Courses of Study : English Language Arts

Reading Standards for Literature
Key Ideas and Details
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
1 ) Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. [RL.11-12.1]

English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 1
2 ) Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text. [RL.11-12.2]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standard 2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
Cognitive Target:
Make complex inferences within and across texts to integrate ideas to determine theme, identify or interpret a character's motivations and decisions, examine relations between theme and setting or characters.
NAEP Descriptor:
Integrate and interpret ideas to determine theme. (Extensive)

NAEP Descriptor:
Synthesize poetic details to infer and explain the theme of a poem. (Full Comprehension)

NAEP Descriptor:
Infer and recognize reason for narrator's action in literary description.

NAEP Descriptor:
Synthesize across story to provide them and support with reference to text.

NAEP Descriptor:
Infer and provide thematically related idea base on a story description.

NAEP Descriptor:
Evaluate the effectiveness of plot device used in a short story.

NAEP Descriptor:
Evaluate beginning of story in relation to character and theme with text support.


English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
3 ) Analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed). [RL.11-12.3]

Craft and Structure
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
4 ) Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.) [RL.11-12.4]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standard 4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meaning and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Cognitive Target:
  • Consider text(s) critically to evaluate the role of literary devices in conveying meaning; determine the degree to which literary devices enhance a literary work.
  • Make complex inferences to infer mood or tone, to explain how rhythm, rhyme, or form in poetry contribute to meaning.

NAEP Descriptor:
Interpret quotation and apply to narrator's experience in literary essay. (Full Comprehension)

NAEP Descriptor:
Recognize meaning of word used in a short story.


Craft and Structure
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
5 ) Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact. [RL.11-12.5]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standard 5: Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
Cognitive Target:
Make complex inferences within and across texts to describe how an author uses literary devices and text features.
NAEP Descriptor:
Evaluate beginning of story in relation to character and theme with text support.


Craft and Structure
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
6 ) Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement). [RL.11-12.6]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standard 6: Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Cognitive Target:
Consider text(s) critically to analyze the point of view used by the author.
NAEP Descriptor:
Integrate information to explain a change in story character's perspective.

NAEP Descriptor:
Recognize paraphrase of story character's feelings.

NAEP Descriptor:
Explain author's use of story element to convey character's feeling. (Full Comprehension)

NAEP Descriptor:
Interpret story description to explain character's action.

NAEP Descriptor:
Explain difference between two characters' points of view.

NAEP Descriptor:
Explain author's use of setting to reveal character with support example.


Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
7 ) Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare.) [RL.11-12.7] (Alabama)

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
8 ) Demonstrate knowledge of foundational works of European literature with a concentration in British literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics. [RL.11-12.9] (Alabama)

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
9 ) By the end of Grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the Grades 11-College and Career Readiness (CCR) text complexity band independently and proficiently. [RL.11-12.10]

Reading Standards for Informational Text
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
10 ) Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. [RI.11-12.1]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standard 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
Cognitive Target:
  • Identify textually explicit information and make simple inference with and across texts, such as: definitions, facts, supporting details.
  • Make complex inferences within and across texts to describe problems and solution or cause and effect, determine unstated assumptions in and argument. Draw conclusions and provide supporting details.
  • Determine fact from opinion.
  • Identify textually explicit information within and across text, such as locating specific information in text or graphics. Make complex references within and across texts, such as draw conclusions and provide supporting information.

NAEP Descriptor:
Provide and explain information from an article. (Critique and Evaluate)

NAEP Descriptor:
Make an inference based on details in a document.

NAEP Descriptor:
Recognize explicitly state reason from argument of article.


English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
11 ) Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text. [RI.11-12.2]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standard 2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
Cognitive Target:
  • Identify textually explicit information within and across text, such as topic sentence or main idea, locate specific information in text or graphics.
  • Make complex references within and across texts, such as summarize major ideas.

NAEP Descriptor:
Recognize detail related to a purpose.

NAEP Descriptor:
Recognize main purpose of argument text.

NAEP Descriptor:
Recognize main purpose of expository text.

NAEP Descriptor:
Recognize supporting idea stated in an expository text. (Advanced)


English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 2
12 ) Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text. [RI.11-12.3]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standard 3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Cognitive Target:
Identify textually explicit information within and across texts to find evidence in support of an argument.
NAEP Descriptor:
Describe a process with text support. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor:
Interpret information in expository passage to describe steps in a process. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor:
Recognize best description of character based on action described in expository passage. (Locate and Recall)


Craft and Structure
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
13 ) Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in The Federalist No. 10). [RI.11-12.4]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standards 4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Cognitive Target:
Consider text(s) critically to evaluate the way the author selects language to influence readers.
NAEP Descriptor:
Explain meaning of phrase within the context of an expository paragraph. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor:
Interpret language use in historical speech to provide two supporting ideas of a statement. (Integrate and Interpret)

NAEP Descriptor:
Recognize meaning of word used in context of a persuasive essay.

