Before the Lesson:
Bell Ringer Opening of Class Activity:
Have students define the following terms/phrases by assigning students to groups of 3-4 students, then assigning each group a term to define. Then have that group report the definition of that term to the class as a whole through a verbal presentation. The students can find the terms by using a textbook or researching the term online. Make sure to review the terms with the class so that if any group does not include all of the appropriate information regarding each term this can be corrected. I have included enough terms so that if there is a large class, you will have some extra terms to assign one to each group. The students will need to use these terms later in the lessons to supplement their expository essays.
1. Unrestricted German Submarine Warfare WWI
3. Selective Service Act 1917
4. Robert LaFollette
5. Wilson's Neutrality Speech
6. Sussex Pledge
7. Zimmerman Telegram
After reviewing the bell ringer terms as a class, place students into groups of 3. It is recommended that students are strategically placed into groups rather than letting the students pick at their own discretion in order to ensure the most conducive working environments.
Distribute a copy of the song, "I Didn't Raise My Boy to Be A Soldier", Woodrow Wilson's speech, and a copy of the compare and contrast graphic organizer. Make sure that each group has pens/pencils or highlighters.
During the Lesson:
Before annotating the text, write the directions for annotating texts on the board for the students to reference. (Annotation directions are noted above in the "Background" section of this lesson.) The teacher will place students into groups of 3-4 to begin examining and annotating the documents. Note: If a hard copy of the text is being used, circling supporting details could be used. If a Google Doc format is being used, the underlining tool on the Google toolbar could be used. To begin this phase of the lesson, the teacher should model the expectations by reading 1-2 parts of each text, and walk through the annotation process with the students by using verbal questioning as a form of formative assessment to gauge understanding of what is expected for the remainder of the document.
The teacher should then allow group work time for the students to both read and annotate the documents as a group. Each member of the group will submit his/her own electronic or hard copy of the annotated text. (If access to sufficient technology is available, Wilson's "Declaration of War Speech" could be formatted into a Google Doc by copying the text from one of many places the speech can be found on the internet and pasting it onto a Google Document. (The website where the document is found as well as the speech itself should be cited on the Google Doc.) Now the students can highlight the text directly on the document as well as underline using the toolbar options in Google Docs.
Once the documents have been read and annotated within the group, the group should complete the graphic organizer. (This will serve as another form of formative assessment for this lesson.) Once the graphic organizers are complete, as a prewriting activity, have the students conduct a "Gallery Walk" to peer edit the graphic organizers and offer kudos and suggestions of information to add to enhance the upcoming essay.
A Gallery Walk consists of the following steps:
1. Give each student at least 10 sticky notes.
2. The students will be assigned to examine 10 different classmates' graphic organizers.
3. For each organizer examined, the student should write 1 positive statement about the student's work, and 1 piece of advice regarding an addition that could be made, OR a question for the student to ponder as he or she begins to write the essay with his or her group. The advice, as well as the clarifying question, should be written on the sticky note and placed on the classmate's computer screen or paper.
The students should begin the summative assessment for this lesson which will be a collaborative group expository essay regarding the explanations of the ideas put forward by the two texts being utilized. The procedures for the collaborative essay can be found on the "Graphic Organizer handout."
After the Lesson:
As a culminating activity for the lesson, the students should fill out an exit slip on another sticky note that the teacher will give them. The question for the exit slip (or assignment the student will turn in before leaving class for the day) will be at the teacher's discretion. The question should ask the students to express 1 piece of new information that they learned during the lesson, and 1 piece of the information in the lesson they would like to know more about.
History.com Staff. U.S. Proclaims Neutrality in World War I. (2009). Retrieved July 8, 2017, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/u-s-proclaims-neutrality-in-world-war-i
Office of the Historian, U.S. Senate.Gov. Free Speech in Wartime. (n.d.). Retrieved July 8, 2017, from https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Free_Speech_In_Wartime.htm
World War I Archive Brigham Young University. Wilson's War Message to Congress. (2007, April 14). Retrieved July 8, 2017, from https://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Wilson's_War_Message_to_Congress