Courses of Study : English Language Arts (Grade 2)

Recurring Standards
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 17
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 5
Classroom Resources: 11
R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R1.
  • Active Listening
  • Discussion
  • Conversation
  • Rules
  • Participation
Knowledge:
R1. Students know:
  • Active listening skills.
  • Agreed-upon rules for participation for discussions and conversations in a variety of settings.
Skills:
R1. Students are able to:
  • Demonstrate active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings.
  • Converse in pairs, small groups, and large groups.
  • Practice the agreed-upon rules for participation.
Understanding:
R1. Students understand that:
  • Conversations and discussions follow agreed-upon rules to help us actively listen and gain understanding.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 2
Classroom Resources: 3
R2. Use knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R2.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
  • Word-analysis skills
Knowledge:
R2. Students know:
  • Phoneme (sound) to grapheme (letter or letters) correspondences to encode (spell) words accurately.
  • Grapheme (letter or letters) to phoneme (sound) correspondences to decode (read) words accurately.
  • Word-analysis skills.
Skills:
R2. Students are able to:
  • Accurately encode and decode words using knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
  • Accurately encode and decode words using word analysis skills.
Understanding:
R2. Students understand that:
  • Mapping graphemes to phonemes is essential for learning to read or decode words efficiently.
  • Mapping phonemes to graphemes is essential for learning to spell or encode words efficiently.
  • Analyzing a word's structure helps to read and spell a word.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 1
Classroom Resources: 1
R3. Expand background knowledge and build vocabulary through discussion, reading, and writing.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R3.
  • Background knowledge
  • Vocabulary
  • Discussion
Knowledge:
R3. Students know:
  • Relating experiences through discussions, writing, and reading will help build background knowledge and improve vocabulary.
Skills:
R3. Students are able to:
  • Connect new concepts to prior experiences to increase background knowledge through discussions, reading, and writing.
  • Construct the meaning of words through discussions, reading, and writing.
Understanding:
R3. Students understand that:
  • Background knowledge can increase by relating experiences to new ideas, topics, and words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
  • Vocabulary will increase by constructing the meaning of words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 1
Classroom Resources: 2
R4. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically for research and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R4.
  • Digital tools
  • Electronic tools
  • Appropriately
  • Safely
  • Ethically
  • Research
  • Individually
  • Collaboratively
Knowledge:
R4. Students know:
  • Digital and electronic tools must be used appropriately, safely, and ethically.
  • Digital and electronic tools can be used for research or for writing tasks.
  • Digital and electronic tools can be independently or with others.
Skills:
R4. Students are able to:
  • Engage in safe and ethical behavior when using digital and electronic tools individually and collaboratively.
Understanding:
R4. Students understand that:
  • Safe behaviors, interactions that keep you out of harm's way, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
  • Ethical behavior, interactions that align to one's moral code, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 8
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 7
R5. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R5.
  • Writing process
  • Plan
  • Draft
  • Revise
  • Edit
  • Publish
  • Genres
Knowledge:
R5. Students know:
  • The writing process steps are to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish.
  • Various genres of writing.
Skills:
R5. Students are able to:
  • Plan writings in various genres.
  • Draft writings in various genres.
  • Revise writings in various genres.
  • Edit writings in various genres.
  • Publish writings in various genres.
Understanding:
R5. Students understand that:
  • The writing process is a set of steps that make writing easier.
  • There are different categories, or genres, of writing that can be used for different purposes.
Literacy Foundations
Oral Language
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
1. Participate in conversations and discussions with groups and peers utilizing agreed-upon rules.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
1.
  • Conversations
  • Discussions
  • Groups
  • Peers
  • Agreed-upon rules
Knowledge:
1. Students know:
  • Speaking and listening skills for discussions and conversations with groups and peers.
  • Agreed-upon rules for discussions.
Skills:
1. Students are able to:
  • Listen attentively.
  • Add to conversations.
  • Take turns speaking.
  • Respond to the comments of others.
  • Extend conversations.
  • Converse with peers and adults.
  • Converse in small and large groups.
  • Ask clarifying questions.
Understanding:
1. Students understand that:
  • Good conversations occur when participants actively listen, build on others' ideas, and ask clarifying questions.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 4
2. Present information orally using complete sentences, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation.

a. Use oral language for different purposes: to inform, to entertain, to persuade, to clarify, and to respond.

b. Use complex sentence structures when speaking.

c. Ask and answer questions to seek help, clarify meaning, or get information.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
2.
  • Present
  • Orally
  • Complete sentences
  • Appropriate volume
  • Clear pronunciation
2a.
  • Oral language
  • Purposes
  • Inform
  • Entertain
  • Persuade
  • Clarify
  • Respond
2b.
  • Complex sentence structures
2c.
  • Ask
  • Answer
  • Seek
  • Clarify
Knowledge:
2. Students know:
  • Speaking skills for oral presentations.
2a.
  • Oral language skills for different purposes of communication.
2b.
  • The structure of a complex sentence.
2c.
    Questions to seek help.
  • Questions to clarify information.
  • Questions to get information.
  • Responses to questions with appropriate information.
Skills:
2. Students are able to:
  • Form complete sentences, use appropriate volume based on the situation or environment, and use clear pronunciation when sharing information orally.
2a.
  • Use listening and speaking skills to inform, entertain, persuade, clarify, and respond.
2b.
  • Use complex sentences when sharing information orally.
2c.
  • Ask and answer questions to seek help, clarify meaning or get information.
Understanding:
2. Students understand that:
  • To communicate clearly, a speaker should use complete sentences, a voice volume that can be heard by the audience, and clearly pronounced words.
2a.
  • They can use their oral language should vary depending on its purpose.
2b.
  • Using complex sentence structures when speaking helps to provide details and combine ideas in an interesting way.
2c. Students understand that:
  • They can get help, learn new information, or express information they know or have learned by asking and answering questions, depending on the task at hand.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
3. Demonstrate oral literacy skills by participating in a variety of oral language activities.

Examples: creating oral stories, participating in oral dramatic activities, reciting poems and stories
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
3.
  • Oral literacy skills
  • Oral language activities
Knowledge:
3. Students know:
  • Oral literacy skills include speaking, listening, and comprehending.
Skills:
3. Students are able to:
  • Demonstrate oral literacy skills in a variety of oral language activities, such as creating oral stories, participating in oral dramatic activities, reciting poems and stories.
Understanding:
3. Students understand that:
  • Practicing their oral literacy skills through a variety of activities will help improve their speaking, listening, and comprehension abilities.
Speaking
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 40
Lesson Plans: 6
Classroom Resources: 34
4. Orally answer who, what, when, where, why, and how questions about a text or conversation, using complete sentences to provide key ideas and details.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
4.
  • Orally
  • Who, what, when where, why, and how questions
  • Complete sentences
  • Key ideas
  • Key details
Knowledge:
4. Students know:
  • Key ideas and details should be included when answering questions.
  • Complete sentences, which contain a subject and a predicate, should be used when answering questions.
  • Who, when, and where questions will have a concrete, objective answer.
  • What, why, and how questions may have a more abstract, subjective answer.
Skills:
4. Students are able to:
  • Orally answer questions about a text or conversation using complete sentences that provide information about key ideas and details.
  • Orally answer who, what, when, where, why, and how questions about a text or conversation with appropriate key ideas and details.
Understanding:
4. Students understand that:
  • When answering who, what, when, where, why, and how questions they should provide key ideas and details from a text or conversation to demonstrate their comprehension.
  • Speaking in complete sentences helps them clearly communicate their message and their understanding.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
5. Create recordings of stories or poems.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
5.
  • Create
  • Recordings
  • Stories
  • Poems
Knowledge:
5. Students know:
  • How to verbally create recordings of stories or poems.
Skills:
5. Students are able to:
  • Create recordings of stories and/or poems by reading aloud.
Understanding:
5. Students understand that:
  • Reading stories or poems aloud help them practice their oral reading fluency skills.
  • Listening to their recordings will help them improve their oral reading fluency skills.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
6. Use visual aids and technology in oral presentations to present key ideas and details about a text or conversation, and add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify thoughts, feelings, and ideas.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
6.
  • Visual aids
  • Technology
  • Key ideas
  • Key details
  • Visual displays
  • Recount of experiences
  • Clarify
  • Oral presentations
Knowledge:
6. Students know:
  • Visual aids or technology can help others better understand the key ideas and details of an oral presentation.
  • Drawings and visual displays can help clarify thoughts, feelings, and ideas when presenting orally.
Skills:
6. Students are able to:
  • Orally describe key ideas and details about a text, conversation, or personal experience.
  • Use visual aids and technology in oral presentations to present key ideas and details about a text or conversation.
  • Add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences to clarify thoughts, feelings, and ideas.
Understanding:
6. Students understand that:
  • Visual aids and technology can help others understand the key ideas and details of their oral presentations.
  • They can clarify their thoughts, feelings, and ideas by including drawings or other visual displays in their oral presentations.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 8
Learning Activities: 3
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 4
7. Demonstrate standard English usage when speaking.

a. Use collective nouns.

b. Form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns.

c. Use reflexive pronouns.

d. Form and use past tense forms of frequently-occurring irregular verbs.

e. Use adjectives and adverbs.

