Courses of Study : English Language Arts (Grade K)

Recurring Standards
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 16
Lesson Plans: 5
Classroom Resources: 10
Unit Plans: 1
R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R1.
  • Active listening
  • Discussion
  • Conversation
  • Rules
  • Participation
Knowledge:
R1. Students know:
  • Active listening skills.
  • How to engage in discussions and conversations in a variety of settings.
  • Agreed-upon rules for participation.
Skills:
R1. Students are able to:
  • Demonstrate active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings.
  • Converse in pairs, small groups, and large groups.
  • Practice the agreed-upon rules for participation.
Understanding:
R1. Students understand that:
  • Conversations and discussions follow agreed-upon rules which help us actively listen and gain understanding.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 3
R2. Use knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R2.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
  • Word-analysis skills
Knowledge:
R2. Students know:
  • Phoneme (sound) to grapheme (letter or letters) correspondences to encode (spell) words accurately.
  • Grapheme (letter or letters) to phoneme (sound) correspondences to decode (read) words accurately.
  • Word-analysis skills.
Skills:
R2. Students are able to:
  • Encode and decode words accurately using knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
  • Encode and decode words accurately using word-analysis skills.
Understanding:
R2. Students understand that:
  • Mapping graphemes to phonemes is essential for learning to read or decode words efficiently.
  • Mapping phonemes to graphemes is essential for learning to spell or encode words efficiently.
  • Analyzing a word's structure helps to read and spell a word.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
R3. Expand background knowledge and build vocabulary through discussion, reading, and writing.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R3.
  • Background knowledge
  • Vocabulary
  • Discussion
Knowledge:
R3. Students know:
  • Relating experiences through discussions, reading, and writing will help build background knowledge and improve vocabulary.
Skills:
R3. Students are able to:
  • Connect new concepts to prior experiences to increase background knowledge through discussions, reading, and writing.
  • Construct the meaning of words through discussions, reading, and writing.
Understanding:
R3. Students understand that:
  • Background knowledge can increase by relating experiences to new ideas, topics, and words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
  • Vocabulary will increase by constructing the meaning of words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 2
Classroom Resources: 1
R4. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically for research and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R4.
  • Digital tools
  • Electronic tools
  • Appropriately
  • Safely
  • Ethically
  • Research
  • Individually
  • Collaboratively
Knowledge:
R4. Students know:
  • Digital and electronic tools must be used appropriately, safely, and ethically.
  • Digital and electronic tools can be used for research or for writing tasks.
  • Digital and electronic tools can be independently or with others.
Skills:
R4. Students are able to:
  • Engage in safe and ethical behavior when using digital and electronic tools individually and collaboratively.
Understanding:
R4. Students understand that:
  • Safe behaviors, interactions that keep you out of harm's way, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
  • Ethical behavior, interactions that align to one's moral code, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
R5. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R5.
  • Writing process
  • Plan
  • Draft
  • Revise
  • Edit
  • Publish
  • Genres
Knowledge:
R5. Students know:
  • The writing process steps are to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish.
  • Various genres of writing.
Skills:
R5. Students are able to:
  • Plan writings in various genres.
  • Draft writings in various genres.
  • Revise writings in various genres.
  • Edit writings in various genres.
  • Publish writings in various genres.
Understanding:
R5. Students understand that:
  • The writing process is a set of steps that make writing easier.
  • There are different categories, or genres, of writing that can be used for different purposes.
Literacy Foundations
Oral Language
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 2
Classroom Resources: 2
1. Actively listen and speak using agreed-upon rules for discussion, with guidance and support.

a. Use speech that is understandable with only grade-appropriate errors.

b. Use word endings to indicate plurals, possessives, and verb tenses in speech.

Examples: dogs, brother's shirt, jumped

c. Use age-appropriate irregular plurals in conversation.

Examples: foot/feet, tooth/teeth, mouse/mice

d. Listen to others and take turns speaking, carrying on a conversation through multiple exchanges.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
1.
  • Discussion
  • Actively listen
  • Agreed-upon rules
  • Guidance
  • Support
1a.
  • Speech
  • Grade-appropriate errors
1b.
  • Word endings
  • Plurals
  • Possessives
  • Verb tenses
1c.
  • Age-appropriate irregular plurals
  • Conversation
1d.
  • Listen
  • Speak
  • Conversation
  • Exchanges
Knowledge:
1. Students know:
  • How to actively listen and speak.
  • Agreed-upon rules for discussions.
1a.
  • How the grade-appropriate speech sounds are articulated.
1b.
  • Word endings that indicate a plural noun, a possessive noun, or a change in verb tense when speaking.
1c.
  • How to use age-appropriate irregular plural nouns in conversation.
1d.
  • How to carry on a conversation through multiple exchanges by listening and taking turns speaking.
Skills:
1. Students are able to:
With guidance and support,
  • Actively listen and speak while carrying on a discussion.
  • Use the agreed-upon rules for discussions.
1a.
  • Speak and be understood, with only grade-appropriate errors.
1b.
  • Speak using word endings to indicate plural nouns, possessive nouns, and changes in verb tense.
1c.
  • Use age-appropriate words that form irregular plurals in conversation, such as foot/feet, tooth/teeth, mouse/mice.
1d.
  • Carry on a conversation through multiple exchanges by listening to others and taking turns speaking.
Understanding:
1. Students understand that:
  • Good conversations occur when participants listen well, build on others' ideas, and ask clarifying questions.
1a.
  • There is an appropriate way to speak and articulate speech sounds in order to be understood.
1b.
  • Endings must be added to words to indicate plural nouns, possessive nouns, or changes in verb tense.
1c.
  • Some nouns form plurals in an irregular way, and they must be used correctly in conversation.
1d.
  • They must listen to others and take turns speaking to carry on a conversation through multiple exchanges.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 23
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 3
Classroom Resources: 18
Unit Plans: 1
2. Actively engage in teacher-led reading experiences and collaborative discussions with peers to build background knowledge needed to be successful as they learn to read and, later, read to learn.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
2.
  • Actively engage
  • Teacher-led reading experiences
  • Collaborative discussions
  • Background knowledge
  • Peers
Knowledge:
2. Students know:
  • How to engage in teacher-led reading experiences and collaborative discussions with peers to build background knowledge.
Skills:
2. Students are able to:
  • Build background knowledge by actively engaging in teacher-led reading experiences and collaborative discussions with peers.
Understanding:
2. Students understand that:
  • They need to build background knowledge to be successful as they learn to read and read to learn.
  • They need to actively engage in teacher-led reading experiences and discussions with peers to build their background knowledge.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 2
Classroom Resources: 2
3. Actively participate in teacher-led choral and shared reading experiences.

Examples: reciting nursery rhymes, songs, poems, stories
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
3.
  • Actively participate
  • Choral reading
  • Shared reading
Knowledge:
3. Students know:
  • How to actively participate in teacher-led choral and shared reading experiences.
Skills:
3. Students are able to:
  • Actively participate in teacher-led choral and shared reading experiences.
Understanding:
3. Students understand that:
  • Actively participating in choral and shared reading activities helps them build their background knowledge and improve their reading fluency, so they can become fluent readers.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 2
4. With guidance and support, ask and answer questions to seek help, get information, or clarify information presented orally, through text, or other media.

