ALEX Lesson Plan

     

What Bloody Type are You?

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Kim Cole
System: Cullman County
School: Cullman County Board Of Education
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 35588

Title:

What Bloody Type are You?

Overview/Annotation:

Students will compare and contrast similarities between the eight different human blood types and be able to explain how these differences affect blood transfusions. Students will complete the online modules in The Blood Type Game and hunt for answers to a worksheet on The Red Cross website. After the lesson, students will be assessed with an online quiz on Quizziz

This lesson was created as part of a collaboration between Alabama Technology in Motion and ALEX.

Lesson author recommended by TIM Trainer Courtney Winn Hamilton.

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Health Science
HLS (2009)
Grade: 9-12
Human Body Structures and Functions
9 ) Identify structures of the cardiovascular system.

•  Tracing the flow of blood through the body
•  Identifying components of blood
•  Describing blood cell formation
•  Distinguishing among human blood groups
•  Describing common cardiovascular diseases and disorders
Examples: myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins, arteriosclerois

Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 9-12
Human Anatomy and Physiology
7 ) Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and functions of the cardiovascular system (e.g., components of blood, blood circulation through the heart and systems of the body, ABO blood groups, anatomy of the heart, types of blood vessels).

a. Engage in argument from evidence regarding possible prevention and treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system (e.g., myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, anemia, high blood pressure).