f. Produce and expand complete simple and compound sentences when speaking.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
7.
  • Standard English
  • Usage
7a.
  • Collective nouns
7b.
  • Form
  • Frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns
7c.
  • Reflexive pronouns
7d.
  • Form
  • Past tense
  • Frequently-occurring irregular verbs
7e.
  • Adjectives
  • Adverbs
7f.
  • Produce
  • Expand
  • Complete sentences
  • Simple sentences
  • Compound sentences
Knowledge:
7. Students know:
  • That standard English means the formal use of the English language.
7a.
  • Collective nouns are words that identify a group of individuals (family, assembly, congregation, etc.).
7b.
  • Irregular plural nouns are nouns that do not become plural by adding -s or -es.
7c.
  • Reflexive pronouns are pronouns that end in "self" or "selves."
7d.
  • Irregular verbs are verbs that are not made past tense by adding -d or -ed.
7e.
  • An adjective describes a noun, and an adverb describes an adjective, verb, or other adverb.
7f.
  • A complete simple sentence includes a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought.
  • A complete compound sentence includes two subjects and two predicates and expresses two complete thoughts.
  • A complete compound sentence must include a coordinating conjunction to link the two complete thoughts.
Skills:
7. Students are able to:
  • Use the standard English language when speaking.
7a.
  • Accurately use collective in spoken language.
7b.
  • Accurately form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns in spoken language.
7c.
  • Accurately use reflexive pronouns in spoken language.
7d.
  • Accurately form and use past tense forms of frequently-occurring irregular verbs in spoken language.
7e.
  • Correctly use adjectives and adverbs in spoken language.
7f.
  • Produce complete simple and compound sentences in spoken language.
  • Expand complete simple and compound sentences in spoken language.
Understanding:
7. Students understand that:
  • They should use the standard form of English when speaking.
7a.
  • A collective noun is one word that stands for a group of people.
  • Collective nouns should be used correctly to clearly communicate with others.
7b.
  • An irregular plural noun is a noun that is made plural in a way other than adding -s or -es, such as children, teeth, and feet.
  • Irregular plural nouns should be used correctly to clearly communicate with others.
7c.
  • Reflexive pronouns are those pronouns that usually end in "self" or "selves," such as myself or themselves.
  • Reflexive pronouns should be used correctly to clearly communicate with others.
7d.
  • An irregular verb is a verb that is made past tense in a way other than adding -d or -ed, such as kept or knew.
  • Past tense verbs should be used correctly to clearly communicate with others.
7e.
  • An adjective is a word that describes the attributes of a noun.
  • An adverb is a word that describes an adjective, a verb, or even another adverb.
  • Using adjectives and adverbs can add specific details in speech.
7f.
  • A speaker should use complete sentences to clearly express complete thoughts.
  • A simple sentence expresses one complete thought and has at least one subject and one predicate.
  • A compound sentence expresses two complete thoughts that are linked with one of the coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, or, nor, yet, so).
Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
8. Apply knowledge of voiced and unvoiced sounds and manner of articulation to distinguish between commonly-confused vowel sounds and commonly-confused cognate consonant sounds.

Examples: /f/ and /v/, /p/ and /b/, /k/ and /g/, /t/ and /d/, /ch/ and /sh/, /ĕ/ and /ĭ/, /ĕ/, and /ă/

Note: This is extremely important as a foundational phonemic awareness skill for all learners.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
Teacher Vocabulary:
8.
  • Voiced sounds
  • Unvoiced sounds
  • Manner of articulation
  • Distinguish
  • Commonly-confused vowel sounds
  • Commonly-confused cognate consonant sounds
Knowledge:
8. Student know:
    • Distinguishing means identifying the difference between two or more things.
    • Voiced sounds are made with the voice box "turned on," or resonating, while unvoiced sounds are spoken with the voiced box "turned off," like a whisper.
    • All vowels are voiced, while some consonants are voiced and others are unvoiced.
    • Cognate consonants are phoneme or phoneme combinations that are produced almost the same although one is "voiced" and the other "unvoiced."
Skills:
8. Students are able to:
  • Tell the difference between commonly-confused cognate consonant and vowel sounds by applying their knowledge of voiced sounds, unvoiced sounds, and manner of articulation.
Understanding:
8. Students understand that:
  • Vowels and cognate consonants have sounds that are commonly confused.
  • Applying their knowledge of voiced sounds, unvoiced sounds, and manner of articulation will help distinguish between commonly-confused vowel and cognate consonant sounds.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 3
Classroom Resources: 1
9. Demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.

a. Add, delete, and substitute phonemes at the beginning, end, or middle of a spoken word made up of up to six phonemes and produce the resulting word.

Examples:
Addition - Say bell. Now say bell, but add /t/ to the end of bell. (belt)
Addition - Say block. Now say block, but add /t/ to the end of block. (blocked)
Deletion - Say fin. Now say fin, but don't say /f/. (in)
Deletion - Say range. Now say range, but don't say /j/. (rain)
Substitution - Say strap. Now say strap, but change /a/ to /i/. (strip)
Substitution - Say bleed. Now say bleed, but change the /ē/ to /ā/. (blade)

b. Delete the initial sound in an initial blend in a one-syllable base word.

Example: Say prank. Now say prank, but don't say /p/ . (rank)

c. With prompting and support, delete the medial and final sounds in blends in one syllable base words.

Examples: Say snail. Now say snail, but don't say /n/. (sail)
Say wind. Now say wind, but don't say /d/. (win)

d. Apply phoneme chaining that changes only one sound at a time to show addition, deletion, substitution, and resequencing of sounds from one word to the next.

Examples: bit, bet, bat; sat, sit; pit, pat

e. With prompting and support, reverse sounds within a word by saying the last sound first and the first sound last.

Examples: fine, knife; cat, tack; park, carp
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
Teacher Vocabulary:
9.
  • Demonstrate
  • Advanced phonemic awareness skills
  • Spoken words
9a.
  • Add
  • Delete
  • Substitute
  • Phonemes
  • Produce
9b.
  • Delete
  • Initial sound
  • Initial blend
  • One-syllable base word
9c.
  • Prompting
  • Support
  • Delete
  • Medial sound
  • Final sound
  • Blends
  • One-syllable base word
9d.
  • Phoneme chaining
  • Addition
  • Deletion
  • Substitution
  • Resequencing of sounds
9e.
  • Prompting
  • Support
  • Reverse
  • Last
  • First
  • Sound
Knowledge:
9. Students know:
  • Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate the phonemes (sounds) in spoken words.
9a.
  • The meaning of the words add, delete, and substitute.
  • Spoken words can be manipulated (changed) by adding, deleting, or substituting sounds to produce a new word.
9b.
  • Initial means first or beginning sound.
  • A blend is made up of more than one sound.
9c.
  • Medial means the middle sound and final means the last sound.
  • A blend is made up of two or more sounds (phonemes).
9d.
  • Addition means add to, deletion means take away from, substitution means change, and resequencing means changes the order of.
  • Words can be manipulated by changing only one sound at a time.
9e.
  • Reverse means to change the sequence of sounds to an opposite order.
Skills:
9. Students are able to:
  • Identify individual phonemes in words and manipulate those sounds.
9a.
  • Produce new words by adding phonemes at the beginning, end, or middle of a spoken word made up of up to six phonemes.
  • For example, Say bell. Now say bell but add /t/ to end of bell. (belt)
  • Produce new words by deleting phonemes at the beginning, end, or middle of a spoken word made up of up to six phonemes.
  • For example, Say fin. Now say fin, but don't say /f/. (in)
  • Produce new words by substituting phonemes at the beginning, end, or middle of a spoken word made up of up to six phonemes.
  • For example, Say strap. Now say strap, but change /a/ to /i/. (strip)
9b.
  • Delete the initial (first) sound in a one-syllable base word with an initial blend.
  • For example, Say prank. Now say prank, but don't say /p/. (rank)
9c. With prompting and support,
  • Delete the medial (middle) sound in in a one syllable base word with a blend.
  • For example, Say snail. Now say snail, but don't say /n/. (sail).
  • Delete the final (last) sound in in a one syllable base word with a blend.
  • For example, Say wind. Now say wind, but don't say /d/. (win).
9d.
  • Change one sound in a word at a time using phoneme addition, deletion, and substitution to resequence sounds in a phoneme chain; for example, bit, bet, bat; sat, sit; pit, pat.
9e. With prompting and support,
  • Reverse sounds in word by saying the last sound first and the first sound last; for example, fine, knife; cat, tack; park, carp.
Understanding:
9. Students understand that:
  • Words are made up of one or more phonemes.
  • They can demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills by manipulating those phonemes through additions, deletions, reversals, and substitutions of phonemes.
  • Advanced phonemic awareness skills will help them improve their reading, spelling, and writing.
9a.
  • They can create new spoken words by manipulating the sounds in the words they hear through addition, deletion, and substitution of phonemes.
9b.
  • Blends are made of more than one sound, and they can delete the first sound to create a new word.
9c.
  • Blends are made of more than one sound, and they can delete the middle or last sound of a blend to create a new word.
9d.
  • They can demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills by changing one sound in a word to create a chain (or group of words).
  • Words can be manipulated by adding, deleting, substituting, and resequencing sounds.
9e.
  • Spoken words can be manipulated by reversing the first and last sounds.
Phonics
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 2
Classroom Resources: 3
10. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles to decode and encode (spell) words accurately in isolation and in context.

a. Decode multisyllabic words with common syllable patterns, including open/closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, and schwa syllables.

b. Apply knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles to decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words.

Examples: VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, CV/VC; rab-bit, o-pen, cab-in, li-on

c. Decode and encode words with three-consonant blends and blends containing digraphs.

d. Decode and encode words with consonant digraphs, trigraphs, and combinations.

Examples: qu, sh, ch, th, ph, wh, tch, dge

e. Decode and encode words with variable vowel teams and vowel diphthongs.

Examples: oi, oy; ou, ow; au, aw; oo, ew, ue; ee, ea; igh, ie; ai, ay

f. Decode and encode words with vowel-r combinations.

Examples: ar, air, are, ear, eer, er, ere, eir, ir, or, oar, ore, our, ur

g. Decode and encode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.

Examples: wild, most, cold, colt, mind

h. Decode and encode words with a after w read /ä/ and a before l read /â/.

Examples: wash, water, wasp; tall, all, talk, small, fall

i. Decode and encode words with or after w read /er/.

Examples: world, word, worm, worst, work

j. Decode and encode words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.

Examples: c=/k/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and c= /s/ before i, e, or y
g=/g/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and g=/j/ before i, e, or y

k. Decode and encode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words, distinguishing the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words, and words with vowel y in medial position, producing the short /ĭ/ sound for these words.

Examples: fly, my; baby, happy; myth, gym

l. Decode words with silent letter combinations.

Examples: kn, mb, gh

m. Decode and encode words with prefixes and suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.

Examples: pro-, trans-, non-, mid-; -ful, -less, -ness, -ed, ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly

n. Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, including those that contain only one irregularity.

Examples: decodable - number, way, my, than, word
decodable except for one irregularity - other (o is schwa), from- (o is schwa)
what - (a is schwa or short o depending on dialect)

o. Decode and encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will.

Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Phonics
Teacher Vocabulary:
10.
  • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
  • Multisyllabic word construction
  • Syllable division principles
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Isolation
  • In context
10a.
  • Decode
  • Multisyllabic words
  • Common syllable patterns
  • Open syllable
  • Closed syllable
  • vowel-r syllable
  • Vowel-consonant-e syllable
  • Vowel team syllable
  • Consonant-le syllable
  • Schwa syllable
10b.
  • Multisyllabic word construction
  • Syllable division principles
  • Decode
  • Grade-appropriate multisyllabic words
10c.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Three-consonant blends
  • Digraphs
10d.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Consonant digraphs
  • Trigraphs
  • Combinations
10e.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Variable vowel teams
  • Vowel diphthongs
10f.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • vowel-r combinations
10g.
  • Encode
  • Decode
  • Letter patterns
10h.
  • Decode
  • Encode
10i.
  • Decode
  • Encode
10j.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Hard sound
  • Soft sound
  • In context
  • In isolation
10k.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Vowel y
  • Medial position
  • Final position
  • One-syllable words
  • Two-syllable words
  • Long /ī/ sound
  • Long /ē/ sound
  • Short /ĭ/ sound
10l.
  • Decode
  • Silent letter combinations
10m.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Prefixes
  • Suffixes
  • Suffix addition
10n.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
  • Predictable
  • Decodable
  • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
  • Irregularity
10o.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Contractions
Knowledge:
10. Student know:
  • Spoken words can be represented in print by using letter symbols (graphemes) to represent sounds (phonemes).
  • Printed words can be read by saying the sound (phoneme) that is represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
  • Multisyllabic words contain more than one syllable, and multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining individual syllables.
  • Syllable division is breaking words apart by the syllables.
  • Decode means to read, and encode means to spell.
  • Decoding and encoding in isolation means reading or spelling a single word, while in context refers to these skills within a larger text.
10a.
  • Accurately decoding multisyllabic words requires knowledge of common syllable types.
  • Syllable patterns are principles that help divide words into parts with one vowel sound that can be easily decoded.
10b.
  • Multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining syllables.
  • Syllable division principles help divide words into parts with one vowel sound based on predictable patterns.
10c.
  • Three-consonant blends are a combination of three consonants in which each represents a phoneme sound.
  • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
10d.
  • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
  • Trigraphs are three letter combinations that represents a single phoneme sound.
  • Combinations are two letters that frequently appear together and have an associated phoneme.
10e.
  • Vowel teams are a combination of two, three, or four letters that represent for one vowel sound.
  • Variable vowel teams are vowel teams that can make different sounds.
  • Diphthongs are single vowel phonemes that glide in the middle.
10f.
  • vowel-r combinations are a single vowel letter or vowel team followed by r that represents a unique vowel sound.
10g.
  • Words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.
10h.
  • The sound a makes when it occurs after w.
  • The sound a makes when it occurs before l.
10i.
  • Words that are spelled with an or after w.
  • When an r follows a vowel, the vowel can make a different sound.
10j.
  • The hard sound of c is /k/.
  • The soft sound of c is /s/.
  • The hard sound of g is /g/.
  • The soft sound of g is /j/.
10k.
  • The letter y can make three vowel sounds depending on the number of syllables in the words and its position in a word.
10l.
  • Silent letter combinations, such as kn, mb, gh.
10m.
  • Prefixes are word parts that can be added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning of the word.
  • Suffixes are word parts that can be added at the end of the word to change the meaning of the word.
  • Some base words require changes in spelling before a suffix is added.
10n.
  • Grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences as well as those with one irregularity.
10o.
  • Contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, such as I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll.
Skills:
10. Students are able to:
  • Read and spell words accurately in isolation and in context based on their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme relationships, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles.
10a.
  • Decode words with more than one syllable using their knowledge of common syllable types: open, closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, and schwa.
10b.
  • Decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words using knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles; for example, VC/CV, rab-bit; V/CV, o-pen; VC/V, cab-in; CV/VC, li-on.
10c.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with three-consonant blends and blends containing digraphs, such as lunch and shred.
10d.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with consonant digraphs, such as sh, ch ,th, ph, wh.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with consonant trigraphs, such as tch, dge.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with combinations, such as qu.
10e.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with variable vowel teams (examples: ea, ie, oo) and vowel diphthongs (examples: oi, ou).
10f.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with vowel-r combinations, such as ar, air, ear, eer, er, eir, ir, or, our, ur.
10g.
    Accurately decode and encode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns, such as wild, most, cold, colt, mind.
10h.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with a after w, such as wash, water, wasp.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with a before l, such as tall, all, talk, small, fall.
10i.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with or after w pronounced /er/, such as world, word, worm, worst, work.
10j.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.
10k.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words.
  • Distinguish the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words (like fly and my) and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words (like baby and happy).
  • Accurately decode and encode words with vowel y in medial position, such as myth and gym.
  • 10l.
    • Accurately decode words with silent letter combinations.
    10m.
    • Accurately decode and encode words using prefixes, suffixes, or both.
    • Change the endings of words by dropping the e when adding suffixes or changing the y-to-i, when appropriate.
    10n.
    • Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, such as number, way, my, than, word.
    • Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled with one irregularity, such as other, from, what.
    10o.
    • Accurately decode and encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, such as I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll.
    Understanding:
    10. Students understand that:
    • To read (decode), they must accurately say the sounds (phonemes) that are represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
    • To spell (encode), they must accurately represent the letter symbols (graphemes) that correspond to the spoken sounds (phonemes).
    • They can use syllable division principles to accurately decode and encode words.
    • They can use their knowledge of the six syllable types to accurately decode and encode words.
    • They will sometimes use these skills in isolation, and other times in context when reading or writing a longer text.
    10a.
    • They can decode (read) multisyllabic words by dividing the words into syllables and applying their knowledge of syllable patterns.
    10b.
    • Multisyllabic words are composed of more than one syllable.
    • They can create words that are multisyllabic by combining individual syllables.
    • They can use the syllable division principles to help with decoding grade-appropriate words.
    10c.
    • When reading or spelling a word with a three-letter consonant blend each consonant produces a sound.
    • When reading or spelling a word with a digraph and a blend, the digraph will be represented by two letters that make one sound, combined with a consonant that produces its sound.
    10d.
    • Some words have special combinations of letters that can be decoded and encoded using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    10e.
    • Variable vowel teams are also called unpredictable vowel teams because the graphemes make different sounds, such as in meat, head, steak.
    • Vowel diphthongs are a type of vowel team where the mouth position shifts during the production of the single vowel phoneme, such as in boy and cow.
    10f.
    • When an r follows a vowel, the vowel sound frequently changes, and the spellings of these sounds are variable.
    10g.
    • Long-vowel sounds will be produced in words that have the patterns of -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind.
    10h.
    • Adjacent letters and letter position within a word can change the sound a letter produces.
    10i.
    • When or appears after a w in a word, it is pronounced as /er/.
    • When they hear the /er/ sound after the /w/ sound, the word will be spelled with the orvowel combination.
    10j.
    • The letter that follows a c or g determines the sound that c or g will make in a word.
    • C makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    • G makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    10k.
    • Y can make three vowel sounds: long /ī/, long /ē/, and short /ĭ/.
    • The number of syllables in a word and the position of the vowel y in the word determines how the y is pronounced.
    10l.
    • Some words they read will have silent letter combinations in which one or more letters are silent (doesn't represent a phoneme) but another letter in the combination does represent the phoneme.
    10m.
    • Prefixes are added to the beginning of a base word and some have predictable spelling patterns.
    • Suffixes are added to the end of a base word and some have predictable spelling patterns.
    • Words can be read and spelled by identifying the prefixes or suffixes within the word.
    • Some base words require changes before a suffix is added.
    10n.
    • Some high frequency words have irregular spelling patterns that they must learn to be able to read and spell the words accurately.
    10o.
    • Contractions are made up of two words that are shortened by combining the two words and replacing the omitted letters with an apostrophe.
    Fluency
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    11. Apply previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences to multisyllabic words with accuracy and automaticity, in and out of context.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    11.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Multisyllabic words
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    • In context
    • Out of context
    Knowledge:
    11. Students know:
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences in multisyllabic words.
    • Accuracy is reading the word correctly, and automaticity is reading the word quickly without having to sound it out.
    Skills:
    11. Students are able to:
    • Read multisyllabic words with accuracy and automaticity in and out of context by applying knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    Understanding:
    11. Students understand that:
    • Automatic recall of phoneme-grapheme correspondences will help them decode multisyllabic words accurately and become a fluent reader.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 15
    Learning Activities: 1
    Classroom Resources: 14
    12. Read and reread grade-appropriate text accurately, automatically, and with meaningful expression at a rate which supports comprehension.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    12.
    • Reread
    • Grade-appropriate text
    • Accurately
    • Automatically
    • Meaningful expression
    • Rate which supports comprehension
    Knowledge:
    12. Students know:
    • Accurately means reading without mistakes and automatically means knowing the words immediately without sounding them out.
    • Techniques to make appropriate changes in voice, pitch, and expression while reading orally.
    • Reading must occur at a speed (rate) that supports understanding of the text.
    • Rereading is a strategy that aids in word recognition and comprehension.
    Skills:
    12. Students are able to:
    • Read and reread words that are second grade-appropriate with little to no mistakes.
    • Read words quickly without pausing to sound them out.
    • Read and reread at a pace that supports comprehension of the text.
    Understanding:
    12. Students understand that:
    • They should read text with accuracy, automaticity, and meaningful expression at a pace that helps them comprehend the text they are reading.
    • They can reread text to improve their accuracy, automaticity, and comprehension.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 7
    Classroom Resources: 7
    13. Read grade-appropriate poetry, noticing phrasing, rhythm, and rhyme.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    13.
    • Grade-appropriate poetry
    • Phrasing
    • Rhythm
    • Rhyme
    Knowledge:
    13. Students know:
    • The features of poetry include phrasing, rhythm, and rhyme.
    • Words rhyme if their vowel and ending sounds are the same (example: ham, Sam).
    • Rhythm is a steady beat made by stressed syllables in spoken words.
    • A phrase is a group of words.
    Skills:
    13. Students are able to:
    • Read grade-appropriate poetry.
    • Notice the features of poetry, including words that rhyme, stressed syllables that create rhythm, and words that are grouped together in phrases.
    Understanding:
    13.
    • Poetry is a genre of text that uses distinctive style and rhythm to aid in the expression of feelings.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    14. Read high-frequency words commonly found in grade-appropriate text.