Example: Use interrogatives who, what, where, when, why, and how to ask questions.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
4.
  • Ask
  • Answer
  • Seek
  • Clarify
  • Orally
  • Media
  • Guidance
  • Support
Knowledge:
4. Students know:
  • Questions to seek help.
  • Questions to get information.
  • Questions to clarify information.
  • Common stems for asking questions (i.e., interrogatives like who, what, when, why, and how).
Skills:
4. Students are able to:
  • Ask and answer questions to seek help, get information, or clarify information presented orally, through text, or other media with guidance and support.
Understanding:
4. Students understand that:
  • They can seek help, get information, or clarify information presented orally, through text, or other media by asking and answering questions.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 1
5. With guidance and support, present information orally, using complete sentences in correct word order.

a. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

b. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details in a story with three to five events.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
5.
  • Present
  • Orally
  • Complete sentence
  • Word order
  • Guidance
  • Support
5a.
  • Audibly
  • Clearly
  • Express
  • Thoughts
  • Feelings
  • Ideas
5b.
  • Describe
  • People
  • Places
  • Things
  • Events
  • Relevant details
Knowledge:
5. Students know:
  • How to arrange words in a complete sentence when presenting information orally.
  • A complete sentence represents a complete thought.
5a.
  • What audible speech sounds like.
  • Common stems for adding thoughts, feelings, and ideas to conversation (I think..., I feel..., etc.).
5b.
  • Words to describe people, places, things, and events.
  • How to identify relevant details about people, places, things, and events in a story.
Skills:
5. Students are able to:
  • Speak in complete sentences with correct word order when presenting information orally, with guidance and support.
5a.
  • Speak audibly in a variety of settings.
  • Articulate thoughts clearly.
  • Articulate feelings clearly.
  • Articulate ideas clearly.
5b.
  • Orally describe relevant details about the people, places, things, and events in a story containing three to five events.
Understanding:
5. Students understand that:
  • To be understood by others, they should speak in complete sentences.
  • A complete sentence must have a noun (subject) and a verb (predicate) to state a complete thought.
5a.
  • To be understood by others, they must speak in an audible voice and have a clear message.
  • A speaker's message is impacted by his/her technique.
5b.
  • Describing relevant details about the people, places, things, and events in a story help listeners understand the message of the story.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
6. Uses spatial and temporal concepts correctly.

Examples: top/bottom, up/down, under/over, above/below, left/right, upside down/inside out,beginning/middle/end, first/next/last

Note: This is important as children learn to match print to speech in order to read, and speech to print in order to write.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
6.
  • Spatial concepts
  • Temporal concepts
    Knowledge:
    6. Students know:
    • Spatial concepts are those related to location (i.e., up, down, middle, over, inside, under, etc.).
    • Temporal concepts are those related to time (i.e., before, after, first, next, last, etc.).
    Skills:
    6. Students are able to:
    • Use spatial and temporal words correctly in content areas, such as finding the beginning, middle, and ending sound in a spoken word or tracking text from left to right.
    Understanding:
    6. Students understand that:
    • Spatial and temporal words are important for describing location and direction, even in reading words and completing math tasks.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    7. Restate and follow one- and two-step directions.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    7.
    • Restate
    • Follow
    • One-step directions
    • Two-step directions
    Knowledge:
    7. Students know:
    • How to restate and follow one- and two-step directions.
    Skills:
    7. Students are able to:
    • Restate one- and two-step directions to clarify understanding.
    • Follow one- and two-step directions.
    Understanding:
    7. Students understand that:
    • Restating directions helps them clarify and understand how to follow one- and two-step directions.
    Concepts of Print
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 6
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 4
    8. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of printed materials.

    a. Recognize and demonstrate that print conveys meaning.

    Examples: Share a favorite book with peers. Share a list of birthday gifts received.

    b. With prompting and support, explain the roles of the author and illustrator of a text.

    c. Track print, moving left to right and top to bottom on the printed page, returning to the beginning of the next line.

    d. Identify the beginning and end of a sentence by locating the capital letter and end punctuation.

    e. Point to words using one-to-one correspondence, noting that words are separated by spaces.

    f. Distinguish letters from words within sentences.

    g. Compare and contrast letters based upon similarities and differences, including name, shape, sound, and approach strokes for writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Concepts of Print
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    8.
    • Demonstrate
    • Organization
    • Basic features of print
    • Printed materials
    8a.
    • Recognize
    • Demonstrate
    • Print
    • Conveys
    8b.
    • Prompting
    • Support
    • Role
    • Author
    • Illustrator
    8c.
    • Track
    • Print
    • Line
    8d.
    • Sentence
    • Capital letter
    • End punctuation
    8e.
    • Spaces
    • One-to-one correspondence
    8f.
    • Distinguish
    • Letters
    • Words
    • Sentences
    8g.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Similarities
    • Differences
    • Name
    • Shape
    • Sound
    • Approach strokes
    Knowledge:
    8. Students know:
    • The organization and basic features of printed materials.
    8a.
    • Print conveys a message.
    8b.
    • The role of a text's author.
    • The role of a text's illustrator.
    8c.
    • Print is organized and read from left to right and top to bottom.
    8d.
    • A sentence begins with a capital letter.
    • A sentence ends with an ending punctuation mark.
    8e.
    • The one-to-one correspondence of words in printed text.
    8f.
    • Letters are used to represent sounds in a word.
    • A word is a group of letters put together to represent all the sounds in that word.
    8g.
    • The name, shape, sound, and approach stroke of each letter.
    • How the letters are similar and different.
    Skills:
    8. Students are able to:
    • Explain the organization and basic features of printed materials.
    8a.
    • Recognize that printed materials convey a message.
    • Demonstrate their understanding of the message relayed by print (e.g., by sharing their favorite book with a peer or by sharing a list of birthday gifts received).
    8b. With prompting and support,
    • Explain the role of a text's author.
    • Explain the role of a text's illustrator.
    8c.
    • Track printed words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
    8d.
    • Identify the beginning of a sentence by locating the capital letter.
    • Identify the end of a sentence by locating the ending punctuation mark.
    8e.
    • Point to words using one-to-one correspondence, using spaces to identify separate words.
    8f.
    • Distinguish letters from words within sentences.
    8g.
    • Compare and contrast letters based upon their similarities and differences, including the name, shape, sound, and approach strokes for writing.
    Understanding:
    8. Students understand that:
    • Printed materials have predictable features that help readers locate information.
    8a.
    • Letters and words relay a message in printed materials.
    8b.
    • The words and illustrations in a text communicate the author's and/or illustrator's intended message.
    8c.
    • Print is organized and read from left to right and top to bottom.
    8d.
    • Capital letters are used to begin a sentence and certain punctuation marks are used to end a complete sentence.
    8e.
    • Words are separated by spaces in print to help the reader know where one word begins and the other ends, which assists readers in accurately decoding text.
    8f.
    • Letters make up words and words make up sentences.
    8g.
    • Letters have names, sounds, shapes, and use different approach strokes for writing.
    • Letters have similarities and differences.
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 15
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 14
    9. Demonstrate early phonological awareness to basic phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.

    a. Count the number of words in a spoken sentence.

    b. Recognize alliterative spoken words.

    c. Recognize and produce pairs of rhyming words and distinguish them from non-rhyming pairs using pictures and/or spoken words.

    d. Count, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words, including compound words.

    e. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.

    f. Identify the initial, final, and medial sounds of spoken words.

    g. Blend and segment phonemes in single-syllable spoken words made up of three to four phonemes.

    h. Distinguish between commonly confused cognate consonant sounds, using knowledge of voiced and unvoiced sounds and manner of articulation.

