# Courses of Study : Science (Grade K)

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 19 Lesson Plans: 4 Classroom Resources: 15
1 ) Investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different strengths and directions act upon them (e.g., object being pushed, object being pulled, two objects colliding).

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different strengths act upon them.
• Investigate the resulting motion of objects when forces of different directions act upon them.
• Predict the effect of the push or pull on the motion of an object, based on prior experiences.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Push
• Pull
• Collide
• Investigate
• Result
• Motion
• Objects
• Forces
• Strengths
• Directions
• Refute
Knowledge:
Students know:
• Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
• Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.
• When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion.
• A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Investigate forces and interactions.
• Describe objects and their motions.
• Describe relative strengths and directions of the push or pull applied to an object.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
*Push and Pull
*Balls and Ramps, Insights
*Sidewalk Safety, ETA/hand2mind

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.13: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far.

NAEP Statement::
P4.14: The motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The size of the change is related to the size of the force (push or pull) and the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is exerted. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.1- Investigate ways to move different objects to include pushing, pulling, and colliding objects.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 9 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 7
2 ) Use observations and data from investigations to determine if a design solution (e.g., designing a ramp to increase the speed of an object in order to move a stationary object) solves the problem of using force to change the speed or direction of an object.*

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Use observations from investigations to determine if a design solution causes the intended change in the speed or direction of the motion of the object.
• Use data from investigations to determine if a design solution solves a problem of using a push or pull to change an object's motion.
• Describe the goal of the design solution.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Force
• Speed
• Direction
• Data
• Observe
• Describe
• Engineering
• Investigation
• Imagine
• Plan
• Create
• Improve
• Solution
Knowledge:
Students know:
• The relative speed or direction of the object before a push or pull is applied (e.g., faster, slower).
• The relative speed or direction of the object after a push or pull is applied.
• How the relative strength of a push or pull affects the speed or direction of an object (e.g., harder, softer).
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Conduct an investigation.
• Collect and record observations from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended.
• Organize information in a usable format.
• Analyze data from tests to determine change in speed or direction.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute ideas about the effects on the motion of the object caused by changes in the strength or direction of the pushes and pulls.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Push and Pull
*Balls and Ramps, Insights
*Sidewalk Safety, ETA/hand2mind

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P4.13: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far.

NAEP Statement::
P4.14: The motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The size of the change is related to the size of the force (push or pull) and the weight (mass) of the object on which the force is exerted. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.2- Observe the movement of objects in a variety of real-world environments.

Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 21 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 17
3 ) Distinguish between living and nonliving things and verify what living things need to survive (e.g., animals needing food, water, and air; plants needing nutrients, water, sunlight, and air).

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Distinguish between living and nonliving things.
• Verify what living things need to survive
• Use observations to distinguish between living and nonliving things and describe patterns of what plants and animals need to survive.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Distinguish
• Living
• Nonliving
• Verify
• Need
• Survive
• Animals
• Plants
• Nutrients
• Water
• Sunlight
• Air
• Food
Knowledge:
Students know:
• All animals need food, water, and air in order to survive.
• Animals obtain their food from plants and other animals.
• Plants need water, light and air to survive.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Distinguish between living (including humans) and nonliving things.
• Verify what living things, including plants and animals, need to survive.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Patterns in the natural world can be observed and used as evidence when distinguishing between living and nonliving things and determining the needs of living things.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Plants and Animals
*Exploring Plants and Animals, STC

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.5: Natural materials have different properties that sustain plant and animal life.

NAEP Statement::
E4.7: The Sun warms the land, air, and water and helps plants grow.

NAEP Statement::
L4.1: Organisms need food, water, and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment in which they can live.*

NAEP Statement::
L4.2: Organisms have basic needs. Animals require air, water, and a source of energy and building material for growth and repair. Plants also require light.

NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.3- Sort a group of items based on whether the items are living or nonliving.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 10 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 7
4 ) Gather evidence to support how plants and animals provide for their needs by altering their environment (e.g., tree roots breaking a sidewalk to provide space, red fox burrowing to create a den to raise young, humans growing gardens for food and building roads for transportation).