    Note: High-frequency words should be taught with the main emphasis of the lesson being on regular correspondences and patterns within the word. The student should be able to read the word accurately three times in a row on different days to be considered accurate enough to add to a personal word box, word ring, or fluency folder for fluency practice. Avoid teaching high-frequency words as "sight words" that need to be memorized as a whole word, unless there are no regular correspondences in the word. "Of" is an example of a word with no regular correspondences.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    14.
    • High-frequency words
    • Grade-appropriate text
    Knowledge:
    14. Students know:
    • High frequency words that are common found in second-grade level text.
    Skills:
    14. Students are able to:
    • Read high-frequency words in second grade-level text accurately and independently three times in a row on different days.
    Understanding:
    14. Students understand that:
    • High-frequency words are words that are found regularly in grade-appropriate text, so it is important to learn to read them automatically, accurately, and independently.
    Vocabulary
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    15. Utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary, making connections to previously learned words and relating new words to background knowledge.

    a. Make connections to a word's structure using knowledge of phonology, morphology, and orthography of the word to aid learning.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    15.
    • Utilize
    • Academic vocabulary
    • Content-specific vocabulary
    • Grade-level vocabulary
    • Connections
    • Relating
    • Background knowledge
    15a.
    • Word structure
    • Phonology
    • Morphology
    • Orthography
    Knowledge:
    15. Students know:
    • Academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary words.
    • Content-specific vocabulary refers to words used in different subjects learned in school such as reading, math, social studies, science.
    • New vocabulary words can be learned by relating them to previously learned words and background knowledge.
    15a.
    • Phonology (speech sounds within words).
    • Morphology (meaningful units of words).
    • Orthography (the written representation of language).
    Skills:
    15. Students are able to:
    • Use new academic, content-specific vocabulary by making connections to previously learned words.
    • Use new academic, content-specific vocabulary by relating new words to background knowledge.
    15a.
    • Make connections to a word's structure using speech sounds, meaningful word parts, and spelling of the word to aid learning.
    Understanding:
    15. Students understand that:
    • Academic, content-specific vocabulary words are used in different school subjects, like reading, math, social studies, and science.
    • They can learn new vocabulary words by making connections to previously learned words or their background knowledge.
    15a.
    • Identifying a word's phonological, morphological, and orthographic structure can help them determine the meaning of a word, as well as the word's origin.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 7
    Classroom Resources: 7
    16. Describe word relationships and nuances in word meanings, including relating them to their opposites and distinguishing shades of meaning in similar or related words.

    a. Use knowledge of antonyms and synonyms.

    b. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs and adjectives.

    Examples: Act out jog, gallop, and sprint to distinguish shades of meaning in words related to run.
    pretty, beautiful, gorgeous; tiny, small, petite

    c. Use knowledge of homophones to determine use of the correct word.

    d. With prompting and support, interpret figurative language.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    16.
    • Describe
    • Word relationships
    • Nuances
    • Opposites
    • Distinguishing
    • Shades of meaning
    • Similar words
    • Related words
    16a.
    • Antonyms
    • Synonyms
    16b.
    • Shades of meaning
    • Verbs
    • Adjectives
    16c.
    • Homophones
    16d.
    • Figurative language
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    16. Students know:
    • Word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    16a.
    • Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings and synonyms are words that have similar meanings.
    16b.
    • A verb expresses an action or state of being.
    • An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.
    16c.
    • Homophones have the same pronunciation, but different meanings, origins, and/or spellings.
    16d.
    • Figurative language is a creative way to use words and phrases beyond their literal definition to explain or describe something.
    Skills:
    16. Students are able to:
    • Describe how the meaning of words are alike or different.
    • Describe the nuances of words that have different shades of meaning (example: happy vs. ecstatic).
    16a.
    • Describe word relationships by relating words of opposite meanings (antonyms) and similar meanings (synonyms).
    16b.
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs, such as act out jog, gallop, and sprint to distinguish shades of meaning in words related to run.
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among adjectives, such as pretty, beautiful, gorgeous; tiny, small, petite.
    16c.
    • Use their knowledge of homophones to determine the correct word meaning and its appropriate use in context.
    16d. With prompting and support,
    • Interpret figurative language to understand its meaning.
    Understanding:
    16. Students understand that:
    • Writers and speakers should carefully select words to convey specific meanings, ideas, and relationships.
    • Words have relationships with others and that words have subtle differences that can be distinguished within text.
    16a.
    • Words can be related to each other, such as some words having similar meanings (synonyms) and some words having opposite meanings (antonyms).
    • Their knowledge of antonyms and synonyms will help improve their academic vocabulary.
    16b.
    • Adjectives and verbs have nuanced meanings.
    • They can use verbs and adjectives with different shades of meaning to clearly convey their meaning when writing and speaking.
    16c.
    • Homophone are words that are pronounced the same, but differ in meaning and/or spelling.
    16d.
    • Figurative language carries meaning other than the literal meaning of the words or phrases .
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 10
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 9
    17. Analyze meaningful parts of words and phrases in discussions and/or text.

    a. Identify possessives and plurals and use them as clues to the meaning of text.

    Example: girl's dress; boys' game; cats, cat's, cats'; houses, house's shutters

    b. Identify meaningful parts of words (morphemes) and use them as clues to the meaning of unknown words, including base words, compound words, and frequently occurring affixes and inflections.

    Examples: -less, -ful, -est

    Note: Adding suffix -est changes an adjective to a superlative adjective; adding suffix -ful changes the part of speech.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    17.
    • Analyze
    • Meaningful word parts
    • Phrases
    17a.
    • Possessives
    • Plurals
    17b.
    • Identify
    • Meaningful parts of words
    • Morphemes
    • Base words
    • Compound words
    • Affixes
    • Inflections
    Knowledge:
    17. Students know:
    • Words can be divided into parts to learn the meaning of the word.
    • Phrases are groups of words that carry meaning.
    17a.
    • That possessives show ownership, and plural mean more than one.
    17b.
    • Words can be divided into smaller parts that carry meaning, which are called morphemes.
    • Compound words are one word made of two independent, base words (example: hot dog is made of hot and dog).
    • Affixes and inflections can be added to words to change their meaning.
    Skills:
    17. Students are able to:
    • Identify and analyze meaningful parts of words or phrases in discussions and/or text.
    17a.
    • Identify possessives by the apostrophe either before or after the s, such as girl's dress; boys' game.
    • Identify plurals by the -s or -es at the end of singular words, such as cats; houses.
    • Use possessives and plurals as clues to the meaning of the text, such as cats, cat's cats'; houses, house's shutters.
    17b.
    • Break words down into their smallest meaningful parts (morphemes) to determine the meaning of an unknown word.
    • Identify suffixes like -less, -est, -ful to determine the meaning of an unknown word.
    • Divide compound words into their smaller individual words to determine the meaning of unknown words.
    Understanding:
    17. Students understand that:
    • Words can be divided into smaller units that carry meaning.
    • Phrases are groups of words that carry meaning.
    17a.
    • Possessives and plurals may change the meaning of text.
    17b.
    • They can break words into smaller parts to determine the meaning of words that they don't know.
    • Knowing affixes and inflections can also help them determine the meaning of unknown words.
    • Compound words are made of two base words, and they can divide the compound word into two parts.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    18. Use dictionary definitions and information found within the text to help determine meaning of unfamiliar or multi-meaning words.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    18.
    • Dictionary definitions
    • Unfamiliar
    • Multi-meaning words
    Knowledge:
    18. Students know:
    • Words can have more than one meaning.
    • Dictionaries are reference books that can be used to find the meaning of unknown or multi-meaning words.
    • Context clues can help determine the meaning of unknown or multi-meaning words.
    Skills:
    18. Students are able to:
    • Use dictionaries (or glossaries in the back of their books) to locate the meanings of unfamiliar or multi-meaning words.
    • Use words within a text to help them determine the meaning of an unfamiliar or multi-meaning words.
    Understanding:
    18. Students understand that:
    • The text around a word can provide clues about the meaning of an unfamiliar or multi-meaning word.
    • They can use reference books, such as a dictionary, to help them determine the meaning of an unknown or multi-meaning word.
    • To comprehend a text, they must use strategies to understand the meaning of vocabulary words.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    19. Identify new vocabulary and the use of word meanings in text to establish real-life connections.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    19.
    • Vocabulary
    • Establish
    • Real-life connections
    Knowledge:
    19. Students know:
    • New vocabulary they encounter in text can be used in their real life.
    • Real life means situations that they have experienced or will experience.
    Skills:
    19. Students are able to:
    • Identify vocabulary words learned through reading text and connect them to something they have personally experienced.
    Understanding:
    19. Students understand that:
    • Making real-life connections to new vocabulary words, helps them move the new words to their long-term memory, becoming part of their "ready to use" vocabulary.
    Reading
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    20. Use grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary to gain meaning from text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    20.
    • Academic vocabulary
    • Domain-specific vocabulary
    Knowledge:
    20. Students know:
    • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
    • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
    • Vocabulary knowledge can be used to comprehend text.
    Skills:
    20. Students are able to:
    • Use knowledge of second grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary words to accurately comprehend text.
    Understanding:
    20. Students understand that:
    • Learning the meaning of academic, domain-specific vocabulary words will help them comprehend text in a variety of subject areas.
    Writing
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    21. Use grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary in writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    21.
    • Academic vocabulary
    • Domain-specific vocabulary
    Knowledge:
    21. Students know:
    • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
    • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
    • Academic, domain-specific vocabulary words should be used in writing to clearly communicate ideas.
    Skills:
    21. Students are able to:
    • Use second grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary words in writing.
    Understanding:
    21. Students understand that:
    • Using academic and domain-specific vocabulary words in writing makes their writing more interesting and helps to clearly communicate their message.
    Comprehension
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    22. Use content knowledge built during read-alouds and independent reading of informational and literary texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    22.
    • Content knowledge
    • Read-alouds
    • Independent reading
    • Informational text
    • Literary Text
    • Content-specific discussions
    • Writing
    Knowledge:
    22. Students know:
    • Content knowledge is information learned about a specific subject.
    • Content knowledge can be learned by listening to read-alouds or independently reading.
    • Informational text is nonfiction text, and literary text is fictional.
    Skills:
    22. Students are able to:
    • Build content knowledge from listening to text read aloud and from independently reading.
    • Use content knowledge learned from read-alouds and independent reading in content-specific discussions with peers.
    • Use content knowledge learned from read-alouds and independent reading in writing.
    Understanding:
    22. Students understand that:
    • Content-specific discussions with peers can demonstrate the content knowledge they learned through read-alouds or independent reading.
    • They can produce writings that demonstrate knowledge of content-specific information.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 18
    Learning Activities: 5
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 11
    23. Identify the main story elements in a literary text.

    a. Explain the plot of a narrative, using textual evidence to list the major events in sequence.

    b. Describe the characters' traits, feelings, and behaviors in a story.

    c. Describe the setting of a narrative, using textual evidence.

    d. Identify the central message or moral of a story.