    Examples: /t/ and /d/, /p/ and /b/, /ch/ and /j/, /s/ and /z/, /f/ and /v/, /k/ and /g/, /sh/ and /zh/, /th/ (voiced and unvoiced)

    Note: Standard 9 is important as a foundational phonemic awareness skill for all learners.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    9.
    • Demonstrate
    • Early phonological awareness skills
    • Basic phonemic awareness skills
    • Spoken words
    9a.
    • Count
    • Sentence
    9b.
    • Alliteration
    • Beginning sound
    • Phonemes
    9c.
    • Rhyming words
    • Non-rhyming pairs
    9d.
    • Blend
    • Segment
    • Syllable
    • Compound words
    9e.
    • Blend
    • Segment
    • Onset
    • Rime
    • Single-syllable
    9f.
    • Identify
    • Initial sound
    • Final sound
    • Medial sound
    • Spoken word
    9g.
    • Blend
    • Segment
    • Phonemes
    • Single-syllable
    9h.
    • Distinguish
    • Cognate consonant sounds
    • Voiced
    • Unvoiced
    • Articulation
    Knowledge:
    9. Students know:
    • Early phonological awareness skills.
    • Basic phonemic awareness skills.
    9a.
    • That spoken sentences are composed of individual words.
    9b.
    • That alliterative words begin with the same sound.
    9c.
    • Rhyming words.
    • Non-rhyming words.
    9d.
    • A word is made up of one or more syllables.
    • Syllables in spoken words are made of a sequence of sounds.
    • Compound words have more than one syllable.
    9e.
    • The "onset" is the initial phonological unit of any word (e.g., c in cat).
    • The term "rime" refers to the string of letters that follow the onset, usually a vowel and final consonants (e.g., at in cat).
    9f.
    • Spoken words have an initial, final, and medial sound.
    9g.
    • Phonemes are individual speech sounds.
    • Single-syllable spoken words are composed of a combination of phonemes.
    • Individual phonemes can be blended to create a complete spoken word or a spoken word can be segmented into its individual phonemes.
    9h.
    • Consonant sounds are produced by using different places and manners of articulation.
    Skills:
    9. Students are able to:
    • Demonstrate early phonological awareness to basic phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.
    9a.
    • Count the number of words in a spoken sentence.
    9b.
    • Recognize when spoken words begin with the same sound.
    9c. Using pictures and/or spoken words,
    • Recognize pairs of rhyming words.
    • Produce pairs of rhyming words.
    • Distinguish non-rhyming words from rhyming words.
    9d.
    • Count syllables in spoken words, including compound words.
    • Blend syllables in spoken words, including compound words.
    • Segment syllables in spoken words, including compound words.
    9e.
    • Blend a spoken onset and rime to make a complete single-syllable word.
    • Segment a single-syllable spoken word into its onset and rime.
    9f. In spoken words,
    • Identify the initial sound.
    • Identify the final sound.
    • Identify the medial sound.
    9g.
    • Blend three to four phonemes to make a single-syllable spoken word.
    • Segment a single-syllable spoken word into three to four phonemes.
    9h.
    • Distinguish between commonly confused cognate consonant sounds by using their knowledge of voiced sounds, unvoiced sounds, and each sound's place and manner of articulation.
    Understanding:
    9. Students understand that:
    • The sounds of spoken language work together to make words.
    9a.
    • Sentences are made up of individual words.
    9b.
    • Alliterative words are two or more adjacent or closely connected words that begin with the same sound.
    9c.
    • Words that rhyme have the same vowel and ending sound.
    9d.
    • A syllable is a unit of speech that is organized around a vowel sound, so all syllables must have at least one vowel.
    9e.
    • The "onset" is the initial phonological unit of any word (e.g., c in cat) and the term "rime" refers to the string of letters that follow, usually a vowel and final consonants (e.g., at in cat).
    • An onset and rime can be blended to make one complete single-syllable word, or a single-syllable spoken word can be segmented into its onset and rime.
    9f.
    • Spoken words have initial (first), final (last), and medial (middle) sounds.
    9g.
    • Blending is the ability to hear each individual sound in a word, join the sounds together, and produce the word.
    • Segmenting is the ability to break a word down into its individual sounds.
    9h.
    • The knowledge of voiced and unvoiced consonant sounds, in addition to their place and manner of articulation, is required for the proper pronunciation of spoken words and the accurate decoding and encoding of written words.
    Phonics
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 4
    Classroom Resources: 4
    10. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word-analysis skills to decode and encode (spell) words accurately in both isolation and in decodable, grade-appropriate text.

    a. Produce the most frequent sound(s) for each consonant, including x and q, which have two phonemes (sounds).

    Examples: x= /ks/ and q=/kw/

    b. Identify the vowel in a closed syllable and produce the short vowel sound for the five major vowels when decoding closed syllables.

    c. Decode consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in isolation and in decodable text.

    d. Identify the vowel in an open syllable and produce the long vowel sound for the five major vowels when decoding open syllables.

    e. With prompting and support, identify the vowel-consonant-e syllable pattern and produce the long vowel sounds for the five major vowels in vowel-consonant-e syllables.

    f. With prompting and support, decode words with suffix -s, using knowledge of unvoiced /s/ and voiced /z/ sounds for letter s.

    Examples: pups, cats, pigs, dogs

    Note: Unvoiced /s/ follows unvoiced sounds such as /p/ and /t/ and voiced /z/ follows voiced sounds such as /g/.

    g. With prompting and support, produce the most frequent sound for digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ng, and combination qu, making the connection that a two-letter grapheme can represent one phoneme (sound).

    h. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the phonemes and graphemes that differ.

