ALEX Lesson Plan

     

Finding Suitable Solutions

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  This lesson provided by:  
Author:Megan Nichols
System: Chickasaw City
School: Chickasaw City Elementary School
  General Lesson Information  
Lesson Plan ID: 35634

Title:

Finding Suitable Solutions

Overview/Annotation:

Students will be exposed to three different scenarios. The scenarios will require that students hypothesize two solutions, test their hypotheses, document the results, and document the property that proved the effectiveness of the material chosen. An example of a scenario would be, “When provided toilet paper, tissue paper and paper towels, which material would be most effective in cleaning spilled water, and what property makes it so effective?” Students will then present the data collected in a Google Slides presentation. The lesson's total duration is about six days.

This unit was created as part of the ALEX Interdisciplinary Resource Development Summit.

 

 Associated Standards and Objectives 
Content Standard(s):
Science
SC2015 (2015)
Grade: 2
2 ) Collect and evaluate data to determine appropriate uses of materials based on their properties (e.g., strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, absorbency).*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Collect data about the properties of materials and evaluate the appropriate uses of materials based on those properties.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Evaluate
  • Data
  • Graphs
  • Properties
  • Purpose
  • Strength
  • Flexibility
  • Hardness
  • Texture
  • Absorbency
  • Collect
  • Appropriate
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Properties of materials (e.g., strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, absorbency) Different uses for the materials.
  • The relationship between properties of materials and some potential uses (metal is strong, paper is absorbent, etc.).
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Conduct simple tests to collect and display data about the physical properties of various materials.
  • Analyze data to identify and describe relationships between properties and their potential uses.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence about the relationship between properties of materials and their intended uses.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Matter
Solids and Liquids, FOSS

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.6: Some Earth materials have properties either in their present form or after design and modification that make them useful in solving human problems and enhancing the quality of life, as in the case of materials used for building or fuels used for heating and transportation.

NAEP Statement::
P4.1: Objects and substances have properties. Weight (mass) and volume are properties that can be measured using appropriate tools.*



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.2.2- Identify common materials and appropriate uses based on their physical properties (e.g., rubber bands stretch, sidewalks are hard, paper tears).


Local/National Standards:

 

Primary Learning Objective(s):

  • Students will collaborate with their group to create two hypothesized solutions to three posed scenarios.
  • Students will carry out experiments to test each scenario with the given materials provided by the teacher in the bags (For example, Scenario Bag 1 will be used to solve Scenario 1).
  • Students will then work with their group to evaluate the effectiveness of the tested materials and document the results.
  • Students will identify and analyze the properties that contributed to the effectiveness of the material.
  • Students will work with their group members to create a Google Slide presentation consisting of at least three slides that describes the scenario, hypothesis, outcome of the test, and the property or properties that contributed to the effectiveness of the materials used. (Students may choose to put each scenario on an individual slide, or they may choose to place each task on an individual slide.)

Additional Learning Objective(s):

 
 Preparation Information 

Total Duration:

Greater than 120 Minutes

Materials and Resources:

The teacher will need to provide access to the following materials for students:

  • Post-it notes (enough for each student to have two just in case)
  • Index cards for vocabulary flashcards
  • Defining a Problem: Crash Course Kids #18.1 (video clip)
  • The Scientific Method (reading passage)
  • Finding Suitable Solutions Presentation Rubric (make a copy for each student)
  • Finding Suitable Solutions Activity Sheet (see attachments, make copy for each student)
  • Pencil and science journal
  • Highlighter
  • Scenario 1 bag (either paper bag or Ziploc bag): one full closed water bottle, paper towels (3-4 sheets), Kleenex tissue (3-4 sheets), and tissue paper(3-4 sheets).

  • Scenario 2 bag (either paper bag or Ziploc bag): one full closed water bottle, dirty composition notebook with outside cover removed in one piece, paper towels (3-4 sheets), Kleenex tissue (3-4 sheets), tissue paper (3-4 sheets), scotch tape (1 roll of the easy dispense tape), duct tape (1”-2” rolls), glue stick (1 stick).