    e. Identify the theme in myths, fables, and folktales.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    23.
    • Story elements
    • Literary text
    23a.
    • Plot
    • Narrative
    • Textual evidence
    • Major events
    • Sequence
    23b.
    • Describe
    • Character
    • Traits
    • Feelings
    • Behaviors
    23c.
    • Setting
    • Narrative
    • Textual evidence
    23d.
    • Central message
    • Moral
    23e.
    • Theme
    • Myths
    • Fables
    • Folktales
    Knowledge:
    23. Students know:
    • Literary text is a story that contains story elements, like a plot and characters.
    23a.
    • Plot is the main events of a story (often referred to as the beginning, middle, and end of a story).
    • The sequence of events is the order in which the story takes place.
    23b.
    • A story author provides descriptions of the characters' traits, feelings, and behaviors.
    23c.
    • Setting is when and where a story takes place.
    23d.
    • A central message or moral is the lesson that is learned through the story or the one big idea of the story.
    23e.
    • Theme is the main, recurring idea in a text.
    • Myths, fables, and folktales are fictional pieces of text.
    Skills:
    23. Students are able to:
    • Identify the main story elements in a literary text, such as characters, settings, and plot.
    23a.
    • Explain the major events of a story in order by using text evidence.
    23b.
    • Describe characters' traits, feelings, and behaviors by using information from the text.
    23c.
    • Describe the setting of a story by using evidence from the text.
    23d.
    • Identify the central message or moral of a story using information from the text.
    23e.
    • Identify the theme of a myth, fable, or folktale.
    Understanding:
    23. Students understand that:
    • Literary texts include story elements, and they can identify the various elements to better understand the text.
    23a.
    • The plot is the main events of the story that happen in a particular sequence.
    • The plot can be explained by using words or phrases from the text.
    23b.
    • Understanding each character's traits, feelings, and behaviors will help them better understand a story's plot.
    • They can learn about characters by carefully reading the story and describing the characters' traits, feelings, and behaviors.
    23c.
    • They can use information from the text to learn when and where the story takes place.
    • They can use the text to describe attributes of the setting.
    23d.
    • Stories will often have a central message or moral that the author intended to share with readers.
    23e.
    • Myths, fables, and folktales are often written to convey a particular theme or main message.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 8
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 5
    24. Identify the main idea and supporting details of literary and informational texts.

    a. Explain how the supporting details contribute to the main idea.

    b. Recount or summarize key ideas from the text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    24.
    • Main idea
    • Supporting details
    • Literary text
    • Informational text
    24a.
    • Explain
    • Main idea
    • Supporting details
    • Contribute
    24b.
    • Recount
    • Summarize
    • Key ideas
    Knowledge:
    24. Students know:
    • The main idea is the most important idea presented in the text.
    • The supporting details explain the main idea or provide more information about the main idea.
    24a.
    • The supporting details explain the main idea or provide more information about the main idea.
    24b.
    • Key ideas are important details within a text.
    • Recount means to retell the big ideas of the text.
    • Summarize means to briefly state the big ideas of the text.
    Skills:
    24. Students are able to:
    • Identify the main idea in literary and informational text.
    • Identify the supporting details in literary and informational text.
    24a.
    • Explain how the supporting details provide more information about the main idea.
    24b.
    • Retell or summarize the most important (key) ideas from a text.
    Understanding:
    24. Students understand that:
    • Literary and informational texts have a main idea, or most important message, and supporting details, which provide more information about the main idea.
    • A text usually just has one main idea, but multiple supporting details.
    24a.
    • The supporting details help explain the main idea or provide more information about the main idea.
    24b.
    • Texts have key ideas, and they can retell or summarize these important ideas to demonstrate comprehension of the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 9
    Learning Activities: 2
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 4
    Unit Plans: 1
    25. Identify and use various text features to locate ideas, facts, or supporting details in both written and digital formats.

    a. Identify and locate captions, bold print, subheadings, indexes, graphs, maps, glossaries, and illustrations.

    b. Explain how specific features can clarify a text or enhance comprehension.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    25.
    • Identify
    • Text features
    • Ideas
    • Facts
    • Supporting details
    • Written formats
    • Digital formats
    25a.
    • Captions
    • Bold print
    • Subheadings
    • Indexes
    • Graphs
    • Maps
    • Glossaries
    • Illustrations
    25b.
    • Features
    • Clarify
    • Enhance
    • Comprehension
    Knowledge:
    25. Students know:
    • Text features can be used to locate information in printed and digital text.
    25a.
    • Captions, bold print, subheadings, indexes, graphs, maps, glossaries, and illustrations are important text features that can help provide or locate information.
    25b.
    • Text features can clarify or enhance the meaning of text.
    Skills:
    25. Students are able to:
    • Identify text features in printed and digital text.
    • Use text features to locate ideas, facts, and supporting details.
    25a.
    • Locate captions, bold print, subheads, indexes, graphs, maps, glossaries, and illustrations within a text.
    • Identify captions, bold print, subheads, indexes, graphs, maps, glossaries, and illustrations by naming them within a text.
    25b.
    • Explain how text features can clarify the meaning of text.
    • Explain how text features can improve comprehension of text.
    Understanding:
    25. Students understand that:
    • Printed and digital text has predictable features that can be used to locate important ideas, facts, and supporting details.
    • Using text features helps support their overall comprehension.
    25a.
    • Locating and identifying text features can aid in comprehension.
    • Viewing these text features prior to reading, can provide a preview of the material and give them a purpose for reading.
    25b.
    • They can use text features to better understand, or comprehend, the meaning of a text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 17
    Learning Activities: 8
    Lesson Plans: 5
    Classroom Resources: 4
    26. Compare and contrast important details presented by two texts on the same topic or theme.

    a. Compare and contrast different versions of the same story by different authors, from different cultures, or from different points of view.

    Examples: The Three Little Pigs and The True Story of the Three Little Pigs; Cinderella and The Rough-Face Girl

    b. Compare and contrast story elements of literary texts.

    Examples: characters, settings, sequence of events, plots
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    26.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Topic
    • Theme
    26a.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Authors
    • Cultures
    • Points of view
    26b.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Story elements
    • Literary texts
    Knowledge:
    26. Students know:
    • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar.
    • Contrast means tell how things are different.
    26a.
    • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar.
    • Contrast means tell how things are different.
    • The same story can be told by different authors, can exist in different cultures, or can be told by different narrators.
    26b.
    • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar.
    • Contrast means tell how things are different.
    • Literary texts include common story elements.
    Skills:
    26. Students are able to:
    • Compare and contrast important details after reading two texts that have a common theme or topic.
    26a.
    • Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story by different authors, from different cultures, or from different points of view.
    • For example, The Three Little Pigs and The True Story of the Three Little Pigs or Cinderella and The Rough-Face Girl.
    26b.
    • Compare and contrast story elements in literary texts, such as characters, settings, sequence of events, and plots.
    Understanding:
    26. Students understand that:
    • Texts about the same topic or theme will have similarities and differences.
    • Comparing and contrasting texts with the same topic or theme will improve their overall comprehension of the texts.
    26a.
    • Similarities and differences between the same stories can teach the reader about different cultures and explain different points of view.
    26b.
    • Comparing and contrasting story elements of literary texts can improve their comprehension, or understanding, of the texts.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 3
    Classroom Resources: 3
    27. Identify the text structures within literary and informational texts, including cause and effect, problem and solution, and sequence of events.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    27.
    • Text structures
    • Literary texts
    • Informational texts
    • Cause and effect
    • Problem and solution
    • Sequence of events
    Knowledge:
    27. Students know:
    • Literary and informational texts follow predictable structures.
    • Cause and effect text structure describes an event (the cause) and the consequence or result of the event (the effect).
    • Problem and solution text structure describes a problem and how the problem was solved or could be solved.
    • Sequence of events is the order of events within a text.
    Skills:
    27. Students are able to:
    • Identify the text structure of literary texts.
    • Identify the text structure of informational texts.
    Understanding:
    27. Students understand that:
    • Identifying the text structure of literary and informational texts will set a purpose for their reading and improve their comprehension.
    Reading
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    28. Establish a purpose before reading literary and informational texts to enhance comprehension.

    Examples: for pleasure, to identify main idea, to gather information or facts on a topic
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    28.
    • Establish
    • Purpose
    • Literary texts
    • Informational texts
    • Enhance
    • Comprehension
    Knowledge:
    28. Students know:
    • There are different purposes for reading.
    • Authors write text for different purposes.
    Skills:
    28. Students are able to:
    • Establish a purpose for reading literary and informational text, such as for pleasure, to identify the main idea, to gather information or facts on a topic.
    Understanding:
    28. Students understand that:
    • There are different purposes for reading, and establishing their purpose before engaging in reading can improve their overall comprehension of literary and informational text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    29. With prompting and support, identify and interpret various cohesive devices that help link words and sentences to one another within the text as a scaffold to help build comprehension at the sentence and paragraph level.

    Examples: pronoun references, word substitution using synonyms, conjunctions
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    29.
    • Identify
    • Interpret
    • Cohesive devices
    • Scaffold
    • Comprehension
    • Sentence level
    • Paragraph level
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    29. Students know:
    • Words, sentences, and paragraphs can be joined together with certain words, phrases, or references.
    Skills:
    29. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Identify cohesive devices that link together words and sentences within a text, such as pronoun references, word substitution using synonyms, and conjunctions.
    • Interpret cohesive devices to comprehend text at the sentence and paragraph level.
    Understanding:
    29. Students understand that:
    • Cohesive devices, like pronoun references, word substitution, and conjunctions, can link words and sentences together within the larger body of text.
    • To fully comprehend a text, they must understand the meaning of the cohesive devices.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 6
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 4
    30. Read and comprehend literary and informational texts.

    a. State and confirm predictions about a text.

    b. Use background knowledge to make connections to new text.