    Example: mat/sat, pan/pat, tip/top

    i. Decode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

    Examples: am, at, get, like, make, that, this, me, she, be

    Note: The main emphasis of a high-frequency word lesson should be on regular correspondences and patterns, noting the high-frequency words with exceptions or oddities and what they are, using specific strategies to help them remember the irregular part of the word. Example: LETRS© heart word strategy
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonics
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    10.
    • Apply
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondence
    • Word-analysis skills
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Isolation
    • Decodable
    • Grade-appropriate text
    10a.
    • Produce
    • Frequent
    • Consonant
    • Phoneme
    10b.
    • Vowel
    • Closed syllable
    • Produce
    • Short vowel sound
    • Five major vowels
    • Decode
    10c.
    • Decode
    • CVC words
    • Isolation
    • Decodable text
    10d.
    • Vowel
    • Open syllable
    • Produce
    • Long-vowel sound
    • Five major vowels
    • Decode
    10e.
    • Identify
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllable pattern
    • Produce
    • Long-vowel sound
    • Five major vowels
    • Prompting
    • Support
    10f.
    • Decode
    • Suffix -s
    • Sounds of letter s
    • Unvoiced /s/
    • Voiced /z/
    • Prompting
    • Support
    10g.
    • Produce
    • Most frequent sound
    • Digraph
    • Two-letter grapheme
    • Represent
    • Phoneme
    • Prompting
    • Support
    10h.
    • Distinguish
    • Phonemes
    • Graphemes
    10i.
    • Decode
    • High-frequency words
    • Predictable
    • Decodable
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    Knowledge:
    10. Students know:
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word-analysis skills to decode words.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word-analysis skills to encode words.
    10a.
    • The most common sound for each consonant letter.
    10b.
    • The five major vowels.
    • Short vowel sounds.
    • The features of closed syllables.
    10c.
    • Words with the CVC pattern.
    10d.
    • The five major vowels.
    • Long vowel sounds.
    • The features of open syllables.
    10e.
    • The five major vowels.
    • Long vowel sounds.
    • The features of vowel-consonant-e syllables.
    10f.
    • How to identify a word ending with an s or suffix -s.
    • Whether suffix is will be sounded as voiced /z/ or unvoiced /s/ based on the sound before it.
    10g.
    • The most frequent sound for digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, and ng.
    • The sound for combination qu.
    10h.
    • How to identify the grapheme and/or phoneme that differs in similarly spelled words.
    10i.
    • Predictable and decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    Skills:
    10. Students are able to:
    • Decode words in isolation and within decodable, grade-appropriate text by applying knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and by using word-analysis skills.
    • Encode words by applying knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and using word-analysis skills.
    10a.
    • Identify consonant letters.
    • Produce the most common consonant sounds, including x and q.
    10b.
    • Identify the vowel in a closed syllable when decoding.
    • Produce the short vowel sound for the five major vowels when decoding closed syllables.
    10c.
    • Decode CVC words in isolation and in decodable text.
    10d.
    • Identify the vowel in an open syllable when decoding.
    • Produce the long-vowel sound for the five major vowels when decoding open syllables.
    10e. With prompting and support,
    • Identify the vowel-consonant-e syllable pattern.
    • Produce the long-vowel sounds for the five major vowels in vowel-consonant-e syllables.
    10f. With prompting and support,
    • Decode words with suffix -s, using knowledge of unvoiced /s/ and voiced /z/ sounds for letter s.
    10g. With prompting and support,
    • Produce the most frequent sound for digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, and ng.
    • Produce the combination qu sound.
    • Begin making the connection that a two-letter grapheme can represent one phoneme (sound).
    10h.
    • Identify the phonemes (sounds) and graphemes (letters) that differ in similarly spelled words. For example, in the word pair mat/sat, a student could identify the first letter changed which changed the word's first sound.
    10i.
    • Decode grade-appropriate high-frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, such as am, at, get, like, make, that, this, me, she, be.
    Understanding:
    10. Students understand that:
    • Graphemes represent specific phonemes they can use to decode (read) words, and phonemes can be represented by graphemes to encode (spell) words.
    • Word-analysis skills are used to determine how to decode or encode based on letter position, adjacent letters, etc.
    10a. Students understand that:
    • Consonants are the letters in the alphabet that are not vowels, such as b, d, g, n, r, s, and t. Consonant sounds are made by blocking air using your teeth, tongue, or lips.
    • The consonants x and q make two sounds when decoding text.
    10b.
    • a, e, i, o, and u are the five major vowels.
    • Vowels are voiced phonemes that are produced with no blocking of air with your mouth.
    • Every syllable must have a vowel.
    • A closed syllable is a syllable with a short vowel sound and one or more consonants at the end.
    10c.
    • CVC words follow predictable patterns that they can be used to decode accurately and automatically.
    10d.
    • a, e, i, o, and u are the five major vowels, and they can make different sounds depending on their placement in a syllable.
    • An open syllable is a syllable that ends with one vowel.
    10e.
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllables contain one vowel, followed by a single consonant, and then the letter e.
    • The vowel sound is long and the e is silent.
    10f.
    • When suffix -s is after an unvoiced consonant, it makes the unvoiced /s/ sound, like in the words pups or cats.
    • When suffix -s is after an voiced consonant, it makes the voiced /z/ sound, like in the words pigs and dogs.
    10g.
    • The digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ng, and qu are made of two graphemes (letters) and represent one phoneme (sound).
    • Combination qu represents two unexpected speech sounds, /k/ and /w/.
    10h.
    • There is a relationship between letters and sounds, and that changing a letter in a word changes how it is read.
    10i.
    • High-frequency words are words that commonly appear in text, so it is important to decode them accurately and automatically.
    Fluency
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    11. Recognize and name all upper and lower case letters in non-sequential order with accuracy and automaticity.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    11.
    • Recognize
    • Uppercase letters
    • Lowercase letters
    • Non-sequential order
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    Knowledge:
    11. Students know:
    • The name and shape of all upper- and lowercase letters, regardless of the order in which they are presented.
    Skills:
    11. Students are able to:
    • Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters in non-sequential order with accuracy and automaticity. For example, when shown a printed letter of the alphabet, the student can say the correct letter name within several seconds.
    Understanding:
    11. Students understand that:
    • Recognizing all upper- and lowercase letters correctly and quickly will help them improve their decoding automaticity.
    • A letter's name is the only attribute of a letter that never changes. For example, the letter A can make different sounds depending on its position in a word, however, it will always be the letter A.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    12. Arrange and name letters of the alphabet in sequential order from a to z, with accuracy and automaticity.

    Example: Use the alphabet arc to arrange the letters in alphabetical order, then touch and name the letters.

    Note: This will help students with alphabetical order requirements in future grades and also facilitate learning of positional words like before/after, initial/final, reversals, and letter naming in general.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    12.
    • Arrange
    • Alphabet
    • Sequential order
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    Knowledge:
    12. Students know:
    • Letters of the alphabet in sequential order.
    Skills:
    12. Students are able to:
    • Arrange and name letters of the alphabet in sequential order from a to z, with accuracy and automaticity. For example, a student can use the alphabet arc to arrange the letters in alphabetical order, then point to and name each letter.
    Understanding:
    12. Students understand that:
    • The letters of the alphabet have specific sequential order that we call alphabetical order.
    • Positional words like before/after and initial/final can be used to describe a letter's position in a sequence.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    13. With prompting and support, recognize and name digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ng, and combination qu.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    13.
    • Digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, ng
    • Combination qu
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    13. Students know:
    With prompting and support,
    • The names of the letters in digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, and ng.
    • The names of the letters in the combination qu.
    Skills:
    13. Students are able to:
    • Recognize and name digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ng, and combination qu with prompting and support.
    Understanding:
    13. Students understand that:
    • Recognizing common digraphs and letter combinations will improve their decoding accuracy and automaticity.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    14. Apply previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences to decodable words with accuracy and automaticity, in and out of context.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    14.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Decodable words
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    • Context
    Knowledge:
    14. Students know:
    • Previously taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences in and out of context.
    Skills:
    14. Students are able to:
    • Decode words accurately and automatically by applying previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    Understanding:
    14. Students understand that:
    • Applying the phoneme-grapheme correspondences they have learned will help them decode text accurately and automatically in many different contexts.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 10
    Classroom Resources: 10
    15. Orally read and reread grade-appropriate decodable texts smoothly, accurately, and expressively, at an appropriate rate to support comprehension.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    15.
    • Fluency
    • Orally read
    • Grade-appropriate decodable texts
    • Smoothly
    • Accurately
    • Expressively
    • Appropriate rate
    • Comprehension
    Knowledge:
    15. Students know:
    • Fluent reading requires accurate decoding.
    • Fluent reading is smooth and expressive.
    • Reading at an appropriate rate will support their comprehension.
    Skills:
    15. Students are able to:
    • Fluently read grade-appropriate decodable texts with accuracy and expression.
    • Read orally at an appropriate rate.
    • Comprehend text that they read aloud.
    Understanding:
    15. Students understand that:
    • Reading smoothly, accurately, expressively, and at an appropriate rate, supports comprehension, or their understanding of the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 3
    Classroom Resources: 3
    16. Recognize and read grade-appropriate high frequency words with accuracy and automaticity.