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Make a claim using evidence to show how plants and animals sometimes alter their environment to ensure their needs are met.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Gather
• Evidence
• Support
• Plant
• Animal
• Provide
• Needs
• Alter
• Environment
• Claim
Knowledge:
Students know:
• Plants and animals meet their needs.
• Plants change their environment to meet their needs.
• Animals change their environment to meet their needs.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Gather data (evidence) to support a claim that plants and animals alter the environment when meeting their needs.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Systems in the natural and designed world have parts that work together like the plants and animals within their environments.
AMSTI Resources:
*vocabulary related to specific examples
AMSTI Module:
Plants and Animals
*Exploring Plants and Animals, STC

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.11: Humans depend on their natural and constructed environment. Humans change environments in ways that can either be beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.1: Organisms need food, water, and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment in which they can live.*

NAEP Statement::
L4.2: Organisms have basic needs. Animals require air, water, and a source of energy and building material for growth and repair. Plants also require light.

NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

NAEP Statement::
L4.7: Different kinds of organisms have characteristics that enable them to survive in different environments. Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.4- Observe and/or identify ways plants and animals alter their environment to live.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 7 Learning Activities: 2 Lesson Plans: 3 Classroom Resources: 2
5 ) Construct a model of a natural habitat (e.g., terrarium, ant farm, diorama) conducive to meeting the needs of plants and animals native to Alabama.

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Construct a model of a natural habitat conducive to meeting the needs of plants and animals native to Alabama.
• Use the model to describe the relationships between the different plants and animals and the materials they need to survive.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Construct
• Model
• Natural
• Habitat
• Conducive
• Needs
• Plants
• Animals
• Native
• Alabama
Knowledge:
Students know:
• Needs of plants and animals native to Alabama.
• How to construct a model of a natural habitat and can identify and describe the components of the model
• Places where the different plants and animals live.
• The relationship between where plants and animals live and the resources those places provide
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Construct a model of interactions that occur in a natural habitat.
• Use a model to represent and describe the relationships between the components.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Systems in the natural environments of Alabama have parts that work together and can be represented.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Plants and Animals
*Exploring Plants and Animals, STC

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L4.1: Organisms need food, water, and air; a way to dispose of waste; and an environment in which they can live.*

NAEP Statement::
L4.2: Organisms have basic needs. Animals require air, water, and a source of energy and building material for growth and repair. Plants also require light.

NAEP Statement::
L4.3: Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways, including providing food and shelter to one another. Organisms can survive only in environments in which their needs are met. Some interactions are beneficial; others are detrimental to the organism and other organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L4.4: When the environment changes, some plants and animals survive and reproduce; others die or move to new locations.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.5- Participate in the construction and/or care of a model habitat of plants and animals native to Alabama.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 15 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 4 Classroom Resources: 9 Unit Plans: 1
6 ) Identify and plan possible solutions (e.g., reducing, reusing, recycling) to lessen the human impact on the local environment.*

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Identify possible solutions to lesson the human impact on the local environment.
• Plan possible solutions to lesson the human impact on the local environment.
• Identify potential human impacts on the local environment.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Identify
• Plan
• Solution
• Human impact
• Local
• Environment
• Reduce
• Reuse
• Recycle
• Causes
• Create
• Imagine
• Improve
Knowledge:
Students know:
• Human impact can have both positive and negative impact on the environment.
• We can create possible solutions to reduce the negative impacts on the environment.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Identify possible solutions to lessen human impact on the environment.
• Plan possible solutions to lessen human impact on the environment.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Human impact has a positive and negative effect on the local environment.
• There are solutions that can lessen the negative impacts on a local environment.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Plants and Animals
*Exploring Plants and Animals, STC

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.10: The supply of many Earth resources such as fuels, metals, fresh water, and farmland is limited. Humans have devised methods for extending the use of Earth resources through recycling, reuse, and renewal.

NAEP Statement::
E4.11: Humans depend on their natural and constructed environment. Humans change environments in ways that can either be beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.6- Classify human activities as harmful or helpful to the environment.

Earth's Systems
 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 6 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 4
7 ) Observe and describe the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface (e.g., heat from the sun causing evaporation of water or increased temperature of soil, rocks, sand, and water).

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Observe the effects of sunlight on the Earth's surface.
• Describe the effects of sunlight on the Earth's surface.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Observe
• Describe
• Sunlight
• Earth
• Surface
• Evaporation
• Temperature
Knowledge:
Students know:
• Sunlight warms the Earth's surface.
• Know different patterns of relative warmth of materials in sunlight and in shade (e.g., hotter, warmer, cooler, and colder)
• Materials on the Earth's surface can be investigated (e.g., dirt, sand, water) and described.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Investigate the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface.
• Observe the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface.
• Describe the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Sunlight causes an observable effect on the Earth's surfaces including: water, soil, rocks, sand, grass.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Weather Walk
*Weather, STC
*Sunny Sandbox, ETA/hand2mind
*Clouds, GLOBE

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.7: The Sun warms the land, air, and water and helps plants grow.

