Courses of Study : English Language Arts (Grade K)

Recurring Standards
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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R2. Use knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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R3. Expand background knowledge and build vocabulary through discussion, reading, and writing.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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R4. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically for research and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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R5. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
Literacy Foundations
Oral Language
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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1. Actively listen and speak using agreed-upon rules for discussion, with guidance and support.

a. Use speech that is understandable with only grade-appropriate errors.

b. Use word endings to indicate plurals, possessives, and verb tenses in speech.

Examples: dogs, brother's shirt, jumped

c. Use age-appropriate irregular plurals in conversation.

Examples: foot/feet, tooth/teeth, mouse/mice

d. Listen to others and take turns speaking, carrying on a conversation through multiple exchanges.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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2. Actively engage in teacher-led reading experiences and collaborative discussions with peers to build background knowledge needed to be successful as they learn to read and, later, read to learn.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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3. Actively participate in teacher-led choral and shared reading experiences.

Examples: reciting nursery rhymes, songs, poems, stories
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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4. With guidance and support, ask and answer questions to seek help, get information, or clarify information presented orally, through text, or other media.

Example: Use interrogatives who, what, where, when, why, and how to ask questions.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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5. With guidance and support, present information orally, using complete sentences in correct word order.

a. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

b. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details in a story with three to five events.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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6. Uses spatial and temporal concepts correctly.

Examples: top/bottom, up/down, under/over, above/below, left/right, upside down/inside out,beginning/middle/end, first/next/last

Note: This is important as children learn to match print to speech in order to read, and speech to print in order to write.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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7. Restate and follow one- and two-step directions.
Concepts of Print
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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8. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of printed materials.

a. Recognize and demonstrate that print conveys meaning.

Examples: Share a favorite book with peers. Share a list of birthday gifts received.

b. With prompting and support, explain the roles of the author and illustrator of a text.

c. Track print, moving left to right and top to bottom on the printed page, returning to the beginning of the next line.

d. Identify the beginning and end of a sentence by locating the capital letter and end punctuation.

e. Point to words using one-to-one correspondence, noting that words are separated by spaces.

f. Distinguish letters from words within sentences.

g. Compare and contrast letters based upon similarities and differences, including name, shape, sound, and approach strokes for writing.
Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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9. Demonstrate early phonological awareness to basic phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.

a. Count the number of words in a spoken sentence.

b. Recognize alliterative spoken words.

c. Recognize and produce pairs of rhyming words and distinguish them from non-rhyming pairs using pictures and/or spoken words.

d. Count, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words, including compound words.

e. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.

f. Identify the initial, final, and medial sounds of spoken words.

g. Blend and segment phonemes in single-syllable spoken words made up of three to four phonemes.

h. Distinguish between commonly confused cognate consonant sounds, using knowledge of voiced and unvoiced sounds and manner of articulation.

Examples: /t/ and /d/, /p/ and /b/, /ch/ and /j/, /s/ and /z/, /f/ and /v/, /k/ and /g/, /sh/ and /zh/, /th/ (voiced and unvoiced)

Note: Standard 9 is important as a foundational phonemic awareness skill for all learners.
Phonics
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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10. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word-analysis skills to decode and encode (spell) words accurately in both isolation and in decodable, grade-appropriate text.

a. Produce the most frequent sound(s) for each consonant, including x and q, which have two phonemes (sounds).

Examples: x= /ks/ and q=/kw/

b. Identify the vowel in a closed syllable and produce the short vowel sound for the five major vowels when decoding closed syllables.

c. Decode consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in isolation and in decodable text.

d. Identify the vowel in an open syllable and produce the long vowel sound for the five major vowels when decoding open syllables.

e. With prompting and support, identify the vowel-consonant-e syllable pattern and produce the long vowel sounds for the five major vowels in vowel-consonant-e syllables.

f. With prompting and support, decode words with suffix -s, using knowledge of unvoiced /s/ and voiced /z/ sounds for letter s.

Examples: pups, cats, pigs, dogs

Note: Unvoiced /s/ follows unvoiced sounds such as /p/ and /t/ and voiced /z/ follows voiced sounds such as /g/.

g. With prompting and support, produce the most frequent sound for digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ng, and combination qu, making the connection that a two-letter grapheme can represent one phoneme (sound).

h. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the phonemes and graphemes that differ.

Example: mat/sat, pan/pat, tip/top

i. Decode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

Examples: am, at, get, like, make, that, this, me, she, be

Note: The main emphasis of a high-frequency word lesson should be on regular correspondences and patterns, noting the high-frequency words with exceptions or oddities and what they are, using specific strategies to help them remember the irregular part of the word. Example: LETRS© heart word strategy
Fluency
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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11. Recognize and name all upper and lower case letters in non-sequential order with accuracy and automaticity.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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12. Arrange and name letters of the alphabet in sequential order from a to z, with accuracy and automaticity.

Example: Use the alphabet arc to arrange the letters in alphabetical order, then touch and name the letters.

Note: This will help students with alphabetical order requirements in future grades and also facilitate learning of positional words like before/after, initial/final, reversals, and letter naming in general.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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13. With prompting and support, recognize and name digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ng, and combination qu.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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14. Apply previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences to decodable words with accuracy and automaticity, in and out of context.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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15. Orally read and reread grade-appropriate decodable texts smoothly, accurately, and expressively, at an appropriate rate to support comprehension.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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16. Recognize and read grade-appropriate high frequency words with accuracy and automaticity.

