**Before Strategy/ Engage:**

Group students by 2 or 3 to do the lab activity – in class.

Have students create flash cards of vocabulary and the essential questions. (This can be used to prepare for an assessment later.) I have students do the Vocabulary and Essential Questions the night before the lab activity so they are “pre-loaded” with some information prior to the activity.

**Vocabulary:**

Climate

Concentrated

Cosine Projection Effect

Fall equinox

Infrared rays

Perpendicular

Radiant energy

Radio waves

Spring equinox

Summer solstice

Troposphere

Ultraviolet rays

Visible light.

Weather

Winter solstice

X rays

**During Strategy/Explore/Explain**

1. Tape the ruler along the side of the flashlight so that a 6-inch (15-cm) section of the ruler extends past the lamp end of the flashlight.

2. Lay the graph paper on a table.

3. Hold the flashlight perpendicular to the paper so that the free end of the ruler is on the edge of the paper and the flashlight is over the paper.

4. Darken the room and turn on the flashlight.

5. Place the thermometer in the brightest part of the light. Wait 2 minutes and then start recording the temperature (record the initial temperature and then record every minute for 5 minutes) on the data chart.

6. Observe the number of squares covered on the paper by the inner bright circle of light. Record the number of squares on the data chart.

7. Tilt the ruler down so the **back end** of the flashlight is about 6 inches (15 cm) above the table. Use the other ruler to help gauge distance and stabilize flashlight.

8. Place the thermometer in the brightest part of the light. Wait 2 minutes then start recording the temperature (record the initial temperature and then record every minute for 5 minutes) on the data chart.

9. Again, observe the number of squares covered by the light. Record the number of squares on the data chart.

**Try New Approaches How does the curvature of the Earth affect the Sun's light rays? **

10. Use the flashlight from the experiment; lay it on a table with the attached flashlight/ruler (the 6 inches are on the table) extending over the table edge.

11. Make a large cylinder out of the graph paper by overlapping the short ends.

12. Hold the cylinder vertically at the end of the ruler.

13. Place the thermometer in the brightest part of the light. Wait 2 minutes and then start recording the temperature (record the initial temperature and then record every minute for 5 minutes) on the data chart.

14. Observe the number of squares that are lit on the curved paper. Record the number of squares on the data chart.

15. Then move the cylinder slightly to the left or right so that the light grazes the edge of the cylinder. Again, observe the number of lit squares. Record the number of squares on the data chart.

**Design Your Own Experiment **

16. At this point, your group should discuss a good experimental design to answer the question as to why the atmosphere above the equator is warmest. Record your design procedures in the space below.

17. Using the materials that you have been provided, test your design procedure.

18. Sketch a simple illustration of your procedural setup (example: Figure 1 as an example)

19. Place the thermometer in the brightest part of the light. Wait 2 minutes and then start recording the temperature (record the initial temperature and then record every minute for 5 minutes) on the data chart.

20. Observe the number of illuminated squares on the paper. Record the number of squares on the data chart.

Student Data Chart

**After Strategy/Explain, Elaborate:**

Graphing:

1. Using the data that was collected on the student data sheet, please create a line graph the time (x-axis) versus temperature (y-axis) for each of the 6 designs on the graph paper below. Use a different color to represent each design. *Create a KEY to indicate which design is which color. Also, ensure that you label the graph's axes and title correctly.

2. Using the data from the student data chart, create a bar graph of the 6 designs (x-axis) vs temperature at 5 min (y-axis). Ensure that you label the graph's axes and title correctly.

3. Review the student data chart again, is there any other way to classify the data into a single graph? When your group has decided on the data and graph type, use the graph paper below to graph your information. Ensure that you label the graph's axes and title correctly.

Laboratory Activity with graphing section page 4