irreversible.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

Preparation Information
 Total Duration: 61 to 90 Minutes Materials and Resources: Student Materials (per student)Pencil Art supplies, such as colored pencils, crayons, or markersMicrowave Mug Cake Ingredients Graphic OrganizerChanging States of Matter AssessmentIngredients and Supplies for Microwave Mug Cake ActivityOriginal recipe: Microwave Mug CakeMicrowaveMicrowave safe mug Cooking spray (for example, Pam)Tablespoon measuring toolMixing spoonTasting spoonIngredients for Each Mug Cake4 Tablespoons all-purpose flour 4 Tablespoons sugar 2 Tablespoons unsweetened cocoa 1 egg 3 Tablespoons milk 3 Tablespoons vegetable oil Handful of chocolate chipsTeacher MaterialsChart paper and markers OR interactive whiteboardContainers of water and ice for before strategy (see background information for preparation details)Video clip for background information: Second Grade States of Matter Movie from youtube.comWebsite for Acceleration Activity: Solids, Liquids, Gases Karaoke from Scholastic StudyJams Technology Resources Needed: Teacher Technology ResourcesTeacher computer with interactive whiteboard and ability to project sound Background/Preparation: Student Background Information:  As this lesson will serve as an introduction to the changing states of matter, students will not need background information on this concept.Students will need to have experience identifying substances according to physical properties, which is related to the Second Grade Alabama Course of Study Standard 1:1. Conduct an investigation to describe and classify various substances according to physical properties (e.g., milk being a liquid, not clear in color, assuming shape of its container, mixing with water; mineral oil being a liquid, clear in color, taking shape of its container, floating in water; a brick being a solid, not clear in color, rough in texture, not taking the shape of its container, sinking in water).This lesson will provide additional practice on this skill.If remediation is needed on this concept, the teacher can show students the first 2 minutes and 43 seconds of this video clip: Second Grade States of Matter Movie. This will introduce or reinforce the meaning of the terms solid, liquid, and gas.Teacher Background Information: Prior to teaching this lesson, the teacher will need to gather two identical containers. The teacher should fill both containers with water, and one container should be placed in the freezer overnight to freeze the water. These containers will be needed during the before strategy of the lesson. The teacher should make enough copies of the Microwave Mug Cake Ingredients Graphic Organizer and the Changing States of Matter Assessment for each student in the class. In the during strategy of this lesson, students will create a microwave mug cake to demonstrate that some changes in matter are irreversible. The teacher should preview the ingredients of the recipe to ensure that food allergies will not be an issue. In addition, the teacher may wish to secure parent volunteers or classroom assistants to help with this portion of the lesson. Safety Considerations: This lesson will require the use of a microwave, which should only be operated with adult supervision. The teacher should ensure that students do not touch the hot mug. In addition, the teacher should be sure the microwave mug cake has cooled prior to students tasting the cake.
Procedures/Activities:
 Before Strategy/Engage: 10 minutes 1. The teacher should draw a Venn diagram on the chart paper or the interactive whiteboard. The left side of the Venn diagram should be labeled “Ice” and the right side of the Venn diagram should be labeled “Water”. 2. The teacher should display the two prepared containers to students (one container with liquid water and one with ice). After allowing the students to view the two containers, the teacher should ask for volunteers to describe the physical properties of the ice. The teacher will record the students’ observations on the left side of the Venn diagram. Next, the teacher should ask for volunteers to describe the physical properties of the water and record the students’ observations on the right side of the Venn diagram. Lastly, the teacher should ask for volunteers to describe physical properties that the water and the ice have in common and record these observations in the middle section of the Venn diagram. Note: If the students do not use the vocabulary terms solid and liquid, the teacher should be sure to reinforce the meaning of these terms while completing the Venn diagram. 3. The teacher should pose this question to students: “How can we change ice to water? Is it possible for us to change water back into ice?” The teacher should allow students to discuss their answers with a classmate. After the students have the opportunity to discuss their answer with a partner, the teacher should ask students to share their answer with the class. During Strategy/Explore & Explain: 45 minutes 1. The teacher should prepare all ingredients needed to assemble the microwave mug cakes. The teacher should give each student a copy of the Microwave Mug Cake Ingredients Graphic Organizer. This graphic organizer lists the seven ingredients required for the microwave mug cakes. The students will examine each ingredient and circle solid or liquid. In the last column, students will record additional physical properties of each ingredient, such as its color or texture. Depending on the students’ abilities the teacher may: -Allow the students to complete the graphic organizer independently. -Allow the students to complete the graphic organizer with a partner or group. -Allow the students to complete the graphic organizer as a teacher-led whole class activity. 2. After identifying the physical properties of the microwave mug cake ingredients, the students should assemble the cake. Depending on the needs of the teacher, each student may create a cake or this portion of the lesson can be done with partners or as a small group. -Spray a microwave safe large coffee cup with cooking spray. -First add flour, then sugar and cocoa inside the coffee mug. -Blend dry ingredients together with a spoon. -Next add milk, oil and 1 egg.   -Sprinkle chocolate chips on top. -Gently stir until well combined.   -Place in microwave and cook for 3 minutes. 3. After students have baked their cake, the teacher may allow students to eat the cake. After Strategy/Explain & Elaborate: 20 minutes 1. To end the lesson, the teacher should lead a class discussion on the difference between the water and ice from the beginning of the lesson and the microwave mug cakes that students created. The teacher should record students’ responses on chart paper or the interactive whiteboard. The teacher should lead the students to the idea that changing water to ice or ice to water is a reversible change while baking the ingredients of the microwave mug cake led to an irreversible change. 2. The teacher should give each student a copy of the Changing States of Matter Assessment handout. This handout will require students to answer the question: “How are the water and ice different from the microwave mug cake?” The students will also draw a picture to explain their answer.
Assessment
 Assessment Strategies Formative Assessment: The teacher should informally assess students in the before strategy as students share their observations of the physical properties of ice and water. In addition, the teacher should assess students’ current knowledge of changing states of matter when students discuss their answers to the questions “How can we change ice to water? Is it possible for us to change water back into ice?” with a partner. The teacher should informally assess students in the after strategy during the class discussion about the difference between the water and ice and the microwave mug cakes.Summative Assessment: To formally assess students, the teacher should review each student’s completed Microwave Mug Cake Ingredients Graphic Organizer to ensure that students correctly identified the physical properties of the mug cake ingredients. The teacher should use the Changing States of Matter Assessment as a formal assessment at the conclusion of the lesson. If the student is able to provide evidence that heating and cooling water is a reversible change, while baking a cake is an irreversible change, then the student has achieved the objectives of the lesson.
 Acceleration: Students who require acceleration can apply the concepts of this lesson by developing a list of other changes in matter that are reversible and irreversible. Students can develop their understanding of the changing states of matter by learning the song, Solids, Liquids, Gases Karaoke, and performing it for their classmates. Intervention: The teacher should be sure that students who require intervention strategies are provided with additional help and scaffolding while completing the Microwave Mug Cake Ingredients Graphic Organizer and assembling the cake batter. In addition, the teacher or a peer may provide additional assistance during the after strategy of the lesson, while students are completing the Changing States of Matter Assessment. Students who struggle with writing may dictate their writing to the teacher or a peer.

 View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.