# Courses of Study : Mathematics (Grade K)

Foundations of Counting
Know number names and the count sequence.
Note on number reversals: Learning to write numerals is generally more difficult than learning to read them. It is common for students to reverse numerals at this stage.
 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 15 Learning Activities: 5 Classroom Resources: 10
1. Count forward orally from 0 to 100 by ones and by tens. Count backward orally from 10 to 0 by ones.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Count correctly from 0 to 100 by ones without skipping numbers, repeating numbers, or hesitating.
• Count correctly from 0 to 100 by tens without skipping numbers, repeating numbers, or hesitating.
• Count backwards from 10 to 0 by ones without skipping numbers, repeating numbers, or hesitating.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Count forward orally
• Count backwards orally
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to count by ones and tens orally. This includes counting forward and counting backward.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• orally count forward.
• orally count backward.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Counting from 0 to 100 is a sequence.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.1.1: Count backwards from 5 to 0 by ones.
M.K.1.2: Mimic counting backwards from 5 to 0 by ones.
M.K.1.3: Count to 50 by ones.
M.K.1.4: Count to 50 by tens.
M.K.1.5: Count to 20 by ones.
M.K.1.6: Count to 10 by ones.
M.K.1.7: Mimic counting by tens.
M.K.1.8: Mimic counting by ones.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Count to 20 and above.
• Mimic counting by ones.
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Become interested in how many objects she/he has.
• Continue to have an interest in counting.
• Understand the concept of size and amount.
• Pair the number of objects counted with "how many."
• Understand that the last number name tells the number of objects counted.
• Pair a group of objects with a number representing the total number of objects in the group (up to ten objects).
• Count objects one-by-one using only one number per object (up to ten objects).
• Recognize that numbers and numerals have meaning.
• Recognize numerals 0 (zero) through 10.
• Rote count to ten.
• Communicate some number words.
• Communicate the number word one.
• Recognize after.
• Recognize before.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.1 Using vocalization, sign language, augmentative communication, or assistive technology, count to 15 by ones starting with one.

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 9 Learning Activities: 4 Classroom Resources: 5
2. Count to 100 by ones beginning with any given number between 0 and 99.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Count correctly to 100 by ones starting with any given number other than 0 without skipping numbers, repeating numbers, or hesitating.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Count
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to rote count from 0 to 100 starting with any given number.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• orally count.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Counting from 0 to 100 is a sequence and you can begin with any number.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.2.1: Count forward to 100 from a number over 50.
M.K.2.2: Count forward to 100 from a number between 2 and 50.
M.K.2.3: Count forward to 50 from a given number.
M.K.2.4: Count to 100 by ones.
M.K.2.5: Mimic counting to 100 by ones.
M.K.2.6: Count to 50 by ones.
M.K.2.7: Mimic counting to 50 by ones.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Count to 20 and above.
• Mimic counting by ones.
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Become interested in how many objects she/he has.
• Continue to have an interest in counting.
• Understand the concept of size and amount.
• Pair the number of objects counted with "how many."
• Understand that the last number name tells the number of objects counted.
• Pair a group of objects with a number representing the total number of objects in the group (up to ten objects).
• Count objects one-by-one using only one number per object (up to ten objects).
• Recognize that numbers and numerals have meaning.
• Recognize numerals 0 (zero) through 10.
• Rote count to ten.
• Communicate some number words.
• Recognize after.
• Recognize before.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.1 Using vocalization, sign language, augmentative communication, or assistive technology, count to 15 by ones starting with one.

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 7 Learning Activities: 4 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
3. Write numerals from 0 to 20.