    Note: As noted in the phonics standards, high-frequency words should be taught with the main emphasis of the lesson being on regular correspondences and patterns within the word. The student should be able to read the word accurately three times in a row on different days to be considered accurate enough to add it to a personal word box, word ring, or fluency folder. Avoid teaching high-frequency words as "sight words" that need to be memorized as a whole word, unless there are no regular correspondences in the word. "Of" is an example of a word with no regular correspondences.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    16.
    • High-frequency words
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    Knowledge:
    16. Students know:
    • Grade-appropriate high-frequency words.
    Skills:
    16. Students are able to:
    • Recognize and read grade-appropriate high-frequency words with accuracy and automaticity. For example, a student is able to read the target high-frequency word accurately and automatically three times in a row on different days.
    Understanding:
    16. Students understand that:
    • High-frequency words are words that are found regularly in kindergarten text and material, so it is important to recognize and read them correctly and quickly.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    17. With guidance and support, orally utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary and relate new words to prior knowledge.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    17.
    • Orally utilize
    • Academic vocabulary
    • Content-specific vocabulary
    • Grade-level vocabulary
    • Prior knowledge
    • Guidance
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    17. Students know:
    • New academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary.
    Skills:
    17. Students are able to:
    With guidance and support,
    • Orally utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary.
    • Relate new vocabulary words to prior knowledge.
    Understanding:
    17. Students understand that:
    • Their existing knowledge can help them determine the meaning of new vocabulary words.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    18. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately.

    Example: multiple meaning words such as duck, run, and bat
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    18.
    • Meanings
    • Familiar words
    Knowledge:
    18. Students know:
    • Words can have multiple meanings, such as duck, run, and bat.
    Skills:
    18. Students are able to:
    • Identify new meanings for familiar words.
    • Apply new meanings for familiar words accurately.
    Understanding:
    18. Students understand that:
    • The meaning of a word varies with specific context and can be related to its spelling.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 7
    Classroom Resources: 7
    19. Ask and answer questions about unfamiliar words in discussions and/or text.

    a. Describe the relationship between words, including relating them to synonyms and antonyms.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    19.
    • Unfamiliar words
    • Text
    19a.
    • Describe
    • Relationships
    • Synonyms
    • Antonyms
    Knowledge:
    19. Students know:
    • Several question stems related to unknown words.
    • Techniques for identifying unknown words.
    19a.
    • Synonyms are words that have the same or a similar meaning.
    • Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings.
    Skills:
    19. Students are able to:
    • Ask and answer questions about unfamiliar words in discussions and/or text.
    19a.
    • Describe the relationship between words, including relating them to synonyms and antonyms.
    Understanding:
    19. Students understand that:
    • It is important to ask questions to learn the meanings of unfamiliar words.
    19a.
    • Words can be related to each other, such as some words having similar meanings (synonyms) and some words having opposite meanings (antonyms).
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    20. Name and sort pictures of objects into categories based on common attributes while relating vocabulary to prior knowledge and building background knowledge.

    Examples: apples, oranges, grapes; hammer, nails, screwdriver
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    20.
    • Name
    • Sort
    • Categories
    • Common attributes
    • Relating
    • Vocabulary
    • Prior knowledge
    • Background knowledge
    Knowledge:
    20. Students know:
    • Common attributes of objects.
    • Several common categories of objects.
    Skills:
    20. Students are able to:
    • Name and sort pictures of objects into categories based on common attributes while relating vocabulary to prior knowledge and building background knowledge. For example, students can sort pictures of an apple, an orange, and grapes into the category of Fruits and sort pictures of a hammer, nails, and a screwdriver into the category of Tools.
    Understanding:
    20. Students understand that:
    • Objects with similar characteristics can be grouped together to build vocabulary and background knowledge.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    21. Use new and previously-taught vocabulary to produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

    a. Use previously-taught vocabulary words, including nouns, verbs, and adjectives, in speaking and writing.

    b. Use new words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    21.
    • New vocabulary
    • Previously-taught vocabulary
    • Produce
    • Expand
    • Complete sentences
    • Shared language activities
    21a.
    • Previously-taught vocabulary
    • Nouns
    • Verbs
    • Adjectives
    • Speaking
    • Writing
    21b.
    • New words
    • Phrases
    • Acquired
    • Conversations
    • Reading
    • Being read to
    • Responding to text
    Knowledge:
    21. Students know:
    • Components of a complete sentence.
    21a.
    • Previously-taught vocabulary words, including nouns, verbs, and adjectives, orally and in writing .
    21b.
    • New words and phrases that were acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to text.
    Skills:
    21. Students are able to:
    • Use new and previously-taught vocabulary in complete sentences in shared language activities.
    • Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
    21a.
    • Use previously-taught vocabulary words, including nouns, verbs, and adjectives, when speaking and in writing.
    21b.
    • Use new words and phrases that were acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to text.
    Understanding:
    21. Students understand that:
    • They can use new and previously-taught vocabulary to produce and expand complete sentences.
    • Using vocabulary words in complete sentences can help them convey meaning in speaking and writing.
    21a.
    • Using a variety of vocabulary words can improve the effectiveness of their message when speaking and writing.
    21b.
    • Conversations, reading, being read to, and responding to text will help them to learn new words and phrases.
    Comprehension
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    22. Use content knowledge built during read-alouds of informational texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through drawing or writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    22.
    • Content knowledge
    • Read-alouds
    • Informational text
    • Participating
    • Content-specific discussions
    • Peers
    • Drawing
    • Writing
    Knowledge:
    22. Students know:
    • Content knowledge gained from read-alouds of informational texts.
    Skills:
    22. Students are able to:
    • Use content knowledge built during read-alouds of informational texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through drawing or writing.
    Understanding:
    22. Students understand that:
    • Their understanding of and appreciation for informational text grows through discussions and active collaboration with others.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    23. With prompting and support, manipulate words and/or phrases to create simple sentences, including declarative and interrogative, to help build syntactic awareness and comprehension at the sentence level.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    23.
    • Manipulate words
    • Manipulate phrases
    • Create
    • Simple sentences
    • Declarative sentence
    • Interrogative sentence
    • Syntactic awareness
    • Comprehension
    • Sentence level
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    23. Students know:
    • Simple sentences.
    • Declarative and interrogative sentences.
    Skills:
    23. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Modify words and/or phrases to create simple sentences, including declarative and interrogative.
    Understanding:
    23. Students understand that:
    • The way words and phrases are ordered in a sentence contributes to the overall meaning of a sentence.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Learning Activities: 1
    24. With prompting and support, identify common types of texts and their features, including literary, informational, fairy tale, and poetry.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    24.
    • Common types of texts
    • Features of texts
    • Literary text
    • Informational text
    • Fairy tale
    • Poetry
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    24. Students know:
    • Features of common types of texts.
    Skills:
    24. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Identify common types of texts and their features, including literary, informational, fairy tale, and poetry.
    Understanding:
    24. Students understand that:
    • Texts can be categorized based on predictable features.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    25. With prompting and support, identify the topic of texts, using titles, headings, illustrations, and text clues.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    25.
    • Topic
    • Text
    • Title
    • Heading
    • Illustrations
    • Text clues
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    25. Students know:
    • The topic of a text.
    • Text features, such as title, headings, illustrations, and text clues.
    Skills:
    25. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Use titles, headings, illustrations, and text clues to identify the topic of texts.
    Understanding:
    25. Students understand that:
    • Texts have topics and they can use text features as clues to identify the topic.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 8
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 7
    26. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    26.
    • Describe
    • Relationship
    • Illustration
    • Text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    26. Students know:
    • The role of illustrations in a text.
    Skills:
    26. Students are able to:
    • Describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear.
    • Describe the portion of a text depicted by an illustration.
    Understanding:
    26. Students understand that:
    • Illustrations can be used to support their understanding of a text's meaning.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 9
    Learning Activities: 3
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 5
    27. Identify and describe the main story elements in a literary text.