Note: As noted in the phonics standards, high-frequency words should be taught with the main emphasis of the lesson being on regular correspondences and patterns within the word. The student should be able to read the word accurately three times in a row on different days to be considered accurate enough to add it to a personal word box, word ring, or fluency folder. Avoid teaching high-frequency words as "sight words" that need to be memorized as a whole word, unless there are no regular correspondences in the word. "Of" is an example of a word with no regular correspondences.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
17. With guidance and support, orally utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary and relate new words to prior knowledge.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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18. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately.

Example: multiple meaning words such as duck, run, and bat
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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19. Ask and answer questions about unfamiliar words in discussions and/or text.

a. Describe the relationship between words, including relating them to synonyms and antonyms.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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20. Name and sort pictures of objects into categories based on common attributes while relating vocabulary to prior knowledge and building background knowledge.

Examples: apples, oranges, grapes; hammer, nails, screwdriver
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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21. Use new and previously-taught vocabulary to produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

a. Use previously-taught vocabulary words, including nouns, verbs, and adjectives, in speaking and writing.

b. Use new words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to text.
Comprehension
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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22. Use content knowledge built during read-alouds of informational texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through drawing or writing.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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23. With prompting and support, manipulate words and/or phrases to create simple sentences, including declarative and interrogative, to help build syntactic awareness and comprehension at the sentence level.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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24. With prompting and support, identify common types of texts and their features, including literary, informational, fairy tale, and poetry.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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25. With prompting and support, identify the topic of texts, using titles, headings, illustrations, and text clues.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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26. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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27. Identify and describe the main story elements in a literary text.

a. With prompting and support, retell a text orally, including main character(s), setting, and important events in logical order.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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28. With prompting and support, use text clues to determine main ideas and make predictions about an ending in a literary text.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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29. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and key details in an informational text.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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30. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in literary and informational texts.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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31. With prompting and support, self-monitor comprehension of text by pausing to summarize and rereading for clarification, when comprehension is lacking.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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32. With prompting and support, compare and contrast two texts.

a. Distinguish between literary texts and informational texts.

b. Compare and contrast the experiences of characters in a literary text.

c. Compare and contrast two informational texts on the same topic.
Writing
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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33. Express ideas orally and connect these ideas through drawing and emergent writing.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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34. Print legibly, using proper pencil grip.

a. Print upper and lower case letters using proper approach strokes, letter formation, and line placement.

b. With prompting and support, print first and last names using proper letter formation, capitalizing only the first letter of each name.

Note: In Kindergarten, students are learning the most basic forms of capitalization. While the standard only requires that the first letter of each name be capitalized, some students' names may include additional capital letters, hyphens, or apostrophes. In such cases, students should learn to write their own names using proper capitalization and punctuation.

Examples: De'Andre McGill, Kim Mi-Sun, Juan de Jesus

c. With prompting and support, use lower case letters in majority of written work, using capitals only when appropriate.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
35. Apply knowledge of grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences and spelling rules (or generalizations) to encode words accurately.

a. Encode at the phoneme level, using the most common grapheme/spelling(s), for a spoken phoneme (sound).

Examples: /b/=b, /m/=m, /k/=k, c, -ck

b. With prompting and support, encode vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words, while using some knowledge of basic position-based rules for spelling English words.

Examples: /k/=k before i, e, or y; /k/= c before a, o, u, or any consonant; /k/= -ck after an accented short vowel

c. With prompting and support, encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

Examples: am, at, can, he, we, be, in, it, came, like

d. With prompting and support, encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences and patterns in all but one position, pointing out the part of the word that does not follow the regular pattern.

Example: In said, /s/ and /d/ are spelled using phoneme-grapheme correspondence, but ai must be learned by heart or memorized.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
36. When speaking and writing, follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and grade-appropriate spelling.

a. With prompting and support, transcribe spoken words to demonstrate that print represents oral language.

b. With prompting and support, compose a simple sentence, including necessary components to create a complete sentence rather than a fragment.

c. With prompting and support, identify the role or purpose of a noun and a verb within a sentence and the type of information it conveys.

d. With prompting and support, write the correct number of words, with proper spacing, for a spoken phrase or sentence.

e. With prompting and support, begin each sentence with a capital letter.

f. With prompting and support, capitalize the pronoun I and names of individuals.

g. With prompting and support, recognize, name, and correctly use end punctuation.

Examples: period, question mark, exclamation mark
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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37. Actively participate in shared and independent writing experiences, for varied purposes and audiences, across different genres.

a. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create messages, lists, and labels for a drawing or illustration.

b. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create narratives with the events in chronological order and share feelings about the story, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.

c. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create opinion pieces about a topic or text, state the opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide a sense of closure, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.

d. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create explanatory texts or provide factual information about a topic, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.

e. With prompting and support, compose writing for varied purposes and audiences, across different genres.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
38. Improve pictorial and written presentations, as needed, by planning, revising, editing, and using suggestions from peers and adults.

Examples: Plan by brainstorming; revise to clarify or aid audience's comprehension; edit written presentations to ensure appropriate spacing between letters and words, correct spelling and punctuation, and legibility as a courtesy to the audience and to show pride in one's work.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
39. Participate in shared research and writing projects to answer a question or describe a topic.

a. Include information recalled from personal experiences in research and writing projects.

b. Gather information from provided sources for research and writing projects.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
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40. With guidance and support, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, working both independently and collaboratively with peers.