  • Scenario 3 bag (either paper bag or Ziploc bag): one full closed water bottle, small broken pot w/ fake flowers, paper towels (3-4 sheets), Kleenex tissue (3-4 sheets), tissue paper (3-4 sheets), scotch tape (1 roll of the easy dispense tape), duct tape (1”-2” rolls), glue stick (1 stick), sandpaper (one 4 inch x 4 inch square), wood (scrap pieces from your local hardware store or possibly a box of shims-thin wooden pieces), and rocks (handful or what the kids can collect from the school yard).

Scenario Bags can be set up as stations if supplies are limited by having each group rotate through each center, or teacher will need to ensure that there is a Scenario 1, 2, and 3 bag for each teacher created group.

The teacher will need to provide access to the following materials for each teacher created group:

  • Chart Paper (one for class to reference)

  • Chromebooks or Portable to research ideas such as iPad, tablet, etc. (one for each group)

  • Internet access

  • Google Slides (requires prior access and sign up with Google, which is free). This program is one of the easiest to navigate for beginning learners and best for easy access, use, and presentation. Groups can work together on the presentation by assigning certain slides through a shared document or the teacher may choose to allow groups to work from one group computer.

Technology Resources Needed:

  • Chromebooks or Portable to research ideas such as iPad, tablet, etc. (one for each group)
  • Internet access
  • Defining a Problem: Crash Course Kids #18.1 (video clip)

  • Google Slides (requires prior access and sign up with Google, which is free). This program is one of the easiest to navigate for beginning learners and best for easy access, use, and presentation. Groups can work together on the presentation by assigning certain slides through a shared document or the teacher may choose to allow groups to work from one group computer.

Background/Preparation:

  • Students should be able to verbally identify properties of materials. For example, students should be able to describe a rock as stiff and hard, and paper as flexible and smooth.
  • Students should be able to identify some of the basic characteristics of items will help them apply their prior knowledge.
  • Students should be able to complete the flash cards in order to practice and apply the explicit vocabulary terms in group discussion.
  • Students should be aware that their elbow partner is the student to their immediate right or left.
  • The students should have a working knowledge of keyboarding skills.
  • Students should have a working knowledge of creating a simple Google Slides presentation.
  • The students should be aware of internet safety.
  • The students should be aware o the protocol for constructive criticism.
  • The teacher should be familiar with the Scenarios as well as begin to anticipate how students may attempt to solve the problems:
    • Scenario 1: Your teacher came into class this morning in a rush. She spilled her water that came from her plastic bottle. What is the most effective way to help your teacher clean up the spilled water so that class can get started for the day?
    • Scenario 2: Your classmate had a rough morning. It rained when he left the house this morning. When getting on the bus he dropped his journal in a mud puddle. As he picked it up, it appeared undamaged and dirty. When he got to class, and placed it on his desk, the front and back of the journal came completely off in one piece. What are the most effective ways to help your classmate clean up his journal and bind it back so that he can get started on his morning work?
    • Scenario 3: When getting home this afternoon, you see that the dog has knocked over your mom’s favorite vase. Thankfully, it has only been broken into a few pieces. She will be upset because you made this vase for her when you were in the first grade. What is the most effective way to clean up the mess, and restore or reuse the vase?

  Procedures/Activities: 

Before: (Day 1-2)

The teacher will guide a class discussion about the students' experience with being asked to help someone fix something or create something.

The teacher will introduce the lesson by playing the video to help guide the students learning of how to define a problem and then the process that is used in order to evaluate a solution: Defining a Problem: Crash Course Kids #18.1

The teacher will define the vocabulary words:

  1. strength- the quality or state of being strong

  2. flexibility- the ability to be bent, usually without breaking; easily bent

  3. hardness- the state or quality of being hard

  4. texture-the characteristic physical structure given to a material, ex: rough, coarse, smooth

  5. absorbency- the level of ability to soak up something

The students will make flashcards to study the five terms listed previously to be incorporated into their discussions and reflections as it applies to the collection and evaluation of the data collected to determine appropriate uses of materials based on their property.