    c. Draw conclusions based on the text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    30.
    • Comprehend
    • Literary texts
    • Informational texts
    30a.
    • Confirm
    • Predictions
    30b.
    • Background knowledge
    • Connections
    30c.
    • Draw conclusions
    Knowledge:
    30. Students know:
    • Comprehension is understanding text that is read.
    30a.
    • A prediction is a guess at what they think the story or passage will be about.
    30b.
    • Background knowledge will help make connections to text.
    30c.
    • Drawing conclusions is taking what they currently know and applying it to what they have just read to develop a new thought or reasoning.
    Skills:
    30. Students are able to:
    • Read and comprehend literary (fictional) and informational (nonfiction) text.
    30a.
    • Share predictions about the text they will read.
    • Confirm predictions as correct or incorrect after reading the text.
    30b.
    • Use current background knowledge to make connections to new information presented in text.
    30c.
    • Draw conclusions after reading a text.
    Understanding:
    30. Students understand that:
    • They can read literary and informational texts and use comprehension skills to understand what they have read.
    30a.
    • They can demonstrate comprehension of a text by making predictions and confirming if the prediction was correct or incorrect.
    30b.
    • Connecting their prior knowledge to new information presented in text can improve their comprehension and retention of newly learned information.
    30c.
    • Drawing conclusions from a text demonstrates they comprehended the text and learned new information.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    31. Use information from a text to determine the author's purpose in different forms of informational and literary texts.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    31.
    • Author's purpose
    • Informational texts
    • Literary texts
    Knowledge:
    31. Students know:
    • Authors write for different reasons: to entertain, to persuade, to inform, to explain.
    Skills:
    31. Students are able to:
    • Use text evidence to determine the author's purpose in different types of literary (fictional) and informational (nonfictional) texts.
    Understanding:
    31. Students understand that:
    • Determining the author's purpose when reading allows them to strengthen their understanding and comprehension of the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 5
    Learning Activities: 3
    Classroom Resources: 2
    32. Identify rhyme schemes in poems or songs.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    32.
    • Rhyme schemes
    • Poems
    • Songs
    Knowledge:
    32. Students know:
    • Rhyme schemes are patterns of sound that repeat at the end of a line or stanza in a poem or song.
    Skills:
    32. Students are able to:
    • Identify rhyming words in poems or songs.
    • Identify the pattern of sounds that repeat at the end of a line or stanza in poems or songs.
    Understanding:
    32. Students understand that:
    • Rhyming words have the same vowel and ending sound.
    • Poems and songs often have a pattern of rhyming words, called a rhyme scheme.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    33. Read and identify types of poems, including free verse, rhymed verse, haiku, and limerick.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    33.
    • Poems
    • Free verse
    • Rhymed verse
    • Haiku
    • Limerick
    Knowledge:
    33. Students know:
    • Different types of poems have different features and follow different patterns.
    Skills:
    33. Students are able to:
    • Read and identify different types of poetry.
    Understanding:
    33. Students understand that:
    • Poetry is a genre of literary text that can fall into different categories.
    • Reading different types of poetry will increase their knowledge of poetry styles and enable them to identify different types of poems.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    34. Differentiate between fact and opinion in a text.

    a. Use prior knowledge and information gathered from research to evaluate opinions in texts.

    b. Use textual evidence and gathered research from reliable sources to prove facts.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    34.
    • Differentiate
    • Fact
    • Opinion
    34a.
    • Prior knowledge
    • Information
    • Research
    • Evaluate
    • Opinions
    34b.
    • Textual evidence
    • Gathered research
    • Reliable sources
    • Facts
    Knowledge:
    34. Students know:
    • A fact is a statement that can be proven with evidence.
    • An opinion is a personal belief that cannot be proven true in every case.
    34a.
    • Research happens when you look up information about a topic.
    • Opinions are what someone thinks or feels and cannot be proven true or false, but they can be evaluated based on evidence.
    34b.
    • A fact is something that can be proven true or false through research.
    • A reliable source is a source that provides accurate information.
    Skills:
    34. Students are able to:
    • Differentiate between a fact and an opinion in a text.
    34a.
    • Use prior knowledge and information learned through research to make judgments on opinions within texts.
    34b.
    • Use text evidence from reliable sources to prove facts.
    • Gather research from reliable sources to prove facts.
    • Identify reliable sources of information.
    Understanding:
    34. Students understand that:
    • A fact is a thing that is known or proved to be true, and an opinion is a personal view or judgment about something.
    34a.
    • They can evaluate opinions in text by using their background knowledge and newly gained information from research.
    34b. Students understand that:
    • Some texts are not reliable sources of information.
    • A reliable text is a source of information that can be used for research and providing text evidence.
    Listening
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    35. Demonstrate listening skills and build background knowledge by asking and answering questions about texts read aloud.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    35.
    • Listening skills
    • Background knowledge
    Knowledge:
    35. Students know:
    • Active listening skills.
    • Asking and answering questions about text builds background knowledge.
    Skills:
    35. Students are able to:
    • Demonstrate active listening skills by asking and answering questions about text read aloud.
    • Build background knowledge by asking and answering questions about text read aloud.
    Understanding:
    35. Students understand that:
    • Listening skills and background knowledge can be used to answer questions about texts read aloud.
    Writing
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    36. Manipulate words and/or phrases to create simple and compound sentences, including coordinating conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so, to help build syntactic awareness and comprehension at the sentence level.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    36.
    • Manipulate
    • Phrases
    • Simple sentences
    • Compound sentences
    • Coordinating conjunctions
    • Syntactic awareness
    • Sentence level
    Knowledge:
    36.
    • A complete simple sentence includes a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought.
    • A complete compound sentence includes two subjects and two predicates and expresses two complete thoughts.
    • A complete compound sentence must include a coordinating conjunction to link the two complete thoughts.
    Skills:
    36. Students are able to:
    • Manipulate words and/or phrases to create simple and compound sentences in their writing.
    • Use coordinating conjunctions to combine two simple sentences into a compound sentence in their writing.
    Understanding:
    36. Students understand that:
    • They can improve their reading comprehension and build syntactic awareness by using different types of sentences in their writing.
    • They can join two simple sentences with a coordinating conjunction to form a compound sentence.
    • Writers vary their sentence structure to engage their readers.
    Writing
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    37. Write legibly.

    a. Write words and sentences fluently using correctly-formed manuscript letters with appropriate size and spacing.

    b. Demonstrate cursive writing strokes, including undercurve, overcurve, downcurve, and slant.

    c. Form uppercase and lowercase letters in cursive.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    37.
    • Legibly
    37a.
    • Manuscript letters
    • Fluently
    37b.
    • Cursive writing strokes
    • Undercurve
    • Overcurve
    • Downcurve
    • Slant
    37c.
    • Uppercase
    • Lowercase
    • Cursive
    Knowledge:
    37. Students know:
    • Legible writing can be read by others.
    37a.
    • Legible manuscript writing requires letters to be formed correctly with the appropriate size and spacing between letters and words.
    • Fluently means writing without having to pause to think about the next motion.
    37b.
    • Cursive writing is created using a series of strokes, including the undercurve, overcurve, downcurve, and slant.
    37c.
    • The strokes to form uppercase and lowercase letters in cursive writing.
    Skills:
    37. Students are able to:
    • Write letters that can be read easily by others.
    37a.
    • Fluently write words with correctly-formed, appropriately sized manuscript letters with appropriate spaces between the letters.
    • Fluently write sentences with correctly-formed, appropriately sized manuscript letters with appropriate spaces between the letters and the words.
    37b.
    • Correctly form the cursive writing strokes including the undercurve, overcurve, downcurve, and slant.
    37c.
    • Correctly use the cursive writing strokes to write the uppercase and lowercase cursive letters.
    Understanding:
    37. Students understand that:
    • Letters should be formed correctly and with appropriate spacing so it can be read by others.
    37a.
    • Fluent, legible writing of words and sentences is an important skill as they begin to write longer pieces.
    37b.
    • They can form cursive letters by using a series of basic strokes: the undercurve, overcurve, downcurve, and slant.
    37c.
    • Combining cursive writing strokes forms the uppercase and lowercase cursive letters.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 14
    Learning Activities: 4
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Classroom Resources: 7
    38. Apply knowledge of grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, syllable division principles, and spelling rules (or generalizations) to encode words accurately.

    a. Encode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words using knowledge of syllable types, including open, closed, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, vowel-r, and consonant-le.

    b. Apply knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles to encode grade-appropriate words correctly.

    Examples: VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, CV/VC; rab-bit, o-pen, cab-in, di-et

    c. Encode words with final /v/ and /j/ sounds using knowledge that no English word ends with a, v, or j.

    Examples: have, give, save; cage, rage, budge, lodge

    d. Encode one- and two-syllable words with long and short vowel patterns.

    e. Encode words with two- and three-consonant blends, including those containing digraphs.

    Examples: st, sm, sn, sl, cl, dr, br, bl, str, scr, thr, squ, spl, spr

    f. Encode words with consonant digraphs, trigraphs, and combinations.

    Examples: ph, gh, ch, sh, wh, th, ng, tch, dge, qu

    g. Encode words with the common vowel teams, including diphthongs.

    Examples: ai, ay, ea, ee, ei, igh, oa, ow, ou, ue, ew, eigh

    h. Encode words with vowel-r combinations.

    Examples: ar, or, ir, er, ur, air, ear, oar

    i. Encode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.

    Examples: wild, cold, most, colt, mind

    j. Encode words with a after w read /ä/ and a before l read /â/.

    Examples: wash, water, wasp; tall, all, talk, small, fall

    k. Encode words with or after w read /er/.

    Examples: world, word, worm, worst, work

    l. Encode words with hard and soft c and g.

    Examples: carry, cent; game, giraffe

    m. Encode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words, distinguishing the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words, and words with vowel y in medial position, producing the short /ĭ/ sound for these words.

    Examples: fly, my; baby, happy; myth, gym

    n. Encode words with prefixes and suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.

    Examples: pro-, trans-, non-, mid-, -ful, -less, -ness, -ed, ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly

    o. Encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, including those that contain only one irregularity.

    Examples: decodable - number, way, my, than, word
    decodable except for one irregularity - other (o is schwa); from- (o is schwa);
    what- (a is schwa or short o depending on dialect)

    p. Encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, using apostrophes appropriately.

    Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll

    q. Encode frequently confused homophones accurately, using knowledge of English orthography and meaning to facilitate learning.