a. Represent 0 to 20 using concrete objects when given a written numeral from 0 to 20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Write numerals correctly from 0 to 20.
• Represent numbers using concrete objects when given a written numeral from 0 to 20.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Numeral
• Number
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to match numeral name with sets of objects.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• write numerals from 0 to 20.
• Represent numbers from 0 to 20.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• a written numeral represents a number of objects.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.3.1: Write numbers 0 to 10.
M.K.3.2: Match numerals to quantity 11 to 20.
M.K.3.3: Match numerals to quantity 0 to 10.
M.K.3.4: Recognize written numerals 0 to 20.
M.K.3.5: Demonstrate one to one correspondence for a group of objects 6 to 20.
M.K.3.6: Demonstrate one to one correspondence for a group of objects 0 to 5.
M.K.3.7: Trace numerals 0 to 20.
M.K.3.8: Make purposeful marks such as lines and circles.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Count to 20 and above.
• Mimic counting by ones.
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Become interested in how many objects she/he has.
• Continue to have an interest in counting.
• Understand the concept of size and amount.
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Understand that some have more, and some have less.
• Become more interested in the concept of some and all.
• Make purposeful marks.
• Given a set number of objects one through ten, answer the question "How many?"
• Pair the number of objects counted with "how many."
• Understand that the last number name tells the number of objects counted.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture, a drawing or objects.
• Pair a group of objects with a number representing the total number of objects in the group (up to ten objects).
• Count objects one-by-one using only one number per object (up to ten objects).
• Recognize that numbers and numerals have meaning.
• Recognize numerals 0 (zero) through 10.
• Identify the difference between written numbers and other written things.
• Identify the difference between written numbers and objects.
• Rote count to ten.
• Communicate some number words.
• Recognize after.
• Recognize before.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.1 Using vocalization, sign language, augmentative communication, or assistive technology, count to 15 by ones starting with one.

Count to tell the number of objects.
 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 10 Learning Activities: 6 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
4. Connect counting to cardinality using a variety of concrete objects.

a. Say the number names in consecutive order when counting objects.

b. Indicate that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted in a set.

c. Indicate that the number of objects in a set is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

d. Explain that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Count an object saying the number name.
• Tell the number of objects in a set.
• Specify the number of objects in a set regardless of arrangement.
• Explain "one more".
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Cardinality
• One to one correspondence
• Hierarchical inclusion
Knowledge:
Students know:
• Use one to one correspondence when counting objects.
• how to rote count in consecutive order.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• count objects with one to one correspondence.
• Indicate the number of objects.
• Explain one more.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• a number represents a quantity.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.4.1: Define number and counting.
M.K.4.2: Identify correct number of objects for a given number up to 20.
M.K.4.3: Identify different size groups of objects up to 10.

a.
M.K.4.4: Count to 20 by ones.
M.K.4.5: Mimic counting objects.

b.
M.K.4.6: Know that the last number tells how many when counting 0 to 5 objects.
M.K.4.7: Mimic counting objects up to 20.
M.K.4.8: Count to 20 by ones.
M.K.4.9: Mimic counting to 20 by ones.

c.
M.K.4.10: Define one larger/one more.
M.K.4.11: Count objects in a group and identify total after adding one more.
M.K.4.12: Count in sequential order.
M.K.4.13: Mimic counting in sequential order.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Count to 20 and above.
• Mimic counting by ones.
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Become interested in how many objects she/he has.
• Continue to have an interest in counting.
• Understand the concept of size and amount.
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Understand that some have more, and some have less.
• Become more interested in the concept of some and all.
• Given a set number of objects one through ten, answer the question "how many?"
• Pair the number of objects counted with "how many."
• Understand that the last number name tells the number of objects counted.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture, a drawing or objects.
• Pair a group of objects with a number representing the total number of objects in the group (up to ten objects).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.4 Demonstrate one-to-one correspondence, pairing each object with one, and only one, number and each number with one, and only one, object (limit numbers and objects to five).

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 6 Learning Activities: 3 Classroom Resources: 3
5. Count to answer "how many?" questions.

a. Count using no more than 20 concrete objects arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle.

b. Count using no more than 10 concrete objects in a scattered configuration.

