Courses of Study : English Language Arts (Grade 1)

Recurring Standards
English Language Arts (2021)
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R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
English Language Arts (2021)
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R2. Use knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately.
English Language Arts (2021)
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R3. Expand background knowledge and build vocabulary through discussion, reading, and writing.
English Language Arts (2021)
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R4. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically for research and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
English Language Arts (2021)
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R5. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
Literacy Foundations
Oral Language
English Language Arts (2021)
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1. Engage in collaborative discussions about topics and texts with peers and adults in small and large groups, utilizing agreed-upon rules.
English Language Arts (2021)
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2. Actively participate in shared reading experiences and collaborative discussions to build background knowledge and learn how oral reading should sound.

Examples: read-alouds, oral dramatic activities
English Language Arts (2021)
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3. Ask and answer questions to seek help, get information, or clarify information to confirm understanding in response to information presented in audible, text, or digital format.
English Language Arts (2021)
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4. Present information orally using complete sentences and appropriate volume.

a. Orally describe people, places, things, and events, expressing ideas with relevant details.
Concepts of Print
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5. Locate a book's title, table of contents, glossary, and the names of author(s) and illustrator(s).

a. Explain the roles of author(s) and illustrator(s).
Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
English Language Arts (2021)
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6. Demonstrate basic to advanced phonological and phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.

a. Count, blend, segment, and delete syllables in spoken words, including polysyllabic words.

Examples: par-ti-cu-lar, cer-ti-fi-cate

b. Recognize and produce groups of rhyming words and distinguish them from non-rhyming groups of spoken words.

c. Produce alliterative words.

d. Blend and segment phonemes in single-syllable spoken words made up of three to five phonemes, including words with consonant blends.

e. Add, delete, and substitute phonemes at the beginning or end of spoken words made up of three to five phonemes, and produce the resulting word.

Examples: pan to pant; flight to light; cat to cap

f. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken, single-syllable words.

g. Distinguish between commonly-confused vowel sounds and commonly-confused cognate consonant sounds, using knowledge of mouth position, voiced and unvoiced sounds, and manner of articulation.

Examples: /f/ and /v/, /p/ and /b/, /t/ and /d/, /k/ and /g/, /m/ and /n/, /ng/ and /n/, /s/ and /z/, unvoiced /th/ and voiced /th/, /ch/ and /sh/, /ĕ/ and /ā/, /ĕ/ and /ă/

Note: This is extremely important as a foundational phonemic awareness skill for all learners.

h. Identify the sound substitution in words with five to six phonemes.

Example: strips/straps, square/squire
Phonics
English Language Arts (2021)
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7. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately both in isolation and within decodable, grade-appropriate texts.

a. Produce the most frequent sound(s) for each letter of the alphabet, including x, q, and the long and short sounds of the vowels.

Examples: x= /ks/; q=/kw/; a=/ă/ and /ā/, s= /s/ and /z/

b. Decode and encode regularly-spelled, one-syllable words with closed syllables, open syllables, and vowel-consonant-e syllables, including words with blends in initial and final position.

Note: Consonant blends should include st-, sm-, sn-, -st, -ft, -lp, sl, cr, cl, tr, dr, nt, nd, mp, and nk, at a minimum.

c. Decode words with digraphs, trigraphs, and combinations, including digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ph, ng, trigraphs tch and dge, and combination qu.

Note: Some programs/experts call wh a combination, others call it a digraph. Use common language across the school/district.

d. Decode words with a after w read /ä/ and a before l read /â/.

Examples: wash, water, wasp; tall, all, talk, small, fall

e. With prompting and support, decode words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.

Examples: c=/k/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and c= /s/ before i, e, or y; g=/g/before a, o, u, or any consonant and g=/j/ before i, e, or y

f. Decode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words, distinguishing the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words, and words with vowel y in medial position, producing the short /ĭ/ sound for these words.

Examples: fly, my; baby, happy; myth, gym

g. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words with vowel-r syllables, including ar, er, ir, or, and ur.

h. With prompting and support, decode words with common vowel team syllables, including ai, ay, ee, ea, igh, ie, oa, ou, ow, au, aw, oe, oo, ew, oi, oy, and ue.

i. With prompting and support, decode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.

Examples: mild, host, fold, jolt, kind

j. With prompting and support, decode two-syllable words using knowledge of closed syllables, open syllables, vowel-consonant-e syllables, vowel-r syllables, common vowel team syllables, and consonant-le syllables, including compound words that fit multiple syllable types.

k. With prompting and support, decode words with silent letter combinations.

Examples: kn, wr, mb, gh, gn

l. With prompting and support, decode words with common prefixes including un-, dis-, in-, re-, pre-, mis-, non-, and ex-.

m. With prompting and support, decode words with common suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.

Examples: -s, -ed, -ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly

n. Decode contractions with am, is, has, and not.

Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't

o. Decode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

Examples: saw, all, made, can, his, walk, let, open, time
Fluency
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 1
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8. Apply previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences to decodable words with accuracy and automaticity, in and out of context.
English Language Arts (2021)
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9. Read grade-appropriate texts with accuracy and fluency.

a. Read and reread grade-appropriate decodable text orally with accuracy and expression at an appropriate rate to support comprehension.

b. Recognize and self-correct decoding and other errors in word recognition and reread for clarification.

c. Participate in poetry reading, noticing phrasing, rhythm, and rhyme.

Example: Pause between stanzas and between lines where punctuation indicates.
English Language Arts (2021)
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10. Read high-frequency words commonly found in grade-appropriate text.

Note: High-frequency words should be taught with the main emphasis of the lesson being on regular correspondences and patterns within the word. The student should be able to read the word accurately and independently three times in a row on different days to be considered accurate enough to add to a personal word box, word ring, or fluency folder for fluency practice. Avoid teaching high-frequency words as "sight words" that need to be memorized as a whole word, unless there are no regular correspondences in the word. "Of" is an example of a word with no regular correspondences.
Vocabulary
English Language Arts (2021)
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11. Utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary, make connections to previously learned words, and relate new words to background knowledge.

a. Make connections to a word's structure using knowledge of phonology, morphology, and orthography of the word to aid learning.
English Language Arts (2021)
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12. Ask and answer questions about unfamiliar words and phrases in discussions and/or text.

a. Identify possessives and plurals and use them as clues to the meaning of text.

Example: Jack's coat, mom's car; pigs, pig's, pigs'

b. Identify meaningful parts of words (morphemes) and use them as clues to the meaning of unknown words, including frequently occurring affixes and inflections -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est.

Examples: Explain that adding suffix -s changes a singular noun to a plural noun and adding suffix -ed changes a verb to past tense.

c. Describe word relationships and nuances in word meanings, including relating them to their opposites and distinguishing shades of meaning in similar or related words.

Examples: look, peek, glance, stare, glare; big, large, gigantic, monstrous
Act out tiptoe, creep, and march to distinguish shades of meaning in words related to walk.
Discuss synonyms and antonyms.
English Language Arts (2021)
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13. Use information found within the text to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar or multiple-meaning word or phrase.
English Language Arts (2021)
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14. Sort and categorize groups of words or pictures based on meaning, and label each category.

Examples: colors, clothes, animals with wings
English Language Arts (2021)
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15. Identify and explain adjectives as descriptive words and phrases in all forms of texts, including poems.
English Language Arts (2021)
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16. Use grade-appropriate academic vocabulary in speaking and writing.
Comprehension
English Language Arts (2021)
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17. Use content knowledge built during read-alouds of informational and literary texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through drawing and writing.
English Language Arts (2021)
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18. Manipulate words and/or phrases to create simple sentences, including declarative and interrogative, to help build syntactic awareness and comprehension at the sentence level.
English Language Arts (2021)
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19. Identify common types of texts and their features, including literary, informational, fairy tale, and poetry.
English Language Arts (2021)
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20. Use text features to locate key facts or information in printed or digital text.

Examples: headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons, bold words, captions, illustrations
English Language Arts (2021)
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21. Identify the main topic and key details of literary and informational texts.
English Language Arts (2021)
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22. Ask and answer questions about key details in literary and informational texts.
English Language Arts (2021)
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23. Identify and describe the main story elements in a literary text.

a. Describe the characters and settings, using illustrations and textual evidence from a story.

b. Retell the plot or sequence of major events in chronological order.
English Language Arts (2021)
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24. Identify who is telling the story, using evidence from the text.

a. Use the term narrator to refer to the speaker who is telling the story.
English Language Arts (2021)
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25. Describe connections between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information, including cause and effect, sequence, and problem and solution, in a literary text.
English Language Arts (2021)
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26. With prompting and support, use textual evidence to explain the central message or moral of a literary text.
English Language Arts (2021)
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27. Make predictions using information found within a literary text.
English Language Arts (2021)
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28. Self-monitor comprehension of text by pausing to summarize or rereading for clarification when comprehension is lacking.
English Language Arts (2021)
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29. Compare and contrast texts.

a. Compare and contrast characters, settings, and major events in literary texts.

b. Describe the connections between individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in an informational text.

c. Point out similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic.
Writing
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 1
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30. Write legibly, using proper pencil grip.

a. Print upper and lowercase letters fluently, using proper approach strokes, letter formation, and line placement.

b. Print first and last names using proper letter formation, capitalization, and punctuation.

Examples: De'Andre McGill, Kim Mi-Sun, Juan de Jesus, Janie Parker

c. Use lower case letters in the majority of written work, using capitals only when appropriate.

d. Write letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order from memory.
English Language Arts (2021)
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31. Apply knowledge of grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences and spelling rules (or generalizations) to encode words accurately.

a. Encode vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words, while using some knowledge of basic position-based rules for spelling English words in closed syllables.