NAEP Statement::
E4.8: Weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

NAEP Statement::
E4.9: Scientists use tools for observing, recording, and predicting weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.7- Give examples of the sun's effects on the Earth (limited to heat and light).

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2
8 ) Design and construct a device (e.g., hat, canopy, umbrella, tent) to reduce the effects of sunlight.*

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Design a device to reduce the effects of sunlight.
• Construct a device to reduce the effects of sunlight.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Design
• Construct
• Device
• Sunlight
• Reduce
• Effects
• Create
• Imagine
• Improve
• Plan
Knowledge:
Students know:
• The problem.
• The design solution.
• What way the design solution uses the given scientific information about the warming effect of the Sun on Earth's surface.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Use tools and materials provided to design and build a device that reduces the effects of sunlight.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Structures can reduce the effects of sunlight on Earth's surface.
• Whether or not a device meets expectations in terms of cause (device reduces effects of sunlight) and effect (less warming).
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Weather Walk
*Weather, STC
*Sunny Sandbox, ETA/hand2mind
*Clouds, GLOBE

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.7: The Sun warms the land, air, and water and helps plants grow.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.8- Participate in the construction of a device to reduce the effects of sunlight.

 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 11 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 2 Classroom Resources: 8
9 ) Observe, record, and share findings of local weather patterns over a period of time (e.g., increase in daily temperature from morning to afternoon, typical rain and storm patterns from season to season).

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Systems
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Observe local weather patterns over a period of time.
• Record local weather patterns over a period of time.
• Share findings of local weather patterns over a period of time.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Observe
• Record
• Share
• Findings
• Weather
• Patterns
• Period of Time
Knowledge:
Students know:
• The number of sunny, cloudy, rainy, windy, cool, or warm days.
• The relative temperature at various times of the day (e.g., cooler in the morning, warmer during the day, cooler at night).
• The relative number of days of different types of weather conditions in a month.
• The change in the relative temperature over the course of the day.
• Certain months have more days of some kinds of weather than do other months (e.g., some months have more hot days, some have more rainy days).
• The differences in relative temperature over the course of a day (e.g., between early morning and the afternoon, between one day and another) are directly related to the time of day.
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Observe weather patterns over a period of time.
• Record findings of weather patterns over a period of time.
• Share findings of weather patterns over a period of time.
• Describe patterns in the weather data.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Patterns of weather can be observed, used to describe phenomena, and used as evidence.
• Whether events have causes that generate observable patterns.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Weather Walk
*Weather, STC
*Sunny Sandbox, ETA/hand2mind
*Clouds, GLOBE

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.8: Weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

NAEP Statement::
E4.9: Scientists use tools for observing, recording, and predicting weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.9- Participate in daily weather activities with common symbols (e.g., sun, cloud, rain, wind, snowflake).

Earth and Human Activity
 Science (2015) Grade(s): K All Resources: 3 Learning Activities: 1 Lesson Plans: 1 Classroom Resources: 1
10 ) Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecasts in planning for, preparing for, and responding to severe weather.*

Unpacked Content
Scientific And Engineering Practices:
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth and Human Activity
Evidence Of Student Attainment:
Students:
• Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecast in planning for severe weather.
• Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecast in preparing for severe weather.
• Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecast for responding to severe weather.
Teacher Vocabulary:
• Weather
• Forecasting
• Severe
• Purpose
• Obtain Information
Knowledge:
Students know:
• There are patterns related to local severe weather that can be observed (e.g., certain types of severe weather happen more in certain places).
• Weather patterns (e.g., some events are more likely to occur in certain regions) help scientist predict severe weather before it happens.
• Severe weather warnings are used to communicate predictions about severe weather.
• Weather forecasting can help people plan for, and respond to, specific local weather (e.g., responses: stay indoors during severe weather, go to cooling centers during heat waves; preparations: evacuate coastal areas before a hurricane, cover windows before storms).
Skills:
Students are able to:
• Obtain, evaluate and communicate information from observations and grade appropriate text or media.
• Obtain information to describe patterns in the natural world.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
• Severe weather has causes that generate observable patterns.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Weather Walk
*Weather, STC
*Sunny Sandbox, ETA/hand2mind
*Clouds, GLOBE

NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
E4.8: Weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

NAEP Statement::
E4.9: Scientists use tools for observing, recording, and predicting weather changes from day to day and during the seasons.

Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.K.10- Associate seasons of the year with various weather conditions and identify how to prepare for certain conditions (e.g., tornados, floods, snow).