 

The teacher will explain to the students that they will soon begin to evaluate multiple scenarios (situations or instances) by hypothesizing a solution to the scenario, determining which material would best solve the problem, and identifying the property that makes the material effective. For example, for Scenario 1, will students have to spill a cup of water, then use the materials in the Scenario 1 bag to clean up the spill.

The teacher will introduce the lesson by displaying and distributing the student copy of the article from k12reader that can be accessed at the following link:  The Scientific Method 

  • The teacher will have the boys read the first paragraph, and the girls read the second paragraph and so on to ensure that students are participating in the reading.

  • The teacher will ask the probing questions,”How do we determine if something has solved a problem? How do we determine if it is the most effective choice to solve the problem?”

  • The teacher will write the three essential phases of the activity on chart paper for students to refer to throughout the process.
    • Students will write the three essential phases of the activity into their Science Journals.  The three essential phases of the activity are:
      • Hypothesize a solution to the scenario two materials (Example 1: toilet paper and a paper towel could be tested to clean up a water spill).
      • Test
      • Determine which material most effectively solves the problem posed in the scenario. (The teacher will explain that students should feel free to test one additional material than what their hypothesis states. Students are responsible for documenting the results of each tested material in each scenario).
        • What property made the material so effective and how is that measured? (Reply to example 1: The paper towel was more effective due to its more absorbent properties as evident by less water on the table after using the paper towel.)
  • The teacher will distribute Finding Suitable Solutions Activity Sheet to each student: see chart in attachments. (The teacher may choose to create one that better suits the needs of students as long as the components are consistently transferred to another chart.)

  • The teacher will read through each scenario and then allow wait time for students to brainstorm ideas independently.

  • The students will take “silent wait time” (10-30 seconds) to think about what may be a better approach to the scenarios.

  • Next, the students will write their idea on a Post-it note.

  • The students will then turn and talk to their elbow partners about what they wrote on their Post-it note.

  • The teacher will listen to student elbow partner conversations and will acknowledge on task thinking, unique ideas, and incorporation of vocabulary taught.

  • The teacher will prompt students in peer discussions if any students appear to be off task or are having trouble conveying ideas.

  • Finally, the teacher will choose a couple of Post-it notes per table and write the students ideas on chart paper as it would appear on their activity as an example to refer to. 

During: (Day 3-4)

The teacher will provide a paper bag with appropriate and common materials. Possible materials are as listed:

  • Scenario 1 bag (either paper bag or Ziploc bag): one full closed water bottle, paper towels (3-4 sheets), Kleenex tissue (3-4 sheets), and tissue paper(3-4 sheets).
  • Scenario 2 bag (either paper bag or Ziploc bag): one full closed water bottle, dirty composition notebook with outside cover removed in one piece, paper towels (3-4 sheets), Kleenex tissue (3-4 sheets), tissue paper (3-4 sheets), scotch tape (1 roll of the easy dispense tape), duct tape (1”-2” rolls), glue stick (1 stick).
  • Scenario 3 bag (either paper bag or Ziploc bag): one full closed water bottle, small broken pot w/ fake flowers, paper towels (3-4 sheets), Kleenex tissue (3-4 sheets), tissue paper (3-4 sheets), scotch tape (1 roll of the easy dispense tape), duct tape (1”-2” rolls), glue stick (1 stick), sandpaper (one 4 inch x 4 inch square), wood (scrap pieces from your local hardware store or possibly a box of shims-thin wooden pieces), and rocks (handful or what the kids can collect from the school yard).

Students will be grouped (3-4 students per group) strategically to begin testing each of the scenarios.

 

  • Scenario 1: Your teacher came into class this morning in a rush. She spilled her water that came from her plastic bottle. What is the most effective way to help your teacher clean up the spilled water so that class can get started for the day?
  • Scenario 2: Your classmate had a rough morning. It rained when he left the house this morning. When getting on the bus, he dropped his journal in a mud puddle. As he picked it up, it appeared undamaged and dirty. When he got to class, and placed it on his desk, the front and back of the journal came completely off in one piece. What are the most effective ways to help your classmate clean up his journal and bind it back so that he can get started on his morning work?
  • Scenario 3: When getting home this afternoon, you see that the dog has knocked over your mom’s favorite vase. Thankfully, it has only been broken into a few pieces. She will be upset because you made this vase for her when you were in the first grade. What is the most effective way to clean up the mess, and restore or reuse the vase?

