SC (9-12) Physical Science | 7. Relate velocity, acceleration, and kinetic energy to mass, distance, force, and time. Interpreting graphic representations of velocity versus time and distance versus time Solving problems for velocity, acceleration, force, work, and power Describing action and reaction forces, inertia, acceleration, momentum, and friction in terms of Newton's three laws of motion Determining the resultant of collinear forces acting on a body Example: solving problems involving the effect of a tailwind or headwind on an airplane Solving problems for efficiency and mechanical advantage of simple machines |

SC (9-12) Physical Science | 12. Identify metric units for mass, distance, time, temperature, velocity, acceleration, density, force, energy, and power. |

SC (9-12) Physics | 4. Describe quantitative relationships for velocity, acceleration, force, work, power, potential energy, and kinetic energy. |

SC2015 (9-12) Physical Science | 7. Analyze and interpret data for one- and two-dimensional motion applying
basic concepts of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration
(e.g., velocity versus time graphs, displacement versus time graphs,
acceleration versus time graphs). |

SC2015 (9-12) Physical Science | 8. Apply Newton's laws to predict the resulting motion of a system by constructing force diagrams that identify the external forces acting on the system, including friction (e.g., a book on a table, an object being pushed across a floor, an accelerating car). |

SC2015 (9-12) Physical Science | 11. Design and conduct investigations to verify the law of conservation of
energy, including transformations of potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal
energy, and the effect of any work performed on or by the system. |

SC2015 (9-12) Physics | 1. Investigate and analyze, based on evidence obtained through observation or experimental design, the motion of an object using both graphical and mathematical models (e.g., creating or interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration versus time graphs for one- and two-dimensional motion; solving problems using kinematic equations for the case of constant acceleration) that may include descriptors such as position, distance traveled, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. |

SC2015 (9-12) Physics | 2. Identify external forces in a system and apply Newton's laws graphically by using models such as free-body diagrams to explain how the motion of an object is affected, ranging from simple to complex, and including circular motion. a. Use mathematical computations to derive simple equations of motion for
various systems using Newton's second law. b. Use mathematical computations to explain the nature of forces (e.g., tension, friction, normal) related to Newton's second and third laws. |

SC2015 (9-12) Physics | 5. Construct models that illustrate how energy is related to work performed on or by an object and explain how different forms of energy are transformed from one form to another (e.g., distinguishing between kinetic, potential, and other forms of energy such as thermal and sound; applying both the work-energy theorem and the law of conservation of energy to systems such as roller coasters, falling objects, and spring-mass systems; discussing the effect of frictional forces on energy conservation and how it affects the motion of an object). |