    Examples: their/they're/there; eight/ate; cent/scent/sent
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    38.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Spelling rules
    • Generalizations
    • Encode
    • Accurately
    38a.
    • Encode
    • Multisyllabic
    • Syllable types
    • Open syllable
    • Closed syllable
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllable
    • Vowel team syllable
    • vowel-r syllable
    • Consonant-le syllable
    38b.
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Encode
    38c.
    • Encode
    • Final /v/ sound
    • Final /j/ sound
    38d.
    • Encode
    • One-syllable words
    • Two-syllable words
    • Long vowel patterns
    • Short vowel patterns
    38e.
    • Encode
    • Two-consonant blends
    • Three-consonant blends
    • Digraphs
    38f.
    • Encode
    • Consonant digraphs
    • Trigraphs
    • Combinations
    38g.
    • Encode
    • Vowel teams
    • Diphthongs
    38h.
    • Encode
    • vowel-r combinations
    38i.
    • Encode
    • Patterns
    38j.
    • Encode
    38k.
    • Encode
    38l.
    • Encode
    • Hard c
    • Soft c
    • Hard g
    • Soft g
    38m.
    • Encode
    • Vowel y
    • Medial position
    • Final position
    • One-syllable words
    • Two-syllable words
    • Long /ī/ sound
    • Long /ē/ sound
    • Short /ĭ/ sound
    38n.
    • Encode
    • Prefixes
    • Suffixes
    • Suffix addition
    38o.
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
    • Predictable
    • Decodable
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Irregularity
    38p.
    • Encode
    • Contractions
    • Apostrophes
    38q.
    • Encode
    • Frequently confused homophones
    • English orthography
    • Meaning
    • Facilitate
    Knowledge:
    38. Students know:
    • Grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Multisyllabic words are words that are composed of two or more syllables.
    • Syllable division principles.
    • Spelling rules (or generalizations).
    • To encode accurately means to spell a word correctly.
    38a.
    • The features of a closed syllable.
    • The features of an open syllable.
    • The features of a vowel-consonant-e syllable.
    • The features of a vowel-r syllable.
    • The features of common vowel team syllables.
    • The features of a consonant-le syllable.
    38b.
    • Multisyllabic words are words that are constructed of two or more syllables.
    • Multisyllabic words can be broken down into single syllables using syllable division principles.
    38c.
    • Words with final /v/ sound.
    • No English word ends with a v.
    • Words with final /j/ sound.
    • No English words end with a j.
    38d.
    • Vowels can make a long sound or a short sound.
    • Each type of vowel sound has predictable spelling patterns.
    38e.
    • Consonant blends are a combination of two or three consonants in which each grapheme represents a phoneme sound.
    • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
    38f.
    • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
    • Trigraphs are three letter combinations that represents a single phoneme sound.
    • Combinations are two letters that frequently appear together and have an associated phoneme.
    38g.
    • Vowel teams are a combination of two, three, or four letters that represent for one vowel sound.
    • Diphthongs are single vowel phonemes that glide in the middle.
    38h.
    • vowel-r combinations are a single vowel letter or vowel team followed by r that represents a unique vowel sound.
    38i.
    • Words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.
    38j.
    • The letter a can be used to spell different sounds, depending on the letter the precedes it.
    38k.
    • Words that are spelled with an or after w.
    • When an r follows a vowel, the vowel can make a different sound.
    38l.
    • The hard sound of c is /k/.
    • The soft sound of c is /s/.
    • The hard sound of g is /g/.
    • The soft sound of g is /j/.
    • The spelling generalizations associated with hard and soft c and g.
    38m.
    • The letter y can represent three different vowel sounds depending on the number of syllables in the words and its position in a word.
    38n.
    • Prefixes are word parts that can be added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning of the word.
    • Suffixes are word parts that can be added at the end of the word to change the meaning of the word.
    • Some base words require changes in spelling before a suffix is added.
    38o.
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, as well as those that have one irregularity.
    38p.
    • Contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, such as I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll.
    38q.
    • Homophones are words that sound the same, but have different spellings and meanings.
    • Frequently confused homophones, such as their/they're/there; eight/ate; cent/scent/sent.
    Skills:
    38. Students are able to:
    • Accurately encode (spell) single syllable and multisyllabic words using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, syllable division principles, and spelling generalization.
    • Accurately divide words into syllables to spell multisyllabic words correctly.
    38a.
    • Accurately encode (spell) multisyllabic words using their knowledge of the spelling patterns of the six syllable types.
    38b.
    • Accurately encode (spell) grade-appropriate multisyllabic words using knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles. For example, VC/CV, rab-bit; V/CV, o-pen; VC/V, cab-in; CV/VC, li-on.
    38c.
    • Encode (spell) words with final /v/ sound by adding an -e at the end of the word, such as in have, give, save.
    • Encode (spell) words with final /j/ sound by adding an -ge or -dge at the end of the word, such as in cage, rage, budge, lodge.
    38d.
    • Encode (spell) words with short and long vowel patterns in words that have one or two syllables.
    38e.
    • Encode (spell) words with two-consonant blends, such as st, sm, sn, sl, cl, dr, br, bl.
    • Encode (spell) words with three-consonant blends, such as str, scr, spl, spr.
    • Encode (spell) words with a digraph paired with a consonant blend, such as thr, squ.
    38f.
    • Encode (spell) words with consonant digraphs, such as ph, gh, ch, sh, wh, th, ng.
    • Encode (spell) words with consonant trigraphs, such as tch, dge.
    • Encode (spell) words with combinations, such as qu.
    38g.
  • Encode (spell) words with common vowel teams and diphthongs, such as ai, ay, ea, ee, ei, igh, oa, ow, ou, ue, ew, eigh.
  • 38h.
    • Encode (spell) words with vowel-r combinations, such as ar, or, ir, er, ur, air, ear, oar.
    38i.
      Encode (spell) words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns, such as wild, cold, most, colt, mind.
    38j.
    • Encode (spell) words that have a after w read /ä/, such as wash, water, wasp.
    • Encode (spell) words that have a before l read /â/, such as tall, all, talk, small, fall.
    38k.
    • Encode (spell) words with or after w pronounced /er/, such as world, word, worm, worst, work.
    38l.
    • Encode (spell) words with the hard c, such as carry, and the soft c, such as cent.
    • Encode (spell) words with the hard g, such as game, and the soft g, such as giraffe.
    38m.
    • Encode (spell) words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words.
    • Distinguish the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words (like fly and my) and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words (like baby and happy).
    • Encode (spell) words with vowel y in medial position, such as myth and gym.
    38n.
    • Encode (spell) words with prefixes, suffixes, or both.
    • Change the endings of words by dropping the e when adding suffixes or changing the y-to-i, when appropriate.
    38o.
    • Encode (spell) grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, such as number, way, my, than, word.
    • Encode (spell) grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled with one irregularity, such as other, from, what.
    38p.
    • Encode (spell) contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, such as I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll, with correct apostrophe usage.
    38q.
    • Encode (spell) homophones using knowledge of English orthography and word meaning.
    Understanding:
    38. Students understand that:
    • To spell (encode), they must accurately represent the letter symbols (graphemes) that correspond to the spoken sounds (phonemes).
    • They can use syllable division principles to break a word apart to make it easier to spell.
    • They can use their knowledge of the six syllable types to accurately encode words.
    • There are spelling rules, or generalizations, in the English language that can help them spell words accurately.
    38a.
    • They correctly spell multisyllabic words by using their knowledge of the spelling patterns of the six syllable types.
    38b.
    • When spelling multisyllabic words, they should divide the word into individual syllables and use their knowledge of the syllable types to spell each syllable correctly.
    38c.
    • There are no words in the English language that end with v, so words that end with a /v/ sound will follow the spelling rule of adding an -e to the end of the word.
    • There are no words in the English language that end with j, so words that end with a /j/ sound will follow the spelling rule of adding an -ge or -dge to the end of the word.
    38d.
    • Vowels have more than one sound (long or short).
    • They can spell one or two-syllable words by knowing the spelling rules for long and short vowel patterns.
    38e.
    • When spelling a word with a two- or three-letter consonant blend, each consonant produces its sound.
    • When spelling a word with a digraph and a blend, the digraph will be represented by two letters that make one sound, combined with a consonant that produces its sound.
    38f.
    • Some words have special combinations of letters that can be encoded using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    38g.
    • Vowel teams are a combination of two, three, or four letters that represent one vowel sound.
    • Diphthongs are a combination of vowels that glide in the middle due to a shifting mouth position.
    38h.
    • When an r follows a vowel or a vowel team, the vowel sound frequently changes, and the spellings of these sounds are variable.
    38i.
    • The can use the predictable spelling patterns of -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind to correctly spell words.
    38j.
    • Adjacent letters and letter position within a word can change the sound a letter produces.
    38k.
    • When the letters or come after w, they do not make the same sound as words with or after other letters, such as fork, Oreo.
    • When they hear the /er/ sound after the /w/ sound, the word will be spelled with the or vowel combination.
    38l.
    • The letter that follows a c or g determines the sound that c or g will make in a word.
    • C makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    • G makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    38m.
      Y can represent three vowel sounds: long /ī/, long /ē/, and short /ĭ/.
    • Letter y represents the long /ī/ sound in one syllable words when the y is in the final position.
    • Letter y makes the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words when the y is in the final position.
    • Letter y represents the short /ĭ/ sound when the y is in the medial position of the word.
    38n.
    • Prefixes are added to the beginning of a base word and some have predictable spelling patterns, like pro-, trans-, non-, mid-.
    • Suffixes are added to the end of a base word and some have predictable spelling patterns, like -ful, -less, -ness, -ed.
    • Words can be spelled by identifying the prefixes or suffixes within the word.
    • Some base words require changes before a suffix is added.
    38o.
    • Some high frequency words have irregular spelling patterns that they must learn to be able to spell the words accurately.
    38p.
    • Contractions are made up of two words that are shortened by combining the two words and replacing the omitted letters with an apostrophe.
    • Accurate spelling of contractions requires correct apostrophe usage.
    38q.
    • Homophones are words that are pronounced the same but have different spellings and meanings.
    • It is important to spell homophones accurately to convey their intended message.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    39. Organize a list of words into alphabetical order according to first, second, and third letters.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    39.
    • Organize
    • List
    • Alphabetical order
    • First letter
    • Second letter
    • Third letter
    Knowledge:
    39. Students know:
    • The order of the letters of the alphabet.
    • Alphabetical order to the first, second, and third letter.
    Skills:
    39. Students are able to:
    • Organize a list of words in alphabetical order according to the first, second, and third letters.
    • Identify when to use the second or third letter for alphabetical order.
    Understanding:
    39. Students understand that:
    • The alphabet has an exact order which can be used to organize a list of words.
    • They must use the second letter of the word when the first letters are the same, and the third letter of the word, if the first two letters are the same.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 10
    Learning Activities: 3
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 5
    40. Write a personal or fictional narrative using a logical sequence of events, including details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings and providing a sense of closure.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    40.
    • Personal narrative
    • Fictional narrative
    • Logical
    • Sequence of events
    • Details
    • Actions
    • Thoughts
    • Feelings
    • Closure
    Knowledge:
    40. Students know:
    • A narrative is a piece of writing that tells a story.
    • A narrative story describes a sequence of events in a logical order (beginning, middle, end).
    • A narrative story describes the actions, thoughts, and feelings of the characters.
    Skills:
    40. Students are able to:
    • Write a personal narrative that recalls a personal experience or write a fictional narrative with a made-up story.
    • Write a narrative with a logical sequence of events and provide details that describe how the character feels, acts, and thinks.
    • Write a narrative that ends with a sense of closure.
    Understanding:
    40. Students understand that:
    • Narrative writing includes predictable elements, like a logical sequence of events and an ending that provides the reader with a sense of closure.
    • Narrative writing can be used to tell about something that happened to them personally or it can tell a story they made up.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 7
    Learning Activities: 3
    Classroom Resources: 4
    41. Write informative or explanatory texts, introducing the topic, providing facts and relevant details to develop points, and providing a conclusion.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    41.
    • Informative text
    • Explanatory text
    • Topic
    • Facts
    • Relevant details
    • Develop
    • Points
    • Conclusion
    Knowledge:
    41. Students know:
    • Informative or explanatory text is a piece of writing that provides factual information.
    • Informative or explanatory text begins by introducing the topic, provides facts and relevant details, and ends with a conclusion.
    Skills:
    41. Students are able to:
    • Write an informative or explanatory text.
    • Write an informative or explanatory text that begins with introducing the topic, provides facts and details about the topic, and ends with a conclusion.
    Understanding:
    41. Students understand that:
    • Informative or explanatory writing follows a predictable text structure that includes introducing the topic, providing facts or additional details about the topic, and ends with a conclusion.
    • Informative or explanatory writing can be used to tell facts about a topic.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 9
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Classroom Resources: 6
    42. Write an opinion piece about a topic or text with details to support the opinion, using transitional words and providing a sense of closure.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    42.
    • Opinion
    • Topic
    • Text
    • Details
    • Transitional words
    • Closure
    Knowledge:
    42. Students know:
    • An opinion piece is a writing that provides an opinion about a topic or text and provides reasons for the opinion.
    • Opinion pieces often include transitional words.
    Skills:
    42. Students are able to:
    • Write an opinion piece about a topic or text using details to support the opinion, transitional words, and a concluding statement.
    Understanding:
    42. Students understand that:
    • Opinion writing follows a predictable structure which includes, stating the opinion, providing details to support the opinion, and ends with a conclusion.
    • Opinion pieces often include transitional words.
    • Opinion writing can be used to explain their opinions and the reasons they have the opinion.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 4
    Classroom Resources: 4
    43. Write complete sentences demonstrating knowledge of punctuation conventions.