b. Design and carry out an experiment to test various conditions that affect the heart (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram [ECG] output).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Obtain information about the structure of the cardiovascular system, including various types of structures that aid in circulation through the heart and throughout the systems of the body.
  • Obtain information about the function of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use models to explain the structure and function of the cardiovascular system and its accessory structures.
  • Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and function of the cardiovascular system.
  • Obtain information about the structure of blood and it's function, including information about the ABO blood groups.
  • Use models to describe how structure is related to function in the components of blood.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on pathological conditions that may affect the cardiovascular system.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on possible prevention options related to pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on possible treatment options related to pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use appropriate sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend claims and explanations about possible prevention or treatment options related to pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system.
  • Defend a claim against counter-claims and critique by evaluating counter-claims and by describing the connections between the relevant and appropriate evidence and the strongest claim.
  • Obtain and evaluate information about common tests that can be used to monitor cardiovascular system function.
  • Design an experiment that can be used to test cardiovascular function in varying conditions.
  • Describe the data that wil be collected and the evidence to be derived from the data during the experiment.
  • Conduct the experiment and collect data and record changes to the external environment and organism responses.
  • Evaluate experiment by assessing the accuracy and precision of the data as well as limitations of the investigation.
  • Make suggestions for refinement if needed.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • blood pressure
  • blood vessels
  • circulatory system
  • heart
  • pulse
  • vascularization
  • arteries
  • veins
  • lymphatic vessels
  • hydrostatic pressure
  • microcirculation
  • tunica adventitia
  • tunica media
  • tunica intima
  • lumen
  • constriction/ vasoconstriction
  • dilation/ vasodilation
  • arterioles
  • venules
  • capillaries
  • circulation (systemic, pulmonary)
  • pericardium (fibrous, serous, epicardium)
  • myocardium
  • endocardium
  • coronary arteries, veins
  • cardiac infarction
  • vasculature
  • septum
  • chambers
  • atrium
  • ventricle
  • valves (atrioventricular, semilunar, mitral, bicuspid, tricuspid)
  • Papillary muscles
  • venae cavae
  • superior/ inferior vena cava
  • aorta
  • pulmonary artery, valve, veins
  • SA node, AV node
  • bundle of His
  • Purkinje system
  • diastole
  • systole
  • heart rate
  • stroke volume
  • cardiac output
  • electrocardiogram
  • plasma
  • RBC's/ erythrocytes
  • hemoglobin
  • reticulocytes/ erythroblasts
  • complete blood count (CBC)
  • blood type
  • ABO blood group system
  • Rh factor
  • erythroblastosis fetalis
  • WBC's/ leukocytes
  • neutrophils
  • lymphocytes
  • eosinophils
  • monocytes
  • basophils
  • differential white blood cell count
  • granulocytes/ polymorphonuclear WBC
  • agranulocytes/ mononuclear WBC
  • B or T lymphocytes
  • platelet/ thrombocyte
  • megakaryocyte
  • percent saturation
  • carbon dioxide intoxication
  • phagocytosis
  • macrophages
  • kupffer cell
  • prostacyclin
  • clotting factors
  • prothrombin
  • thrombin
  • Fibrinogen/ fibrin
  • plasminogen
  • erythropoiesis
  • hematopoietic stem cell
  • Myeloid stem cell
  • lymphoid stem cell
  • myocardial infarction
  • mitral valve prolapse
  • varicose veins
  • arteriosclerosis,
  • anemia
  • hypertension
  • angina
  • systolic
  • diastolic
  • electrocardiogram
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Arteries and arterioles carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
  • Veins and venules carry blood from the body to the heart.
  • Capillaries are small blood vessels that exchange materials with tissues.
  • Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of a vessel while vasodialation is the widening of a vessel.
  • The heart is made of mycardium covered by pericardium and is composed of four chambers.
  • The left half of the heart controls systemic circulation while the right half controls pulmonary circulation.
  • One pumping action of the heart is called the cardiac cycle—diastole is the filling of the atria and ventricles and systole is the emptying of the ventricles.
  • Blood is composed of plasma and formed elements and transports materials needed to maintain body homeostasis.
  • Blood cell types: 1) RBC's—contain the protein hemaglobin which transports oxygen and carbon dioxide 2) WBC's—granulocytic (basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils) produce secretions that kill micoorganisms and agrnulocytic (lymphocytes and monocytes)—lymphocytes produce an immune respons and monocytes are phagocytic. 3) Platelets—assist with blood clotting.
  • Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow by hematopoiesis and are derived from a multipotent stem cell.
  • Blood type is a way of categorizing RBCs according to variations in proteins on the cell membrane surface—these proteins can be classified as types A, B or D.
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system affect either blood vessels or the heart and are either congenital, produced by lifestyle factors, or produced by microorganisms.
  • Common vascular diseases interrupt blood flow while common heart diseases prevent the chambers and/or valves from working properly.
  • Electrocardiography measures the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Pulse is an indicator of heartbeat and heartbeat is produced by blood pressure.
  • Heart rate is the number of cardiac cycles per minute.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the cardiovascular system, including its structures and their function.
  • Use a model to predict and show relationships among variables between the cardiovascular system and its components.
  • Gather, read, and interpret scientific information about the ABO blood groups.
  • Use models to relate structure to function for the components of blood.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about pathological conditions that may affect the cardiovascular system.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about possible prevention options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about possible treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use evidence to form an argument about possible prevention or treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Use evidence to defend an argument about possible prevention or treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system.
  • Evaluate counter-claims and revise argument based on evidence.
  • Gather, read and interpret scientific information about common tests that can be used to monitor cardiovascular function.
  • Design a experiment to collect data in relation to cardiovascular function.
  • Determine how the change in the variables will be measured or identified.
  • Determine how the response within the cardiovascular system will be measured or identified.
  • Use a tool to collect and record changes in the external environment (variables) and the organism responses.
  • Evaluate experiment for accuracy and precision of data collection, as well as limitations.
  • Make revisions to experiment if needed to produce more accurate and precise results.
  • Manipulate variables that will cause changes in cardiovascular test investigation results.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The cardiovascular system's main function is to transport various items throughout the body (oxygen, digested nutrients, systemic waste, etc.).
  • Various cardiovascular organs serve in different capacities to move blood (its transport agent) around the body.
  • Cardiovascular organs are made up of various tissues that work together to carry out the organs' functions.
  • Several variables such as exercise, diet, disease, caffeine, etc. affect cardiovascular health.
  • Lifestyle changes can be used to prevent or treat cardiovascular disease.
  • Several variables such as exercise, diet, disease, caffeine, etc. change cardiovascular output.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM:

Blood Typing; Electrocardiogram

Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

Students will be able to identify the eight human blood types and determine which blood types are compatible.