The teacher will model a well-written hypothesis on the anchor chart with the three essential phases of the activity. For example, the teacher could say, “If I brush my teeth every day, then I will not develop cavities.”

  • Students will collaborate with their group to create two most likely hypotheses for each scenario. The students will document these hypotheses on the Finding Suitable Solutions Activity Sheet. The teacher may need to provide scaffolding for this part of the lesson.

  • Students will collaborate with their group to test each hypothesis in isolation to each scenario.The students will document the results on Finding Suitable Solutions Activity Sheet under Result 1 and Result 2. Teacher will guide students to refer to Example 1 if they are having difficulty. Teacher will facilitate experiments as students work through them.

  • Students will collaborate with their group to document which of the two hypothesized materials was more effective in solving the solution to the scenario. Students will highlight with a highlighter, which one of the hypotheses were more effective than the other before moving on to the next section.

  • Students will collaborate with their group to document on the Finding Suitable Solutions Activity Sheet what property of the material lead to it being more effective by circling all options that apply. Students need to make a note as to how they measured this. Example 1, The paper towel was more effective due to its more absorbent properties because there is less water on the table after using the paper towel. This paper towel was stronger and the texture may have caused the strength and the absorbency.

The teacher will ensure students are completing activity sheet in attachments to track their testing and results.

After: (Day 5-6)

The students will create a Google Slides presentation of at least 3 slides using the data collected from their activity that shows the scenario, hypothesis, outcome of the test, and the property or properties that contributed to the effectiveness of the materials used. (Students may choose to put each scenario on an individual slide, or they may choose to place each task on an individual slide.)

  • The students will then present their presentation with the class.

  • The teacher will facilitate reflection of each of the scenarios after each group has presented their presentations.

Teacher will use the rubric provided to assess the presentation: Finding Suitable Solutions Presentation Rubric

 



Attachments:
**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download.
  Assessment  

Assessment Strategies

  • The teacher will informally assess students’ claim and plan by observing student conversations during group work, while ensuring students document the theories and plan of action they discuss in their journals.
  • The teacher will informally assess students’ ability to transfer knowledge from the previous scenarios as they naturally build upon the previous scenarios learning.
  • The teacher will informally assess the student’s ability to use the appropriate vocabulary terms when in discussion with peers about the hypothesis, testing, properties, and materials.
  • The teacher will summatively assess the student's’ learning objectives by using rubric to guide and score the group’s Google Slides presentation: Finding Suitable Solutions Presentation Rubric

 

Acceleration:

Students working at an accelerated level who have completed the initial three scenarios and completed each component of the presentation:

  • Create new scenarios that can be completed by the same process.

  • Gather additional supplies to test one of the scenarios that they felt had a more effective solution of material that was not offered in the initial bag of materials.

  • Research other materials that could be used to provide more effective solutions to the problem scenarios.

Choose the use a more advanced presentation tool such as https://prezi.com  or https://animoto.com

 

Intervention:

  • The teacher will allow peer tutors for completion of vocabulary index cards as they will pertain to discussion about each of the scenarios.
  • The teacher will prompt students in peer discussions if any students appear to be off task or are having trouble conveying ideas.
  • The teacher may need to facilitate certain groups if there appears to be a lack of cohesiveness in the group in order to facilitate productive collaboration.
  • Students who struggle with keyboard skills can be allowed peer assistance and the teacher can slowly release the struggling student into a higher level of independence in documenting.
  • Students who struggle with documenting or creating the presentation can be allowed peer assistance or the teacher can facilitate the skill him/herself.

View the Special Education resources for instructional guidance in providing modifications and adaptations for students with significant cognitive disabilities who qualify for the Alabama Alternate Assessment.