c. Draw the number of objects that matches a given numeral from 0 to 20.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Answer questions regarding how many objects are in a set in various configurations.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Rectangular array
• Subitize
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to use one-to-one correspondence when counting objects.
• how to demonstrate number word sequence.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• count sequentially.
• Use one to one correspondence.
• Subitize.
• Represent a number of objects within 0 to 20.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• numbers name quantities regardless of their arrangement.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.5.1: Define how many, all together, and in all.
M.K.5.2: Demonstrate one to one correspondence.
Example: Point to only one object when counting, and stop counting when all objects have been touched.
M.K.5.3: Count to 20 by ones.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Understand amount words, such as more, less, and another.
• Begin to understand that parts of an object can make a whole.
• Be interested in who has more or less.
• Understand the concept of "less than".
• Mimic counting by ones.
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Become interested in how many objects she/he has.
• Continue to have an interest in counting.
• Understand the concept of size and amount.
• Make purposeful marks.
• Given a set number of objects one through ten, answer the question "How many?"
• Pair the number of objects counted with "how many."
• Understand that the last number name tells the number of objects counted.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture, a drawing or objects.
• Pair a group of objects with a number representing the total number of objects in the group.
• Count objects one-by-one using only one number per object.
• Recognize that numbers and numerals have meaning.
• Recognize numerals 0 through 10.
• Rote count to ten.
• Communicate number words.
• Recognize after.
• Recognize before.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.5 Using vocalization, sign language, augmentative communication, or assistive technology, count out up to five objects from a larger set, pairing each object with one, and only one, number name to tell how many.

Compare numbers.
 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 8 Learning Activities: 4 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 3
6. Orally identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater/more than, less/fewer than, or equal/the same as the number of objects in another group, in groups containing up to 10 objects, by using matching, counting, or other strategies.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Explain and justify answers to questions such as "which group has more?" or "which group has less?".
• Answer questions such as which group has more or less by matching, recognizing without counting (subitizing), or counting up to 10 objects.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Compare
• Greater than
• More than
• Less than
• Fewer than
• Equal
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to identify which number is larger and which number is smaller.
• number word sequence.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Count sequentially.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• a set of objects is either greater than, less than, or equal to another set of objects.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.6.1: Define greater than, less than, and equal to.
M.K.6.2: Count to 20 by ones.
M.K.6.3: Count objects up to ten.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Understand amount words, such as more, less, and another.
• Begin to understand that parts of an object can make a whole.
• Become more interested in the concept of some and all.
• Be interested in who has more or less.
• Understand the concept of "less than".
• Mimic counting by ones.
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Become interested in how many objects she/he has.
• Understand the concept of size and amount.
• Given a set number of objects one through ten, answer the question "how many?"
• Pair the number of objects counted with "how many."
• Understand that the last number name tells the number of objects counted.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture, a drawing or objects.
• Pair a group of objects with a number representing the total number of objects in the group.
• Count objects one-by-one using only one number per object.
• Recognize that numbers and numerals have meaning.
• Recognize numerals 0 through 10.
• Rote count to ten.
• Communicate number words.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.6 Identify whether the number of objects in one group is more or less than (e.g., when the quantities are clearly different) or equal to the number of objects in another group.