Students will score 80% or higher on a quiz at the end of the lesson to show understanding of blood type differences and their compatibility.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

31 to 60 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

Bloody Facts handout

Access to The Blood Type Game (no sign-up required)

Access to The Red Cross website for information and statistics about blood donation (no sign-up required)

Teacher Instructions for Quizziz

Pre-made quiz on Quizziz (free teacher sign-up required, no student sign-up necessary and meets student privacy guidelines)

 

Technology Resources Needed:

Projector connected to a computer or tablet

Device with internet access for teacher (minimum) and each group/student (ideal)

Background/Preparation:

Humans have three main types of blood cells: platelets, white, and red. Platelets stop bleeding by clogging up punctures or tears in the arteries, veins, and capillaries and look like tiny pieces of fraying yarn. White blood cells are part of the immune system and fight invaders such as bacteria or viruses by engulfing and destroying them, and while they have various shapes and sizes typically they are shown in textbook illustrations to look like snowball snack cakes. Red blood cells carry oxygen, and while they are usually described as donut-shaped in textbooks they actually look more like Werther's Originals hard candy. These three types of cells travel around the body floating in plasma that is white/yellowish but appears red because of the red blood cells, just like Kool-aid makes water appear red.

Red blood cells, erythrocytes, lack a cell nucleus and most organelles and are produced by bone marrow. This disposable sack of hemoglobin makes up almost half (40%-45%) of the blood's volume, circulates through the body about once a minute, and typically lasts for about a 100-120 days before being broken down and recycled by the body. (Statistics from Wikipedia.org)

There are eight different human blood types caused by three different antigens that can be attached to red blood cells. These antigens are called A, B, and the Rh factor which is represented by a + or - sign. If A and B are not present, an O is used to show their absence. The eight human blood groups are O-, O+, A-, A+, B-, B+, AB-, and AB+. If incompatible blood types are mixed, the blood will begin to clot which could be fatal. An incompatible blood type is one which contains one or more of the three antigens that the patient lacks. A blood type kit consists of three chemicals, a drop of blood is placed in each chemical and if the blood clots then it contains that antigen. This is illustrated beautifully in the Blood Type Game when the students must withdraw blood and place a drop in three tubes to see which (if any) clot to determine the blood type of the patient prior to choosing which types of blood to administer to the patient.

Sick or injured people might require a blood transfusion so their body can transport enough oxygen to all parts of their body. The Red Cross is the largest non-profit group in the United States that gathers donations and delivers them to people in need.

Blood types are genetic and can be used in paternity cases to identify fathers but are much less reliable than modern genetic testing. Blood transfusions were mostly unsuccessful until blood types were identified in the early 1900s and doctors still aren't sure of the evolutionary value of these mutations but suspect that different blood types might give us added immunity to different cancers and diseases. (BBC.com)

  Procedures/Activities: 

Before: Pre-test student knowledge of blood and blood types with this Quizziz in timed mode.

Notes: Thirty seconds per question timed mode is the default, but all presets can be edited by scrolling down the page underneath the Play button. Have students use identifiable names to track progress. Quizziz has a spreadsheet function that allows teachers to download and save game results. Occasionally a student will be disconnected, and it will be necessary for them to watch the game or force everyone to restart. Despite this occasional problem, it is a fun way to pretest knowledge and engage the class.

During: Groups/Students play The Blood Type Game in instance mode.

Notes: This activity can be played with the teacher or one student choosing bags of blood to administer to the patient according to popular demand, if necessary. The cartoon patient will scream entertainingly when administered the wrong blood type, so be aware that screaming patients don't necessarily mean the students aren't comprehending the blood donation rules. The teacher should lead the class through one or two instances demonstrating how to take and test blood by dropping some in each of three tubes to test for the three possible differences (A, B, and +), and administering both correct and incorrect blood afterwards. Allow students ten to fifteen minutes to play the game in groups or singularly.

Send groups/students to The Red Cross website with instructions to find answers to the Bloody Facts handout questions.

After: Post-test student knowledge of blood and blood types with the same Quizziz in homework mode.

Notes: Homework mode can be untimed on the settings page just before starting the quiz. Make the quiz available and give the code to the class. Students can log in and start at their own pace and restart if disconnected so it can be used for assessment if students use identifiable names. Results can be downloaded.



Attachments:
**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download.
  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

Informal assessment options:

1. Observe students playing The Blood Types Game.

2. Play Quizziz (use linked game or create your own) in timed mode

Formal assessment options:

1. Play Quizizz (use linked game or create your own) in homework mode.

2. Use the attached Quizizz questions as a printed test.

Acceleration:

Research and report on blood types in different species, such as cows who have sixteen blood types.

Have students write a script for explaining blood types to a young child.

Research and report on progress being made in creating synthetic blood.

Intervention:

Have students work in partners or groups, rather than individually.

Allow extra time to play the Blood Type game until student grasps the "rules" of the game.

Reduce answer choices on the written test.


View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.