Content Standard(s):
Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 9-12 Physical Science 7 ) Analyze and interpret data for one- and two-dimensional motion applying
basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration
(e.g., velocity versus time graphs, displacement versus time graphs,
acceleration versus time graphs).

Insight Unpacked Content

Scientific And Engineering Practices:

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect

Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Evidence Of Student Attainment:

Students:

Analyze (break into parts) data for one-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.
Interpret (describe in own words) data for one-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.
Analyze (break into parts) data for two-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.
Interpret (describe in own words) data for two-dimensional motion applying basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Teacher Vocabulary:

Distance
Displacement
Scalar
Vector
Speed
Velocity
Acceleration
Equation of a line
Slope
Trend line Knowledge:

Students know:

A body is in motion if its position changes with respect to its surroundings.
A particle moving in a straight line undergoes one dimensional motion.
A particle moving along a curved path in a plane has two dimensional motion. Skills:

Students are able to:

Create graphs from sets of data points.
Identify distance and displacement as a scalar/ vector pair.
Identify speed and velocity as a scalar/ vector pair.
Describe motion mathematically in terms of an object's change of position, distance traveled, and displacement.
Apply concepts of average speed and average velocity to solve conceptual and quantitative problems.
Explain velocity as a relationship between displacement and time. (Δd=vΔt)
Explain acceleration as a relationship between velocity and time. (a=Δv/Δt)
Use graphical analysis to understand conceptual trends in displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time.
Use graphical analysis to solve for displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time.
Calculate velocity and acceleration from displacement vs. time graphs. Understanding:

Students understand that:

Motion graphs (displacement vs. time, velocity vs. time, and acceleration vs. time) for one- and two- dimensional motion may be used to derive (conceptual and mathematical) relationships of motion. AMSTI Resources:

ASIM Physics Module: Analyzing Motion Using Graphs; Run for It; Batter Up

NAEP Framework

NAEP Statement:: P12.17: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 9-12 Physical Science 8 ) Apply Newton's laws to predict the resulting motion of a system by constructing force diagrams that identify the external forces acting on the system, including friction (e.g., a book on a table, an object being pushed across a floor, an accelerating car).

Insight Unpacked Content

Scientific And Engineering Practices:

Developing and Using Models

Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models

Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Evidence Of Student Attainment:

Students:

Predict the motion of a system by application of Newton's laws.
Construct force diagrams.
Identify external forces acting on a system. Teacher Vocabulary:

Weight
Mass
Gravity
Acceleration
Velocity
Terminal velocity
Free fall
Friction
Static friction
Rolling friction
Fluid friction
Inertia
Force
Balanced forces
Unbalanced forces
Net force
Action-reaction pairs
Vectors Knowledge:

Students know:

An object will remain at rest or in uniform motion unless acted on by an outside force.
The velocity of an object changes when it is subjected to an external force.
Gravity's acceleration is different on different planets.
Air resistance is responsible for terminal velocity for objects in free fall.
The property of inertia as related to mass.
Forces must be unbalanced for an object to change its motion.
Friction is a force that opposes motion. Skills:

Students are able to:

Organize data that represent the net force on an object (mass and acceleration) via tables and graphs.
Construct force diagrams that identify all external forces acting on the system.
Explain (conceptually and mathematically) the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. (The greater the force on an object, the greater its change in motion but the same amount of force applied to an object with more mass will result in less acceleration.)
Relate the difference between mass and weight. (Weight is a force dependent upon acceleration and mass is constant regardless of acceleration.)
Calculate weight when given mass. (Fg=mg)
Explain acceleration due to gravity as an example of uniformly changing velocity. (g=9.8 m/s2)
Relate the presence of air resistance to the concept of terminal velocity of an object in free fall.
Identify friction as a force that opposes motion of an object.
Classify the frictional forces present in different situations. (Sofa resting on the floor is static friction. A box pushed across the floor is sliding friction. A ball rolling across the floor is rolling friction. A boat moving through a river is fluid friction. An object in free-fall is fluid friction.)
Explain the property of inertia as related to mass. (An object at rest or at constant speed in a straight line will remain in that state unless acted upon by a force causing an unbalanced net force.)
Explain balanced and unbalanced forces mathematically and graphically with respect to acceleration to establish the relationship between net force, acceleration, and mass. Understanding:

Students understand that:

The motion of a system may be predicted by applying Newton's laws of motion to force diagrams that identify all external forces acting on the system.
Forces acting on an object affect the motion of that object. AMSTI Resources:

ASIM Physics Module: Force Diagrams; Horizontal Friction

Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 9-12 Physical Science 11 ) Design and conduct investigations to verify the law of conservation of
energy, including transformations of potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal
energy, and the effect of any work performed on or by the system.

Insight Unpacked Content

Scientific And Engineering Practices:

Planning and Carrying out Investigations

Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter

Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy

Evidence Of Student Attainment:

Students:

Design investigations to verify law of conservation of energy.
Design investigations to verify the interchange between potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal energy, and work done on or by a system.
Conduct investigations to verify the law of conservation of energy.
Conduct investigations to verify the interchange between potential, kinetic energy, thermal energy, and work done on or by a system. Teacher Vocabulary:

System
Energy
Mechanical
Temperature
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Friction
Force
Specific heat capacity
Latent heat
Heat of vaporization
Law of Conservation of energy
Transformation
Potential energy
Kinetic energy
Thermal energy
Heat
Work
Phase changes Knowledge:

Students know:

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to another and transferred between systems.
Properties of materials cause different materials to absorb and release energy differently.
Conduction, convection, and radiation are methods of energy transfer.
Energy can be conserved when there are changes in potential, kinetic, or heat energy. Skills:

Students are able to:

Compare thermal energy, heat, and temperature.
Compare scenarios in which work is done and explain the differences in magnitude of work done using the relationship W=FΔd
Infer the ability of various materials to absorb or release thermal energy in order to relate mass, specific heat capacity and temperature of materials to the amount of heat transferred (q=mCΔT).
Relate phase changes to latent heat that changes the potential energy of particles while the average kinetic energy of particles (temperature) remains the same.
Compare conduction, convection, and radiation as methods of energy transfer.
Exemplify the relationships between kinetic energy, potential energy, and heat to illustrate that total energy is conserved in mechanical systems such as a pendulum, roller coaster, carts/balls on ramps.
Relate types of friction in a system to the transformation of mechanical energy to heat.
Explain scenarios in which work is done identifying the force, displacement, and energy transfer. (When work is done on an object, the result is an increase in its energy and is accompanied by a decrease in energy elsewhere.) Understanding:

Students understand that:

Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. AMSTI Resources:

ASIM Physics Module: Bouncy; Ball Energy and Work; Energy and Power

NAEP Framework

NAEP Statement:: P12.13: The potential energy of an object on Earth's surface is increased when the object's position is changed from one closer to Earth's surface to one farther from Earth's surface.

NAEP Statement:: P12.16: Total energy is conserved in a closed system.

NAEP Statement:: P12.9: Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.

Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 9-12 Physics 1 ) Investigate and analyze, based on evidence obtained through observation or experimental design, the motion of an object using both graphical and mathematical models (e.g., creating or interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration versus time graphs for one- and two-dimensional motion; solving problems using kinematic equations for the case of constant acceleration) that may include descriptors such as position, distance traveled, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.

Insight Unpacked Content

Scientific And Engineering Practices:

Planning and Carrying out Investigations

Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Evidence Of Student Attainment:

Students:

Describe the motion of an object in terms of time, displacement, velocity, and acceleration in both one and two dimensions by analyzing a graph of that motion.
Use data obtained from observation or experimental design of an investigation to analyze and explain the motion of an object in one and two dimensions.
Use kinematic equations to solve for the displacement, velocity and acceleration of an object undergoing constant acceleration in both one and two dimensions using correct units. Teacher Vocabulary:

model
graph
instant
interval
position
velocity
acceleration
displacement
distance
speed
average speed
average velocity
experimental design
kinematic equations
investigation
analyze
trajectory
projectile
range
slope
area under curve
intercepts
vector
scalar
coordinates
origin
magnitude
units of measure
significant figures
trigonometric functions Knowledge:

Students know:

How to use mathematical computations to solve for the motion of an object.
How to analyze both linear and nonlinear graphs of motion.
Laboratory safety procedures.
Appropriate units of measure.
Basic trigonometric functions of sine, cosine and tangent.
How to determine area under a curve on a graph. Skills:

Students are able to:

Manipulate kinematic equations of motion.
Interpret graphical data.
Create graphical representations of data.
Collect and organize experimental data.
Follow written and verbal instructions.
Make measurements of distance and time using standard units.
Manipulate laboratory equipment.
Work safely in collaborative lab groups. Understanding:

Students understand that:

The motion of an object can be predicted using mathematical models and graphical models. AMSTI Resources:

ASIM Module: Intro to Graphing; Traveling Washer in 1D; Match the Graph; Motion of a Toy Car; Constant Velocity; Comparing Linear Speed and Circular Speed; Changing Velocity; Motion of a Falling Marble; Motion on an Incline; Motion Graphs; Treasure Hunt; Journey of a Physics Student; Tractor Pull; Projectile Motion Photo Worksheet; Horizontal Launch; Range vs. Angle; Basketball Toss; Acceleration on an Incline; Coefficient of Friction; Horizontal Circular Motion; Impulse Momentum; Collisions in 2D; Rotational Motion; Moment of Inertia; Conservation of Angular Momentum; Energy Exchange; Simple Harmonic Motion

NAEP Framework

NAEP Statement:: P12.17: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

NAEP Statement:: P12.19: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.

NAEP Statement:: P12.22: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Science SC2015 (2015) Grade: 9-12 Physics 5 ) Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object and explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another (e.g., distinguishing between kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy such as thermal and sound; applying both the work-energy theorem and the law of conservation of energy to systems such as roller coasters, falling objects, and spring-mass systems; discussing the effect of frictional forces on energy conservation and how it affects the motion of an object).

Insight Unpacked Content

Scientific And Engineering Practices:

Developing and Using Models

Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models

Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy

Evidence Of Student Attainment:

Students:

Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object.
Explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another. Teacher Vocabulary:

area under curve
model
graph
work
energy
gravitational potential energy
kinetic energy
elastic potential energy
thermal energy
sound energy
friction
force
velocity
mass
distance
law of conservation of energy
systems
work-energy theorem Knowledge:

Students know:

The different forms of energy.
How to recognize work being done.
The law of conservation of energy. Skills:

Students are able to:

Construct models to illustrate phenomena.
Recognize different forms of energy.
Apply the law of conservation of energy to a system.
Graph data.
Determine the area under a curve on a graph. Understanding:

Students understand that:

Energy is the ability to do work and energy can be transformed into different forms of energy while obeying the law of conservation of energy. AMSTI Resources:

ASIM Module: This standard should be enhanced by a deep level of mathematical analysis and laboratory experience. An engineering design task can be implemented easily for this standard. ~Hooke's Law ~Energy Exchange ~Work ~Work and Kinetic Energy ~Energy Using PhET ~Simple Harmonic Motion.

NAEP Framework

NAEP Statement:: P12.13: The potential energy of an object on Earth's surface is increased when the object's position is changed from one closer to Earth's surface to one farther from Earth's surface.