    a. Utilize commas with words in a series in a sentence.

    b. Use apostrophes to form contractions and possessives.

    Examples: contractions with am, is, has, not (I'm, she's, don't)

    c. Use punctuation to set off interjections.

    d. Expand sentences using frequently-occurring conjunctions.

    Examples: because, so, but
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    43.
    • Complete sentences
    • Punctuation conventions
    43a.
    • Commas
    • Series
    43b.
    • Apostrophes
    • Contractions
    • Possessives
    43c.
    • Punctuation
    • Interjections
    43d.
    • Expand
    • Conjunctions
    Knowledge:
    43. Students know:
    • A complete sentence expresses a complete thought and contains at minimum one subject and one predicate.
    • A complete sentence ends with one of three ending punctuation marks: a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark.
    43a.
    • Commas are used to separate groups of words.
    43b.
    • Contractions are made of two words, shortened with an apostrophe taking the place of the missing letters.
    • Possessives show ownership and an apostrophe is used in the formation of possessives.
    43c.
    • Interjections show emotion.
    43d.
    • Conjunctions are words that join ideas together in a sentence.
    Skills:
    43. Students are able to:
    • Write complete sentences with appropriate ending punctuation marks.
    43a.
    • Write sentences that correctly use commas to separate words in a series, such as cat, dog, turtle, etc.
    43b.
    • Use apostrophes accurately when forming contractions and possessives.
    43c.
    • Use correct punctuation to set off interjections, such as Ah! or Well,.
    43d.
    • Form and expand sentences using conjunctions, like because, so, but.
    Understanding:
    43. Students understand that:
    • Complete sentences express a complete thought and contain at least one subject and one predicate.
    • Sentences that are statements or demands end with a period.
    • Sentences that are interrogative end with a question mark.
    • Exclamatory sentences end with an exclamation mark.
    43a.
    • Commas are used to separate a group of words in a series.
    43b.
    • An apostrophe is a punctuation mark that is used when forming contractions and possessives.
    43c.
    • An interjection shows feeling or emotion, rather than expressing meaning within a sentence, so it must be set apart from the rest of the sentence with a punctuation mark.
    43d.
    • Conjunctions are words that can join ideas in a sentence, and they can be used to expand their sentences to make them more complex or to include more ideas.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    44. With prompting and support, compose and develop a well-organized paragraph with a topic sentence, details to support, and a concluding sentence.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    44.
    • Compose
    • Develop
    • Well-organized paragraph
    • Topic sentence
    • Details
    • Concluding sentence
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    44. Students know:
    • A well-organized paragraph has a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence.
    Skills:
    44. Students are able to:
    • With prompting and support, write a well-organized paragraph that consists of a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence.
    Understanding:
    44. Students understand that:
    • A well-written paragraph includes a topic sentence to introduce the topic, provides supporting details to explain the topic, and ends with a concluding sentence.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 11
    Classroom Resources: 11
    45. Demonstrate understanding of standard English language conventions when writing.

    a. Identify the role of a noun, verb, adjective, and adverb within a sentence and explain the type of the information it conveys.

    b. Form regular nouns and verbs by adding -s or -es.

    c. Form and use simple present and past verb tenses.

    d. Form plurals by changing -y to -ies.

    e. Form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns and verbs.

    f. Use plural possessives.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    45.
    • English Language conventions
    45a.
    • Noun
    • Verb
    • Adjective
    • Adverb
    • Conveys
    45b.
    • Regular nouns
    • Regular verbs
    45c.
    • Verb tenses
    • Simple present
    • Simple past
    45d.
    • Plurals
    45e.
    • Irregular plural nouns
    • Irregular plural verbs
    45f.
    • Plural possessives
    Knowledge:
    45. Students know:
    • The English language has grammatical conventions that must be followed when writing.
    45a.
    • There are different types of words within a sentence, and each word provides a particular type of information.
    • The role of a noun, verb, adjective, and adverb within a sentence.
    45b.
    • Regular nouns and verbs are formed by adding an -s or -es suffix.
    45c.
    • Present tense verbs tell about something that is happening currently or continuously.
    • Past tense verbs tell about something that already happened.
    • Different suffixes must be added to the end of verbs to show when the action happened.
    45d.
    • A plural shows there is more than one of something.
    • Base words that end in y must be changed before adding the plural suffix.
    45e.
    • Some nouns and verbs do not follow the regular pattern when forming a plural.
    45f.
    • A plural possessive is used when a plural noun has ownership, or possession, of something.
    Skills:
    45. Students are able to:
    • Correctly use standard English language conventions in writing.
    45a.
    • Identify a noun, verb, adjective, and adverb in a sentence.
    • Explain the type of information nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs provide in a sentence.
    45b.
    • Correctly form regular nouns and verbs by adding an -s or -es suffix.
    45c.
    • Form and use simple present and past verb tenses in writing.
    45d.
    • Form plurals by changing -y to -ies when the base word ends in y.
    45e.
    • Form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns, such as feet, children, mice, fish, teeth.
    • Form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural verbs.
    45f.
    • Accurately use plural possessives in writing.
    Understanding:
    45. Students understand that:
    • To clearly communicate through writing, they must use standard English language conventions.
    45a.
    • Each word in a sentence plays an important role in conveying meaning.
    • A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea and tells who or what the sentence is about.
    • A verb expresses an action or a state of being and tells what the noun is doing.
    • An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun and tells attributes of the noun.
    • An adverb describes a verb, adjective, or adverb, and provides more description about another word in the sentence.
    45b.
    • An -s or -es suffix is added to the end of regular nouns and verbs for subject-verb agreement and to form plurals.
    45c.
    • The simple present verb tense is used to describe things that are happening right now, and the suffix -s or -es is usually added to the end of the base word.
    • The simple past verb tense is used to describe things that have already happened, and the suffix -ed is usually added to the end of the base word.
    45d.
    • To form a plural of a word that end in y, the y must be changed to -ies.
    45e.
    • Some nouns and verbs are made plural by changing vowels, changing the entire word, or adding a different ending.
    45f.
    • Plural possessive nouns show that a plural noun has ownership and that an apostrophe or -s apostrophe is added to the end of the word.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 15
    Learning Activities: 3
    Lesson Plans: 8
    Classroom Resources: 4
    46. Gather and use research to answer questions to complete a research product.

    a. Create topics of interest for a research project.

    b. Create questions to gather information for a research project.

    c. Find information from a variety of sources.

    Examples: books, magazines, newspapers, digital media

    d. Define plagiarism and explain the importance of using their own words.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    46.
    • Gather
    • Research
    • Questions
    46a.
    • Create
    • Topics
    • Research project
    46b.
    • Questions
    46c.
    • Variety of sources
    46d.
    • Plagiarism
    Knowledge:
    46. Students know:
    • Information must be gathered from a variety of sources, and the information can be used to answer questions.
    46a.
    • A topic of interest must be selected before beginning a research project.
    46b.
    • Generating questions and finding information to answer those questions is an important component of a research project.
    46c.
    • A variety of sources can be used to find information and answer research questions.
    46d.
    • Plagiarism is presenting someone else's words or ideas as their own without crediting the source.
    Skills:
    46. Students are able to:
    • Gather and use the research to answer questions and create a research product.
    46a.
    • Generate a list of interesting topics for a research project.
    46b.
    • Create questions and gather information to answer those questions to complete a research project.
    46c.
    • Find information to answer research questions using a variety of sources, such as books, magazines, newspapers, or digital media.
    46d.
    • Define plagiarism.
    • Explain the importance of using their own words in their writing.
    Understanding:
    46. Students understand that:
    • A research product requires gathering information from a variety of sources and using the research to answer questions.
    46a.
    • Creating topics of interest prepares them for the writing process.
    • By creating topics of interest for a research project, they are completing the brainstorming part of a research project.
    46b.
    • Asking questions helps get information for their research projects.
    • Creating questions helps guide their research and that questions may be changed or added based on answers to previous questions.
    46c.
    • Information can come from a variety of sources.
    • They should use different sources to gather information for a research project.
    46d.
    • It is important to use their own words and ideas in writing and/or presentations.