    a. With prompting and support, retell a text orally, including main character(s), setting, and important events in logical order.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    27.
    • Identify
    • Describe
    • Characters
    • Settings
    • Important events
    • Literary text
    27a.
    • Retell
    • Text
    • Orally
    • Main character(s)
    • Setting
    • Events
    • Logical order
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    27. Students know:
    • Main story elements in a literary text.
    27a.
    • Techniques for retelling a text orally using key details.
    • How to sequence events in logical order (first, next, last).
    Skills:
    27. Students are able to:
    • Identify the main story elements (characters, settings, and important events) in a literary text.
    • Describe the main story elements (characters, settings, and important events) in a literary text.
    27a. With prompting and support,
    • Recall key details and important events in a text.
    • Orally retell a text, including main character(s), setting, and important events in logical order.
    Understanding:
    27. Students understand that:
    • Identifying the characters, setting, and important events in a text help them better understand the overall meaning of the text.
    27a.
    • Recalling important events and details of a text helps to retell the story and understand the meaning of the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    28. With prompting and support, use text clues to determine main ideas and make predictions about an ending in a literary text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    28.
    • Text clues
    • Determine
    • Main idea
    • Make predictions
    • Ending
    • Literary text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    28. Students know:
    • Text clues can help make inferences.
    • The main idea of a literary text.
    • Techniques for predicting the end of a literary text.
    Skills:
    28. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Identify the main idea in a literary text using text clues.
    • Make predictions about an ending in a literary text using text clues.
    Understanding:
    28. Students understand that:
    • Text clues will help them identify the main idea and make predictions about the end of a story which helps to comprehend the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    29. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and key details in an informational text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    29.
    • Identify
    • Main topic
    • Key details
    • Informational text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    29. Students know:
    • The main topic in an informational text.
    • Key details in an informational text.
    Skills:
    29. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Identify the main topic in an informational text.
    • Identify key details in an informational text.
    Understanding:
    29. Students understand that:
    • Authors of informational text include key details to help readers make meaning of the text.
    • Good readers use key details in an informational text to identify the main topic.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 11
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 9
    Unit Plans: 1
    30. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in literary and informational texts.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    30.
    • Ask
    • Answer
    • Key details
    • Literary text
    • Informational text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    30. Students know:
    • Key details in literary and informational texts.
    Skills:
    30. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Ask questions about key details in literary and informational texts.
    • Answer questions about key details in literary and informational texts.
    Understanding:
    30. Students understand that:
    • Text includes key details.
    • After reading a text, knowledge and understanding can be expanded by asking and answering questions.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    31. With prompting and support, self-monitor comprehension of text by pausing to summarize and rereading for clarification, when comprehension is lacking.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    31.
    • Self-monitor
    • Comprehension
    • Text
    • Summarize
    • Reread
    • Clarification
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    31. Students know:
    • Comprehension is understanding the text.
    • Techniques to self-monitor comprehension, such as summarizing and rereading.
    Skills:
    31. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Summarize text.
    • Reread for clarity.
    • Self-monitor comprehension.
    Understanding:
    31. Students understand that:
    • The purpose of reading is understanding the text, so when they don't understand the text, they need to take action to improve their comprehension.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    32. With prompting and support, compare and contrast two texts.

    a. Distinguish between literary texts and informational texts.

    b. Compare and contrast the experiences of characters in a literary text.

    c. Compare and contrast two informational texts on the same topic.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    32.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    32a.
    • Distinguish
    • Literary text
    • Informational text
    32b.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Experiences
    • Characters
    • Literary text
    32c.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Informational text
    • Topic
    Knowledge:
    32. Students know:
    • Techniques to compare (identify similarities) and contrast (identify differences) two texts.
    32a.
    • Characteristics of literary and informational texts.
    32b.
    • Literary text tells about the experiences of characters.
    32c.
    • Characteristics of informational texts.
    Skills:
    32. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Identify similarities between two texts.
    • Identify differences between two texts.
    32a.
    • Identify characteristics of literary texts.
    • Identify characteristics of informational texts.
    • Identify the differences between literary texts and informational texts.
    32b.
    • Identify characters in a literary text.
    • Identify similarities (compare) of the experiences of characters.
    • Identify differences (contrast) of the experiences of characters.
    32c.
  • Identify similarities between two informational texts on the same topic.
  • Identify differences between two informational texts on the same topic.
  • Understanding:
    32. Students understand that:
    • Good readers make meaning of text by identifying similarities and differences between two texts.
    32a.
    • Literary text is a story about people, animals, or events that is made up by an author.
    • Informational (nonfiction) text gives information or facts about real people, things, or events.
    32b.
    • Comparing and contrasting experiences of characters helps readers to understand their role in the literary text which can lead to better reading comprehension.
    32c.
    • Good readers can improve their understanding of informational text by identifying similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic.
    Writing
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 10
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 8
    33. Express ideas orally and connect these ideas through drawing and emergent writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    33.
    • Express
    • Ideas
    • Orally
    • Connect
    • Drawing
    • Emergent writing
    Knowledge:
    33. Students know:
    • Techniques for using discussion, drawing, and basic writing to express their thoughts.
    Skills:
    33. Students are able to:
    • Express ideas orally.
    • Connect ideas through drawing and emergent writing to express their thoughts.
    Understanding:
    33. Students understand that:
    • They can express ideas through discussion, drawing, and basic writing.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 4
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 1
    Unit Plans: 1
    34. Print legibly, using proper pencil grip.

    a. Print upper and lower case letters using proper approach strokes, letter formation, and line placement.

    b. With prompting and support, print first and last names using proper letter formation, capitalizing only the first letter of each name.

    Note: In Kindergarten, students are learning the most basic forms of capitalization. While the standard only requires that the first letter of each name be capitalized, some students' names may include additional capital letters, hyphens, or apostrophes. In such cases, students should learn to write their own names using proper capitalization and punctuation.

    Examples: De'Andre McGill, Kim Mi-Sun, Juan de Jesus

    c. With prompting and support, use lower case letters in majority of written work, using capitals only when appropriate.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    34.
    • Print
    • Legibly
    • Proper pencil grip
    34a.
    • Print
    • Upper case letters
    • Lowercase letters
    • Approach strokes
    • Letter formation
    • Line placement
    34b.
    • Print
    • First name
    • Last name
    • Letter formation
    • Capitalizing
    • Prompting
    • Support
    34c.
    • Lowercase letters
    • Written work
    • Capitals
    • Appropriate
    Knowledge:
    34. Students know:
    • Proper pencil grip.
    • Proper letter formation.
    34a.
    • Proper upper- and lowercase letter formation and line placement.
    34b.
    • The capitalization and letter formation of first and last names.
    34c.
    • Capitalization rules.
    Skills:
    34. Students are able to:
    • Print legibly.
    • Use proper pencil grip.
    34a.
    • Print upper- and lowercase letters.
    • Use correct approach strokes to form letters.
    • Place letters correctly on a line.
    34b. With prompting and support,
    • Print first and last names using proper letter formation, capitalizing only the first letter of each name.
    34c. With prompting and support,
    • Use capital and lowercase letters correctly when writing.
    Understanding:
    34. Students understand that:
    • A proper pencil grip creates better letter formation.
    34a.
    • Handwriting of upper- and lowercase letters is produced by a series of strokes with accurate line placement.
    34b.
    • Each person has a first and last name.
    • First and last names start with a capital letter and legible writing includes proper letter formation.
    34c.
    • There are rules to follow to appropriately use lowercase and capital letters.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    35. Apply knowledge of grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences and spelling rules (or generalizations) to encode words accurately.

    a. Encode at the phoneme level, using the most common grapheme/spelling(s), for a spoken phoneme (sound).

    Examples: /b/=b, /m/=m, /k/=k, c, -ck

    b. With prompting and support, encode vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words, while using some knowledge of basic position-based rules for spelling English words.

    Examples: /k/=k before i, e, or y; /k/= c before a, o, u, or any consonant; /k/= -ck after an accented short vowel

    c. With prompting and support, encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

    Examples: am, at, can, he, we, be, in, it, came, like

    d. With prompting and support, encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences and patterns in all but one position, pointing out the part of the word that does not follow the regular pattern.

    Example: In said, /s/ and /d/ are spelled using phoneme-grapheme correspondence, but ai must be learned by heart or memorized.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    35.
    • Knowledge
    • Grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Spelling rules
    • Generalizations
    • Encode
    • Accurately
    35a.
    • Encode
    • Phoneme level
    • Most common grapheme/spelling(s)
    • Spoken phoneme
    35b.
    • Encode
    • Vowel-consonant words
    • Consonant-vowel-consonant words
    • Knowledge
    • Position-based rules for spelling
    • English words
    • Prompting
    • Support
    35c.
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high-frequency words
    • Regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Prompting
    • Support
    35d.
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high-frequency words
    • Regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Patterns
    • Position
    • Regular pattern
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    35. Students know:
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Spelling rules (or generalizations).
    35a.
    • Phonemes (individual sound in a word).
    • Common grapheme/spelling(s) associated with phonemes.
    35b.
    • Vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words.
    • Basic position-based rules for spelling English words.
    35c.
    • Grade-appropriate high-frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences, such as am, at, can, he, we, be, in it, came, like.
    35d.
    • Grade-appropriate high-frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences in all but one position, such as in the word said, /s/ and /d/ are spelled using regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences, but ai is not, so it must be learned by heart or memorized.
    Skills:
    35. Students are able to:
    • Encode (spell) words accurately by applying knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and spelling rules.
    35a.
    • Encode using a grapheme(s)/spelling(s) that corresponds with a sound (phoneme), such as /b/=b, /m/=m, /k/=k, c, -ck.
    35b. With prompting and support,
    • Accurately spell vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words.
    35c. With prompting and support,
    • Encode grade-appropriate high-frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    35d. With prompting and support,
    • Spell grade-appropriate high-frequency words using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and irregular spelling patterns.
    Understanding:
    35. Students understand that:
    • They can use spelling generalizations/rules, syllable division principles, and their knowledge of letters and sounds to spell words accurately.
    35a.
    • A spoken sound (phoneme) can be represented with a grapheme(s) (written symbol) to accurately encode (spell) words.
    35b.
    • There are rules and patterns that can help them to accurately encode (spell) vowel-consonant and consonant-vowel-consonant words.
    35c.
    • High-frequency words are words that they will use often in writing, so they must learn to write them quickly and accurately.
    35d.
    • They can spell words by using a variety of strategies which include letter and sound relationships, predictable spellings, and their knowledge of irregularly spelled high-frequency words.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    36. When speaking and writing, follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and grade-appropriate spelling.

    a. With prompting and support, transcribe spoken words to demonstrate that print represents oral language.

    b. With prompting and support, compose a simple sentence, including necessary components to create a complete sentence rather than a fragment.

    c. With prompting and support, identify the role or purpose of a noun and a verb within a sentence and the type of information it conveys.

    d. With prompting and support, write the correct number of words, with proper spacing, for a spoken phrase or sentence.

    e. With prompting and support, begin each sentence with a capital letter.

    f. With prompting and support, capitalize the pronoun I and names of individuals.

    g. With prompting and support, recognize, name, and correctly use end punctuation.

    Examples: period, question mark, exclamation mark
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    36.
    • Speaking
    • Writing
    • Standard English grammar
    • Punctuation
    • Capitalization
    • Grade-appropriate spelling
    36a.
    • Transcribe
    • Spoken words
    • Demonstrate
    • Print
    • Represents
    • Oral language
    • Prompting
    • Support
    36b.
    • Compose
    • Simple sentence
    • Necessary components
    • Create
    • Complete sentence
    • Fragment
    • Prompting
    • Support
    36c.
    • Identify
    • Role
    • Purpose
    • Noun
    • Verb
    • Sentence
    • Conveys
    • Prompting
    • Support
    36d.
    • Write
    • Correct number of words
    • Proper spacing
    • Spoken phrase
    • Sentence
    • Prompting
    • Support
    36e.
    • Sentence
    • Capital letter
    • Prompting
    • Support
    36f.
    • Capitalize
    • Pronoun I
    • Names of individuals
    36g.
    • Recognize
    • Name
    • Correctly use
    • End punctuation
    Knowledge:
    36. Students know:
    • Standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling rules for speaking and writing.
    36a.
    • Spoken words can be transcribed into written words.
    36b.
    • The components of a simple, complete sentence.
    36c.
    • The purpose and function of a noun and verb within a sentence.
    36d.
    • Spoken phrase or sentences are composed of individual words that must be spaced properly when writing.
    36e.
    • Sentences begin with capital letters.
    36f.
    • The pronoun I and names of individuals are capitalized.
    36g.
    • The three types of end punctuation: period, question mark, and exclamation mark.
    • End punctuation occurs at the end of a sentence.
    Skills:
    36. Students are able to:
    • Write and speak abiding by the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.
    36a. With prompting and support,
    • Write spoken words.
    36b. With prompting and support,
    • Compose a simple, complete sentence.
    36c. With prompting and support,
    • Identify nouns and verbs in sentences.
    • Describe the information a noun or verb conveys within a sentence.
    36d. With prompting and support,
    • Accurately write a phrase or sentence from dictation.
    • Properly space words when writing a phrase or sentence from dictation.
    36e. With prompting and support,
    • Begin each sentence with a capital letter.
    36f. With prompting and support,
    • Capitalize the pronoun I and names of individuals.
    36g. With prompting and support,
    • Recognize, name, and correctly use end punctuation.
    Understanding:
    36. Students understand that:
    • The English language has grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling rules.
    36a.
    • Writing words from dictation requires knowledge of capitalization and spelling rules.
    36b.
    • Simple, complete sentences are composed of a subject and predicate, while a sentence fragment lacks one or both parts.
    36c.
    • Nouns and verbs have rules for placement in a sentence and convey certain information within the sentence.
    36d.
    • When writing a spoken phrase or sentence, proper spacing must be placed between words.
    36e.
    • All sentences begin with a capital letter.
    36f.
    • People's names and the pronoun I are capitalized.
    36g.
    • There are three types of ending punctuation.
    • Question marks are used for questions.
    • Periods are used for statements.
    • Exclamation marks are used for exclamatory statements.
    • Sentences have different end punctuation based on the meaning of the sentence.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 11
    Learning Activities: 2
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Classroom Resources: 6
    37. Actively participate in shared and independent writing experiences, for varied purposes and audiences, across different genres.