Examples: /k/=k before i, e, or y as in kit; /k/= c before a, o, u, or any consonant as in cup, cat, cop; /k/= -ck after an accented short vowel as in duck, back, rock, pick, deck

b. Encode consonant-vowel (CV) words using knowledge of open syllable patterns.

Examples: he, me, she, go, no

c. Encode words with two-consonant blends in beginning position, including blends that are commonly confused with other spellings, by distinguishing the placement and action of the lips, teeth, and tongue during articulation.

Examples: cl, bl, sl, tr, cr, sk, st, sl, sm, sn, sp, sw, dr, br, bl

Note: Many students spell the tr blend with digraph ch because of the confusion of the coarticulation of the /t/ and /r/ sounds. Many students spell the dr blend with the letter j because of the confusion of the coarticulation of the /d/ and /r/ sounds.

d. Encode words with consonant digraphs using knowledge that one sound may be spelled with two letters.

Examples: sh, th, ch, wh, ng, ck

e. Encode words with vowel-consonant-e syllable patterns.

Examples: hike, spike, joke, dime, make

f. With prompting and support, encode words with the common vowel teams and diphthongs.

Examples: ee, ea, oa, ai, a, au, aw, oi, oy, ou, ow, oo, igh

g. With prompting and support, encode words with vowel-r combinations ar, or, er, ir, and ur.

h. With prompting and support, encode words with final /ch/ sound spelled -ch and -tch.

Examples: /ch/= ch after a consonant, vowel-r, or vowel team as in munch, bunch, porch, smooch
/ch/= tch after a short vowel sound as in
hatch, crutch, ditch

i. With prompting and support, encode words with final /f/, /l/, and /s/ sounds in one-syllable base words by doubling the final consonant when it follows a short vowel sound.
Examples: cliff, hill, pass

j. Encode words with final /v/ sound, using knowledge that no English word ends with a v.

Examples: have, give, save

k. Encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

Examples: am, at, can, he, we, be, in, it, came, like

l. Encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences and patterns in all but one position, pointing out the part of the word that does not follow the regular pattern.

Examples: said, are, to

m. Encode words with suffixes -s, -es, -ing, -ed, -er, and -est.

Examples: dogs, wishes, jumping, jumped, faster, fastest

n. With prompting and support, encode words with common prefixes re-, un-, and mis-.

o. With prompting and support, encode frequently confused homophones, using knowledge of English and meaning to facilitate learning.

Examples: hear/here; for/four; to/too/two.

Note: To is a preposition which begins a prepositional phrase or an infinitive. Too is an adverb meaning "excessively" or "also." Two is a number. Many other words in English which reflect the number two are spelled with tw: twin, twice, between, tweezers.
English Language Arts (2021)
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32. Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.

a. Identify the required features of a sentence, including capitalization of the first word and end punctuation.

b. Transcribe spoken words to demonstrate that print represents oral language.

c. Compose a simple sentence, including a subject and a predicate, that expresses a complete thought.

d. With prompting and support, identify the role or purpose of a noun, verb, and adjective within a sentence and describe the type of the information it conveys.

e. Write the correct number of words, with proper spacing, for a spoken phrase or sentence.

f. Begin each sentence with a capital letter.

g. Capitalize the pronoun I and names of individuals.

h. Use commas in dates and words in a series.

i. With prompting and support, recognize, name, and correctly use end punctuation, utilizing appropriate academic vocabulary.

Example: period for declarative sentences, question mark for interrogative sentences, exclamation mark for exclamatory sentences
English Language Arts (2021)
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33. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to compose and develop a well-organized paragraph with a topic sentence, details to support, and a concluding sentence.
English Language Arts (2021)
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34. With prompting and support, write a narrative that recounts two or more appropriately sequenced events using transitions, incorporating relevant details, and providing a sense of closure.
English Language Arts (2021)
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35. With prompting and support, write an informative or explanatory text about a topic, using facts from a source and providing a sense of closure.
English Language Arts (2021)
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36. With prompting and support, write an opinion piece about a topic, including at least one supporting reason from a source and providing a sense of closure.
English Language Arts (2021)
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37. With prompting and support, write simple poems about a chosen subject.
English Language Arts (2021)
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38. Develop and edit first drafts using appropriate spacing between letters, words, and sentences and left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression.
English Language Arts (2021)
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39. Improve writing, as needed, by planning, revising, and editing with guidance from peer editors, responding to their questions and suggestions.
English Language Arts (2021)
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40. Describe ideas, thoughts, and feelings, using adjectives, drawings, or other visual displays to clarify.
English Language Arts (2021)
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41. Organize a list of words into alphabetical order according to the first and (when necessary) second letters of the words.
English Language Arts (2021)
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42. Participate in shared research and writing projects to answer a question or describe a topic.

a. Recall information from experiences to contribute to shared research and writing projects.

b. Gather information from provided sources.
English Language Arts (2021)
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43. Use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing with guidance and support from adults, working both individually and in collaboration with peers.