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 2 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
7. Compare two numbers between 0 and 10 presented as written numerals (without using inequality symbols).
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Justify their identification of the larger or smaller pair of numerals using a variety of strategies such as referring to their order in the counting sequence, modeling the quantities, and using relational thinking.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Relational thinking
• Inequality symbols
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to identify which number is larger and which number is smaller with number 0 - 10.
• number word sequence.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• count sequentially.
• Apply strategies for comparing numbers.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• successive number names refer to quantities that are larger than the previous numbers in the counting sequence.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.7.1: Compare numbers 1 to 10 using objects.
M.K.7.2: Name numerals 1 to 10.
M.K.7.3: Identify numerals 1 to 10.
M.K.7.4: Count to 10 by ones.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Understand amount words, such as more, less, and another.
• Begin to understand that parts of an object can make a whole.
• Become more interested in the concept of some and all.
• Be interested in who has more or less.
• Understand the concept of "less than".
• Mimic counting by ones.
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Become interested in how many objects she/he has.
• Understand the concept of size and amount.
• Given a set number of objects one through ten, answer the question "how many?"
• Pair the number of objects counted with "how many."
• Understand that the last number name tells the number of objects counted.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture, a drawing or objects.
• Pair a group of objects with a number representing the total number of objects in the group.
• Recognize less/fewer.
• Recognize greater/more.
• Recognize same/equal.
• Count objects one-by-one using only one number per object.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.6 Identify whether the number of objects in one group is more or less than (e.g., when the quantities are clearly different) or equal to the number of objects in another group.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.
*Note: Drawings need not be detailed but should show the mathematics in the problem.
 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 6 Learning Activities: 3 Classroom Resources: 3
8. Represent addition and subtraction up to 10 with concrete objects, fingers, pennies, mental images, drawings, claps or other sounds, acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Create representations of the quantities and the actions in the situations using physical, pictorial, or symbolic representations.
• Explain the representations of the quantities and actions in the situations using physical, pictorial, or symbolic representations.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Expression
• Equation
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to represent addition and subtraction using models, pictures or symbolic representations.
• how to explain representations of quantities.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Represent quantities and operations physically, pictorially, or symbolically.
• Use informational and mathematical language to communicate the connections among addition and subtraction.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• both putting together and adding to can be viewed as addition.
• both taking apart and taking from can be viewed as subtraction.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.8.1: Define addition as combining groups of objects.
M.K.8.2: Define subtraction as separating groups of objects.
M.K.8.3: Represent numbers with objects or drawings.
M.K.8.4: Separate sets with nine or fewer objects.
M.K.8.5: Combine objects to form sets up to nine.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Subtract one from a set of objects (up to 10 objects).
• Add one to a set of objects (up to 10 objects).
• Given a group of objects (ten or less), divide the group into smaller groups in various ways.
• Given small groups of objects, create larger groups by combining the small groups.
• Take away objects from a large group to create two smaller groups.
• Put together two small groups of objects to create a larger group.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture a drawing or objects.
• Rote count to ten.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.8 Demonstrate an understanding of addition as "putting together" or subtraction as "taking from" in everyday activities, limited to 5 objects.

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 2
9. Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, by using concrete objects or drawings to represent the problem.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Explain and justify solutions using connections among a variety of representations given oral addition and subtraction word problems within ten.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Concrete objects
• Drawings
Knowledge:
Students know:
• Characteristics of addition and subtraction contexts such as putting together, adding to, taking apart, and taking from.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• represent quantities and operations physically, pictorially, or symbolically.
• Strategically use a variety of representations to solve addition and subtraction word problems.
• Use informal and mathematical language to communicate addition and subtraction representations.
• Accurately compute sums and differences.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• both putting together and adding to can be viewed as addition.
• both taking apart and taking from can be viewed as subtraction.
• Mathematical problems can be solved using a variety of strategies and representations.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.9.1: Understand key words in addition and subtraction word problems.
Examples: all together, how many more, how many are left, in all.
M.K.9.2: Represent numbers with objects or drawings.
M.K.9.3: Separate sets with nine or fewer objects.
M.K.9.4: Combine objects to form sets up to nine.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Use models, solve word problems with two given sets (e.g., objects, drawings); using "putting together"; add within nine.
• Use models, solve word problems with two given sets (e.g., objects, drawings); using "putting together"; add within five.
• Represent addition and subtraction with objects, pictures, fingers, or sounds within nine.
• Understand addition as putting together and subtraction as taking from.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects.
• Rote count to 10.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.8 Demonstrate an understanding of addition as "putting together" or subtraction as "taking from" in everyday activities, limited to 5 objects.

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 10 Learning Activities: 6 Classroom Resources: 4
10. Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs of smaller numbers in more than one way, by using concrete objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation.

Example: 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Use objects or drawings to decompose the given number into at least two pairs of smaller numbers.
• Record their solutions using pictures or equations.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Decompose
• Equation
Knowledge:
Students know:
• "equal to" and the concept of equality meaning "the same as."
• Addition is putting together numbers and subtraction is taking apart numbers.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Represent quantities physically, pictorially, and symbolically.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• quantities may be named in a variety of ways.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.10.1: Identify plus, minus, and equal signs.
M.K.10.2: Match numerals to objects or drawings.
M.K.10.3: Identify numerals 1 to 10.
M.K.10.4: Count 0 to 10.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Subtract one from a set of objects (up to five objects).
• Add one to a set of objects (up to five objects).
• Given a group of objects (ten or less), divide the group into smaller groups in various ways.
• Given small groups of objects, create larger groups by combining the small groups.
• Take away objects from a large group to create two smaller groups.
• Put together two small groups of objects to create a larger group.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture a drawing or objects.
• Rote count to ten.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.8 Demonstrate an understanding of addition as "putting together" or subtraction as "taking from" in everyday activities, limited to 5 objects.