    a. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create messages, lists, and labels for a drawing or illustration.

    b. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create narratives with the events in chronological order and share feelings about the story, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.

    c. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create opinion pieces about a topic or text, state the opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide a sense of closure, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.

    d. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create explanatory texts or provide factual information about a topic, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.

    e. With prompting and support, compose writing for varied purposes and audiences, across different genres.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    37.
    • Actively participate
    • Shared writing experiences
    • Independent writing experiences
    • Varied purposes
    • Varied audiences
    • Difference genres
    37a.
    • Actively participate
    • Shared writing experiences
    • Create
    • Messages
    • Lists
    • Labels
    • Drawing
    • Illustration
    37b.
    • Actively participate
    • Shared writing experiences
    • Create
    • Narratives
    • Events
    • Chronological order
    • Feelings
    • Story
    • Drawing
    • Dictating
    • Writing
    37c.
    • Actively participate
    • Shared writing experiences
    • Create
    • Opinion pieces
    • Topic
    • Text
    • State
    • Opinion
    • Supply
    • Reason
    • Sense of closure
    • Drawing
    • Dictating
    • Writing
    37d.
    • Actively participate
    • Shared writing experiences
    • Create
    • Explanatory text
    • Factual information
    • Topic
    • Drawing
    • Dictating
    • Writing
    37e.
    • Compose
    • Writing
    • Varied purposes
    • Varied audiences
    • Different genres
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    37. Students know:
    • Different genres of writing.
    • The purpose and audience for writing can change.
    37a.
    • Writing, such as messages, lists, and labels, can be added to a drawing or illustration to convey meaning.
    37b.
    • Narrative writing tells a story with events in chronological order.
    • Readers should be able to share their feelings after reading a narrative story.
    37c.
    • To express an opinion in writing, an author should state the opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and include a closing statement.
    37d.
    • Explanatory texts provide factual information.
    37e.
    • The format of writing will change, depending on its purpose, audience, and genre.
    Skills:
    37. Students are able to:
    • Write for various purposes and audiences across different genres, with teacher assistance and independently.
    37a.
    • Create messages, lists, and labels for a drawing or illustration.
    37b.
    • Create a narrative with the events in chronological order and share their feelings about the narrative, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.
    37c.
    • Create an opinion piece with reason and closure using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.
    37d.
    • Create explanatory texts or provide factual information about a topic, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.
    37e. With prompting and support,
    • Compose writing for varied purposes and audiences, across different genres.
    Understanding:
    37. Students understand that:
    • Writing conveys a message, and the format of writing will change, depending on its purpose, audience, and intended meaning.
    37a.
    • Creating a message, list, or label for a drawing or illustration can help provide readers with important information.
    37b.
    • Narratives should be written in chronological order and express the author's feelings.
    • They can share their feelings about a story using drawing, dictating, or writing.
    37c.
    • Opinions may be expressed through writings based on reasoning.
    37d.
    • When writing an explanatory text, they must provide factual information.
    37e.
    • Writing communicates ideas, and the format of writing must change in order to convey its message to its intended audience.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    38. Improve pictorial and written presentations, as needed, by planning, revising, editing, and using suggestions from peers and adults.

    Examples: Plan by brainstorming; revise to clarify or aid audience's comprehension; edit written presentations to ensure appropriate spacing between letters and words, correct spelling and punctuation, and legibility as a courtesy to the audience and to show pride in one's work.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    38.
    • Improve
    • Pictorial presentations
    • Written presentations
    • Planning
    • Revising
    • Editing
    • Suggestions
    • Peers
    Knowledge:
    38. Students know:
    • The writing process, including planning, revising, and editing.
    • Incorporating suggestions from peers and adults can improve their writing.
    Skills:
    38. Students are able to:
    • Plan, revise, edit, and use suggestions from peers and adults to improve pictorial and written presentations.
    Understanding:
    38. Students understand that:
    • Planning, revising, and editing written work is the writing process.
    • They can plan by brainstorming, revise to clarify or aid audience's comprehension, and edit to ensure appropriate language conventions are followed.
    • Engaging in the complete writing process is courteous to their audience and shows pride in their work.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 8
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Classroom Resources: 5
    39. Participate in shared research and writing projects to answer a question or describe a topic.

    a. Include information recalled from personal experiences in research and writing projects.

    b. Gather information from provided sources for research and writing projects.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    39.
    • Participate
    • Shared research
    • Shared writing projects
    • Answer a question
    • Describe a topic
    39a.
    • Include
    • Information
    • Recalled
    • Personal experiences
    • Research projects
    • Writing projects
    39b.
    • Gather
    • Information
    • Provided sources
    • Research projects
    • Writing projects
    Knowledge:
    39. Students know:
    • Research and writing can answer questions or describe a topic.
    39a.
    • Information recalled from personal experiences can be added to research and writing projects.
    39b.
    • Information gathered from different sources can be added to research and writing projects.
    Skills:
    39. Students are able to:
    • Work collaboratively with peers and adults in research and writing projects.
    • Use research and writing to answer questions about a topic.
    • Use research and writing to describe a topic.
    39a.
    • Recall information from personal experiences.
    • Include information from personal experiences in research and writing projects.
    39b.
    • Use strategies to gather information from provided sources to research and write about a topic.
    Understanding:
    39. Students understand that:
    • Shared research and writing projects can help answer questions or describe a topic.
    39a.
    • Information gathered from personal experiences can help to understand and write about a topic.
    39b.
    • Gathering information from a variety of sources can help increase their understanding of a topic and improve their research and writing projects.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    40. With guidance and support, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, working both independently and collaboratively with peers.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    40.
    • Variety
    • Digital tools
    • Produce
    • Publish
    • Writing
    • Independently
    • Collaboratively
    • Peers
    • Guidance
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    40. Students know:
    • Digital tools can help produce and publish writing.
    Skills:
    40. Students are able to:
    With guidance and support,
    • Use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing independently.
    • Collaborate with peers to use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing.
    Understanding:
    40. Students understand that:
    • Digital tools may be used to produce and publish writing, alone or with peers.