NAEP Descriptor:
Explain meaning of a phrase related to main idea of a persuasive essay.

NAEP Descriptor:
Recognize interpretation of a sentence in introduction to historical speech.


Craft and Structure
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
14 ) Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging. [RI.11-12.5]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standard 5: Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
NAEP Descriptor:
Evaluate the effectiveness of the document for accomplishing is purpose. (Critique and Evaluate)

NAEP Descriptor:
Explain the effectiveness of an organization feature of a document. (Critique and Evaluate)


Craft and Structure
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
15 ) Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text. [RI.11-12.6]

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
16 ) Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. [RI.11-12.7]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standard 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
NAEP Descriptor:
Evaluate the relevance of information across procedural texts. (Full Comprehension)


Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
17 ) Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal United States texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in United States Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses). [RI.11-12.8]


NAEP Framework
Anchor Standard:
Anchor Standard 8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
Cognitive Target:
Analyze the presentation of information, evaluate the strength and quality of evidence used by the author to support his or her opinion, determine the quality of counter arguments, judge the coherence, logic or credibility of an argument.
NAEP Descriptor:
Identify and explain potential problems with presentation of information in a document. (Extensive)

NAEP Descriptor:
Support evaluation of effectiveness of expository text with specific reference. (Full Comprehension)

NAEP Descriptor:
Evaluate claims to provide a text-based judgment. (Extensive)


Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
18 ) By the end of Grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the Grades 11-College and Career Readiness (CCR) text complexity band independently and proficiently. [RI.11-12.10]

Writing Standards
Text Types and Purposes
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
19 ) Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. [W.11-12.1]

a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. [W.11-12.1a]

b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases. [W.11-12.1b]

c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. [W.11-12.1c]

d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. [W.11-12.1d]

e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. [W.11-12.1e]

Text Types and Purposes
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
20 ) Write informative or explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. [W.11-12.2]

a. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. [W.11-12.2a]

b. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic. [W.11-12.2b]

c. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. [W.11-12.2c]

d. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic. [W.11-12.2d]

e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. [W.11-12.2e]

f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic). [W.11-12.2f]

Text Types and Purposes
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
21 ) Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences. [W.11-12.3]

a. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator, characters, or both; create a smooth progression of experiences or events. [W.11-12.3a]

b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. [W.11-12.3b]

c. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution). [W.11-12.3c]

d. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters. [W.11-12.3d]

e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative. [W.11-12.3e]

Production and Distribution of Writing
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 3
22 ) Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 19-21 above.) [W.11-12.4]

Production and Distribution of Writing
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 3
23 ) Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three standards in the Language strand in Grades K-12.) [W.11-12.5]

Production and Distribution of Writing
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 4
24 ) Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information. [W.11-12.6]

Research to Build and Present Knowledge
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 2
25 ) Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question, including a self-generated question, or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. [W.11-12.7]

Research to Build and Present Knowledge
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
26 ) Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. [W.11-12.8]

Research to Build and Present Knowledge
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 2
27 ) Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. [W.11-12.9]

a. Apply Grade 12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Demonstrate knowledge of foundational works of European literature with a concentration in British literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics"). [W.11-12.9a] (Alabama)

b. Apply Grade 12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal United States texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in United States Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]"). [W.11-12.9b]

Range of Writing
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
28 ) Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. [W.11-12.10]

Speaking and Listening Standards
Comprehension and Collaboration
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 1
29 ) Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grade 12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. [SL.11-12.1]

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas. [SL.11-12.1a]

b. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed. [SL.11-12.1b]

c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives. [SL.11-12.1c]

d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task. [SL.11-12.1d]

Comprehension and Collaboration
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 4
30 ) Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data. [SL.11-12.2]

Comprehension and Collaboration
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
31 ) Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used. [SL.11-12.3]

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
32 ) Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks. [SL.11-12.4]

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 6
Learning Activities: 5
Lesson Plans: 1
33 ) Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. [SL.11-12.5]

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
34 ) Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See Grade 12 Language standards 35 and 37 for specific expectations.) [SL.11-12.6]

Language Standards
Conventions of Standard English
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
35 ) Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. [L.11-12.1]

a. Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested. [L.11-12.1a]

b. Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, Garner's Modern American Usage) as needed. [L.11-12.1b]

Conventions of Standard English
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
36 ) Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. [L.11-12.2]

a. Observe hyphenation conventions. [L.11-12.2a]

b. Spell correctly. [L.11-12.2b]

Knowledge of Language
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
37 ) Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. [L.11-12.3]

a. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte's Artful Sentences: Syntax as Style) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading. [L.11-12.3a]

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
38 ) Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. [L.11-12.4]

a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. [L.11-12.4a]

b. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable). [L.11-12.4b]

c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage. [L.11-12.4c]

d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). [L.11-12.4d]

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
39 ) Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. [L.11-12.5]

a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text. [L.11-12.5a]

b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. [L.11-12.5b]

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
English Language Arts (2015)
Grade(s): 12
All Resources: 0
40 ) Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. [L.11-12.6]