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 5 Learning Activities: 4 Classroom Resources: 1
11. For any number from 0 to 10, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, by using concrete objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Given any number from 0 to 10 use a variety of representations and problem solving strategies to determine the number that when added to the given number equals 10.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Compose
Knowledge:
Students know:
• Characteristics of addition and subtraction contexts such as putting together, adding to, taking apart, and taking from.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Represent quantities and operations physically, pictorially, or symbolically.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• two smaller quantities join to create a larger target quantity.
• A quantity may be broken into smaller quantities.
• Mathematical tools and representations (ten frames and ten fingers) can be used to solve problems efficiently.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.11.1: Write numerals from 0 to 10.
M.K.11.2: Represent a given numeral 1 to 10 with objects or drawings.
M.K.11.3: Count forward from a given number 1 to 10.
M.K.11.4: Model joining sets of objects to total 10.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Add one to a set of objects (up to five objects).
• Given small groups of objects, create larger groups by combining the small groups.
• Put together two small groups of objects to create a larger group.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture a drawing or objects.
• Rote count to ten.
• Understand number words.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.8 Demonstrate an understanding of addition as "putting together" or subtraction as "taking from" in everyday activities, limited to 5 objects.

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
12. Fluently add and subtract within 5.

Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Use an efficient strategy to accurately name the sums or differences within 5.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Fluently
Knowledge:
Students know:
• characteristics of addition and subtraction contexts such as putting together, adding to, taking apart, and taking from.
• Strategies for efficiently determining sums and differences within five.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Use addition strategies efficiently.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Fluency involves a mixture of "just knowing" answers, knowing answers from patterns, and knowing answers from the use of strategies. The word fluently is used in the standards to mean accurately, efficiently, and flexibly.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.12.1: Decompose numbers up to 5 using objects or drawings.
M.K.12.2: Compose numbers up to 5 using objects or drawings.
M.K.12.3: Count backward from 5.
M.K.12.4: Count forward to 5.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Subtract one from a set of objects (up to five objects).
• Given a group of objects (ten or less), divide the group into smaller groups in various ways.
• Take away objects from a large group to create two smaller groups.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture a drawing or objects.
• Understand number words.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.8 Demonstrate an understanding of addition as "putting together" or subtraction as "taking from" in everyday activities, limited to 5 objects.

Understand simple patterns.
 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
13. Duplicate and extend simple patterns using concrete objects.

Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Duplicate and extend the sequence when given a simple pattern.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Simple pattern
• Sequence
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to sort and group objects before being able to duplicate and extend simple patterns.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Duplicate and extend simple patterns.
Understanding:
Students should understand that:
• looking for, describing, and extending patterns helps them develop the skills in all mathematical situations.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.13.1: Define ones and tens.
M.K.13.2: Match the number in the ones and tens position to a pictorial representation or manipulative of the value.
M.K.13.3: Add numbers 1-9 to ten to create teen numbers using manipulatives or place value blocks.
M.K.13.4: Count objects up to 10.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture a drawing or objects.
• Understand first and next.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.13 Using vocalization, sign language, augmentative communication, or assistive technology, duplicate and extend simple patterns using concrete objects.

Operations with Numbers
Work with numbers 11- 19 to gain foundations for place value.
 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 3 Classroom Resources: 3
14. Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 by using concrete objects or drawings to demonstrate understanding that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Given any two-digit number from 11 and 19, use drawings or concrete objects to show and explain the decomposition of the number into one group of 10 and the correct number of ones.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Compose
• Decompose
Knowledge:
Students know:
• the number sequence to 19.
• Strategies to decompose a number into tens and ones.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Use objects to compose and decompose numbers.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• ten things can be represented as one ten or as ten ones.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.14.1: Define ones and tens.
M.K.14.2: Match the number in the ones and tens position to a pictorial representation or manipulative of the value.
M.K.14.3: Add numbers 1-9 to ten to create teen numbers using manipulatives or place value blocks.
M.K.14.4: Count objects up to 10.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Recognize numbers from zero to ten.
• Add one to a set of objects (up to 10 objects).
• Given small groups of objects, create larger groups by combining the small groups.
• Subtract one from a set of objects (up to five objects).
• Put together two small groups of objects to create a larger group.
• Given a group of objects (ten or less), divide the group into smaller groups in various ways.
• Take away objects from a large group to create two smaller groups.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture a drawing or objects.
• Rote count to ten.
• Understand number words.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.14 Compose numbers from 11-15 by using concrete objects or drawings to demonstrate understanding that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, or five ones.

Data Analysis
Collect and analyze data and interpret results.
 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 4 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
15. Classify objects into given categories of 10 or fewer; count the number of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.

a. Categorize data on Venn diagrams, pictographs, and "yes-no" charts using real objects, symbolic representations, or pictorial representations.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
Given a group of objects,
• sort the objects into categories (no more than ten objects in any category).
• Count the number of objects in each category.
• Order the categories by count.
• Justify their reasoning.
• Discuss information conveyed in analyzing graphs.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Classify
• Venn diagrams
• Pictographs
• Yes/no charts
• Bar graphs
• Symbolic representations
• Pictorial representations
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to count.
• Sort objects.
• Category descriptors (e.g. triangles, rectangles, round, curved sides, color, etc).
Skills:
Students are able to:
• sort objects.
• Effectively use strategies to count groups of objects.
• Read and understand graphs.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• objects can be grouped into categories based on like characteristics.
• They can gain information from graphs.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.15.1: Identify more and less when given two groups of objects.
M.K.15.2: Identify object attributes.
Examples: color, shape, size, texture, use.
M.K.15.3: Count objects up to ten.
M.K.15.4: Count to 10 by ones.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Participate in creating charts or graphs to represent data collection.
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Recognize numbers from one to ten.
• Given a group of objects (ten or less), divide the group into smaller groups in various ways.
• Given small groups of objects, create larger groups by combining the small groups.
• Take away objects from a large group to create two smaller groups.
• Put together two small groups of objects to create a larger group.
• Establish one-to-one correspondence between numbers and objects when given a picture a drawing or objects.
• Rote count to ten.
• Begin to name and match colors, sizes, and shapes.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Understand that some have more, and some have less.
• Sort objects based on shape or color.
• Name and match primary colors.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.15 Explore a simple pictograph (limited to two categories and limit a combined quantity of 5 for both categories).

Measurement
Describe and compare measurable attributes.
 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 9 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 4 Unit Plans: 1
16. Identify and describe measurable attributes (length, weight, height) of a single object using vocabulary such as long/short, heavy/light, or tall/short.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Given a variety of 2D and 3D objects, use informal language (short, tall, heavy, light, fat, skinny, etc.) to describe measurable attributes of objects such as length or weight.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Attribute
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to describe similarities and differences in objects.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Describe measurable attributes of objects using informal language.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• objects can be described by using measurable attributes.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.16.1: Define length and weight.
M.K.16.2: Explore objects in relationship to length and weight.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Begin to name and match colors, sizes, and shapes.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Understand that some have more, and some have less.
• Sort a variety of objects in a group that have one thing in common.
• Recognize and sort familiar objects with the same size.
• Have an interest in the order of things.
• Understand the concept of smallest and shortest.
• Understand the concept of same shape and size.
• Understand the concept of smallest and shortest.
• Understand the concept of light and heavy.
• Understand the concept long and short.
• Classify common objects according to height (tall/short).
• Classify common objects according to length (long/short).
• Classify common objects according to weight (heavy/light).

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.16 Classify objects according to attributes (e.g., big/small, heavy/light, tall/short).

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 7 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 5
17. Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common to see which object has "more of" or "less of" the attribute and describe the difference.

Example: Directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as "taller" or "shorter."
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Use direct comparisons of physical objects to determine and explain which object has more of or less of the attribute.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Attribute
Knowledge:
Students know:
• how to describe similarities and differences in objects.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Directly compare two objects and explain which object has more of or less of the attribute.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• objects and geometric figures have measurable attributes that allow them to be compared.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.17.1: Use vocabulary related to length and weight.
Example: longer, shorter, heavier, lighter.
M.K.17.2: Identify objects by length and weight.
Example: shortest pencil, heaviest rock.
M.K.17.3: Sort objects according to measurable attributes.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Begin to name and match colors, sizes, and shapes.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Understand that some have more, and some have less.
• Sort objects based on shape or color.
• Name and match primary colors.
• Sort objects on the basis of both color and shape.
• Sort a variety of objects in a group that have one thing in common.
• Recognize and sort familiar objects with the same color, shape, or size.
• Understand the concept of same shape and size.
• Understand the concept of smallest and shortest.
• Understand the concept of light and heavy.
• Understand the concept long and short.
• Classify common objects according to height (tall/short).
• Classify common objects according to length (long/short).
• Classify common objects according to weight (heavy/light).
• Classify common objects according to size (big/small).
• Communicate long, short, heavy, light, big, small.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.16 Classify objects according to attributes (e.g., big/small, heavy/light, tall/short).

Geometry
Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).
 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 1 Learning Activities: 1
18. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Describe objects in the environment using name of shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).
• Describe the relative position of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Two dimensional
• Three dimensional
Knowledge:
Students know:
• 2D and 3D shapes.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes.
• Describe the relative position of objects.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• the world is made up of geometric shapes.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.18.1: Recognize location and position.
Examples: above, below, beside, in front of, behind, next to.
M.K.18.2: Identify cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres.
M.K.18.3: Imitate actions to place items.
Examples: in, on, under.
M.K.18.4: Match shapes.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Begin to name and match colors, sizes, and shapes.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Understand that some have more, and some have less.
• Sort objects based on shape or color.
• Name and match primary colors.
• Sort objects on the basis of both color and shape.
• Sort a variety of objects in a group that have one thing in common.
• Recognize and sort familiar objects with the same color, shape, or size.
• Understand and point to a triangle, a circle, and a square, rectangle.
• Understand the concept of same shape and size.
• Have an interest in the order of things.
• Understand the concept of smallest and shortest.
• Begin to learn positional words.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.18 Recognize and match shapes of the same size and orientation, and describe the relative positions using in front of and behind (limited to circle, square, rectangle, and triangle).

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 2 Classroom Resources: 1
19. Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall sizes.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Use visual characteristics of shapes to orally justify naming 2D and 3D shapes in a variety of sizes and orientations.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Two dimensional
• Three dimensional
Knowledge:
Students know:
• 2D and 3D shapes.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Use geometric reasoning and visual characteristics of shapes to name shapes in a variety of sizes and orientations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• geometric shapes can be sorted based on like characteristics.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.19.1: Recognize shapes.
M.K.19.2: Sort shapes with different attributes.
Examples: sort different size or color squares, circles, triangles, rectangles or hexagons.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Begin to name and match colors, sizes, and shapes.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Understand that some have more, and some have less.
• Sort objects based on shape or color.
• Name and match primary colors.
• Sort objects on the basis of both color and shape.
• Sort a variety of objects in a group that have one thing in common.
• Recognize and sort familiar objects with the same color, shape, or size.
• Understand and point to a triangle, a circle, a square and rectangle.
• Understand the concept of same shape and size.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.18 Recognize and match shapes of the same size and orientation, and describe the relative positions using in front of and behind (limited to circle, square, rectangle, and triangle).

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 7 Learning Activities: 1 Classroom Resources: 6
20. Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or three-dimensional ("solid").
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Use visual characteristics of shapes (flat, fat, sticking out, solid, etc.) to justify categorizing shapes as 2D or 3D.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Two dimensional
• Three dimensional
Knowledge:
Students know:
• Characteristics of 2D and 3D shapes.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Use geometric reasoning and visual characteristics of shapes to designate shapes as 2D or 3D.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• geometrics shapes can be grouped into classes of 2D or 3D shapes based on their physical characteristics.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.20.1: Define two-dimensional and three-dimensional.
Example: two-dimensional shapes are flat, three-dimensional figures are solid.
M.K.20.2: Sort flat and solid objects.
M.K.20.3: Explore two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional figures.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Begin to name and match sizes and shapes.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Sort objects on the basis of shape.
• Recognize and sort familiar objects with the same shape or size.
• Understand and point to a triangle, a circle, a square and rectangle.
• Understand the concept of same shape and size.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.18 Recognize and match shapes of the same size and orientation, and describe the relative positions using in front of and behind (limited to circle, square, rectangle, and triangle).

Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.
 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 6 Classroom Resources: 6
21. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (number of sides and vertices or "corners"), and other attributes.

Example: Having sides of equal length.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Use informal language to describe, compare, and contrast a variety of 2D and 3D shapes.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Attributes
Knowledge:
Students know:
• attributes of shapes (sides, corners, vertices, faces, edges, etc.).
• Informal language to describe these components.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Use geometric reasoning and attributes to compare and contrast a variety of shapes.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• geometric shapes can be grouped into classes of shapes that all seem to be alike based on their visual characteristics.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.21.1: Define similar and different.
M.K.21.2: Use vocabulary related to two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional figures.
Examples: vertices (corners), faces (flat surfaces), edges, sides, angles.
M.K.21.3: Recognize vocabulary related to two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional figures.
M.K.21.4: Identify two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional figures.
M.K.21.5: Identify shapes.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Begin to name and match sizes and shapes.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Sort objects on the basis of shape.
• Recognize and sort familiar objects with the same shape or size.
• Understand and point to a triangle, a circle, a square and rectangle.
• Understand the concept of same shape and size.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.21 Match a shape to common objects in the same or different sizes and orientations (real or picture; limited to circle, square, rectangle, and triangle).

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
22. Model shapes in the world by building them from sticks, clay balls, or other components and by drawing them.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.
Knowledge:
Students know:
• 2D and 3D shapes (triangle, square, rectangle, hexagon, rhombus, circle, cube, cylinder, sphere, cone).
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Compose shapes with known attributes using a variety of materials (pipe cleaners, marshmallows/toothpicks, etc.).
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• geometric shapes can be constructed and represented using a variety of physical materials.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.22.1: Recognize attributes of shapes.
M.K.22.2: Identify cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres.
M.K.22.3: Identify squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, and hexagons.
M.K.22.4: Identify shapes in the environment.
M.K.22.5: Trace shapes.
M.K.22.6: Make purpose marks such as lines and circles.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Begin to name and match sizes and shapes.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Sort objects on the basis of shape.
• Recognize and sort familiar objects with the same shape or size.
• Understand and point to a triangle, a circle, a square and rectangle.
• Understand the concept of same shape and size.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.21 Match a shape to common objects in the same or different sizes and orientations (real or picture; limited to circle, square, rectangle, and triangle).

 Mathematics (2019) Grade(s): K All Resources: 2 Classroom Resources: 2
23. Use simple shapes to compose larger shapes.

Example: Join two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle.
Unpacked Content Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Combine simple shapes to construct known larger shapes.
Knowledge:
Students know:
• 2D and 3D shapes (triangle, square, rectangle, hexagon, rhombus, circle, cube, cylinder, sphere, cone).
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Combine simple shapes to form larger shapes.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• geometric shapes can be composed of and decomposed into smaller shapes.
Diverse Learning Needs:
Essential Skills:
Learning Objectives:
M.K.23.1: Combine shapes to fill the area of a given shape.
M.K.23.2: Decompose pictures made of simple shapes.
M.K.23.3: Match shapes.
M.K.23.4: Match pieces by color, image, or shape to complete a puzzle.

Prior Knowledge Skills:
• Notice same/different and some/all.
• Begin to name and match sizes and shapes.
• Enjoy playing with all kinds of objects.
• Point to matching or similar objects.
• Understand that words can label sameness and differences.
• Sort objects on the basis of shape.
• Recognize and sort familiar objects with the same shape or size.
• Understand and point to a triangle, a circle, a square and rectangle.
• Understand the concept of same shape and size.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
M.AAS.K.23 Using a model of a larger shape outline, use simple shapes to compose larger shapes.
Example: Join two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle.