Courses of Study : English Language Arts (Grade 2)

Recurring Standards
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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R2. Use knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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R3. Expand background knowledge and build vocabulary through discussion, reading, and writing.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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R4. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically for research and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
English Language Arts (2021)
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R5. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
Literacy Foundations
Oral Language
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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1. Participate in conversations and discussions with groups and peers utilizing agreed-upon rules.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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2. Present information orally using complete sentences, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation.

a. Use oral language for different purposes: to inform, to entertain, to persuade, to clarify, and to respond.

b. Use complex sentence structures when speaking.

c. Ask and answer questions to seek help, clarify meaning, or get information.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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3. Demonstrate oral literacy skills by participating in a variety of oral language activities.

Examples: creating oral stories, participating in oral dramatic activities, reciting poems and stories
Speaking
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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4. Orally answer who, what, when, where, why, and how questions about a text or conversation, using complete sentences to provide key ideas and details.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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5. Create recordings of stories or poems.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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6. Use visual aids and technology in oral presentations to present key ideas and details about a text or conversation, and add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify thoughts, feelings, and ideas.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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7. Demonstrate standard English usage when speaking.

a. Use collective nouns.

b. Form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns.

c. Use reflexive pronouns.

d. Form and use past tense forms of frequently-occurring irregular verbs.

e. Use adjectives and adverbs.

f. Produce and expand complete simple and compound sentences when speaking.
Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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8. Apply knowledge of voiced and unvoiced sounds and manner of articulation to distinguish between commonly-confused vowel sounds and commonly-confused cognate consonant sounds.

Examples: /f/ and /v/, /p/ and /b/, /k/ and /g/, /t/ and /d/, /ch/ and /sh/, /ĕ/ and /ĭ/, /ĕ/, and /ă/

Note: This is extremely important as a foundational phonemic awareness skill for all learners.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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9. Demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.

a. Add, delete, and substitute phonemes at the beginning, end, or middle of a spoken word made up of up to six phonemes and produce the resulting word.

Examples:
Addition - Say bell. Now say bell, but add /t/ to the end of bell. (belt)
Addition - Say
block. Now say block, but add /t/ to the end of block. (blocked)
Deletion - Say
fin. Now say fin, but don't say /f/. (in)
Deletion - Say
range. Now say range, but don't say /j/. (rain)
Substitution - Say
strap. Now say strap, but change /a/ to /i/. (strip)
Substitution - Say
bleed. Now say bleed, but change the /ē/ to /ā/. (blade)

b. Delete the initial sound in an initial blend in a one-syllable base word.

Example: Say prank. Now say prank, but don't say /p/. (rank)

c. With prompting and support, delete the medial and final sounds in blends in one syllable base words.

Examples: Say snail. Now say snail, but don't say /n/. (sail)
Say
wind. Now say wind, but don't say /d/. (win)

d. Apply phoneme chaining that changes only one sound at a time to show addition, deletion, substitution, and resequencing of sounds from one word to the next.

Examples: bit, bet, bat; sat, sit; pit, pat

e. With prompting and support, reverse sounds within a word by saying the last sound first and the first sound last.

Examples: fine, knife; cat, tack; park, carp
Phonics
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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10. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles to decode and encode (spell) words accurately in isolation and in context.

a. Decode multisyllabic words with common syllable patterns, including open/closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, and schwa syllables.

b. Apply knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles to decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words.

Examples: VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, CV/VC; rab-bit, o-pen, cab-in, li-on

c. Decode and encode words with three-consonant blends and blends containing digraphs.

d. Decode and encode words with consonant digraphs, trigraphs, and combinations.

Examples: qu, sh, ch, th, ph, wh, tch, dge

e. Decode and encode words with variable vowel teams and vowel diphthongs.

Examples: oi, oy; ou, ow; au, aw; oo, ew, ue; ee, ea; igh, ie; ai, ay

f. Decode and encode words with vowel-r combinations.

Examples: ar, air, are, ear, eer, er, ere, eir, ir, or, oar, ore, our, ur

g. Decode and encode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.

Examples: wild, most, cold, colt, mind

h. Decode and encode words with a after w read /ä/ and a before l read /â/.

Examples: wash, water, wasp; tall, all, talk, small, fall

i. Decode and encode words with or after w read /er/.

Examples: world, word, worm, worst, work

j. Decode and encode words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.

Examples: c=/k/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and c= /s/ before i, e, or y
g=/g/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and g=/j/ before i, e, or y

k. Decode and encode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words, distinguishing the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words, and words with vowel y in medial position, producing the short /ĭ/ sound for these words.

Examples: fly, my; baby, happy; myth, gym

l. Decode words with silent letter combinations.

Examples: kn, mb, gh

m. Decode and encode words with prefixes and suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.

Examples: pro-, trans-, non-, mid-; -ful, -less, -ness, -ed, ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly

n. Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, including those that contain only one irregularity.

Examples: decodable - number, way, my, than, word
decodable except for one irregularity - other (o is schwa), from- (o is schwa)
what - (a is schwa or short o depending on dialect)

o. Decode and encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will.

Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll
Fluency
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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11. Apply previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences to multisyllabic words with accuracy and automaticity, in and out of context.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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12. Read and reread grade-appropriate text accurately, automatically, and with meaningful expression at a rate which supports comprehension.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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13. Read grade-appropriate poetry, noticing phrasing, rhythm, and rhyme.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
14. Read high-frequency words commonly found in grade-appropriate text.


Note: High-frequency words should be taught with the main emphasis of the lesson being on regular correspondences and patterns within the word. The student should be able to read the word accurately three times in a row on different days to be considered accurate enough to add to a personal word box, word ring, or fluency folder for fluency practice. Avoid teaching high-frequency words as "sight words" that need to be memorized as a whole word, unless there are no regular correspondences in the word. "Of" is an example of a word with no regular correspondences.
Vocabulary
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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15. Utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary, making connections to previously learned words and relating new words to background knowledge.

a. Make connections to a word's structure using knowledge of phonology, morphology, and orthography of the word to aid learning.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
16. Describe word relationships and nuances in word meanings, including relating them to their opposites and distinguishing shades of meaning in similar or related words.

a. Use knowledge of antonyms and synonyms.

b. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs and adjectives.

Examples: Act out jog, gallop, and sprint to distinguish shades of meaning in words related to run.
pretty, beautiful, gorgeous; tiny, small, petite

c. Use knowledge of homophones to determine use of the correct word.

d. With prompting and support, interpret figurative language.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
17. Analyze meaningful parts of words and phrases in discussions and/or text.

a. Identify possessives and plurals and use them as clues to the meaning of text.

Example: girl's dress; boys' game; cats, cat's, cats'; houses, house's shutters

b. Identify meaningful parts of words (morphemes) and use them as clues to the meaning of unknown words, including base words, compound words, and frequently occurring affixes and inflections.

Examples: -less, -ful, -est

Note: Adding suffix -est changes an adjective to a superlative adjective; adding suffix -ful changes the part of speech.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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18. Use dictionary definitions and information found within the text to help determine meaning of unfamiliar or multi-meaning words.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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19. Identify new vocabulary and the use of word meanings in text to establish real-life connections.
Reading
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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20. Use grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary to gain meaning from text.
Writing
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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21. Use grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary in writing.
Comprehension
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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22. Use content knowledge built during read-alouds and independent reading of informational and literary texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through writing.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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23. Identify the main story elements in a literary text.

a. Explain the plot of a narrative, using textual evidence to list the major events in sequence.

b. Describe the characters' traits, feelings, and behaviors in a story.

c. Describe the setting of a narrative, using textual evidence.

d. Identify the central message or moral of a story.

e. Identify the theme in myths, fables, and folktales.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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24. Identify the main idea and supporting details of literary and informational texts.

a. Explain how the supporting details contribute to the main idea.

b. Recount or summarize key ideas from the text.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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25. Identify and use various text features to locate ideas, facts, or supporting details in both written and digital formats.

a. Identify and locate captions, bold print, subheadings, indexes, graphs, maps, glossaries, and illustrations.

b. Explain how specific features can clarify a text or enhance comprehension.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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26. Compare and contrast important details presented by two texts on the same topic or theme.

a. Compare and contrast different versions of the same story by different authors, from different cultures, or from different points of view.

Examples: The Three Little Pigs and The True Story of the Three Little Pigs; Cinderella and The Rough-Face Girl

b. Compare and contrast story elements of literary texts.

Examples: characters, settings, sequence of events, plots
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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27. Identify the text structures within literary and informational texts, including cause and effect, problem and solution, and sequence of events.
Reading
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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28. Establish a purpose before reading literary and informational texts to enhance comprehension.

Examples: for pleasure, to identify main idea, to gather information or facts on a topic
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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29. With prompting and support, identify and interpret various cohesive devices that help link words and sentences to one another within the text as a scaffold to help build comprehension at the sentence and paragraph level.

Examples: pronoun references, word substitution using synonyms, conjunctions
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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30. Read and comprehend literary and informational texts.

a. State and confirm predictions about a text.

b. Use background knowledge to make connections to new text.

c. Draw conclusions based on the text.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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31. Use information from a text to determine the author's purpose in different forms of informational and literary texts.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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32. Identify rhyme schemes in poems or songs.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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33. Read and identify types of poems, including free verse, rhymed verse, haiku, and limerick.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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34. Differentiate between fact and opinion in a text.

a. Use prior knowledge and information gathered from research to evaluate opinions in texts.

b. Use textual evidence and gathered research from reliable sources to prove facts.
Listening
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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35. Demonstrate listening skills and build background knowledge by asking and answering questions about texts read aloud.
Writing
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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36. Manipulate words and/or phrases to create simple and compound sentences, including coordinating conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so, to help build syntactic awareness and comprehension at the sentence level.
Writing
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
37. Write legibly.

a. Write words and sentences fluently using correctly-formed manuscript letters with appropriate size and spacing.

b. Demonstrate cursive writing strokes, including undercurve, overcurve, downcurve, and slant.

c. Form uppercase and lowercase letters in cursive.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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38. Apply knowledge of grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, syllable division principles, and spelling rules (or generalizations) to encode words accurately.

a. Encode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words using knowledge of syllable types, including open, closed, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, vowel-r, and consonant-le.

b. Apply knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles to encode grade-appropriate words correctly.

Examples: VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, CV/VC; rab-bit, o-pen, cab-in, di-et

c. Encode words with final /v/ and /j/ sounds using knowledge that no English word ends with a, v, or j.

Examples: have, give, save; cage, rage, budge, lodge

d. Encode one- and two-syllable words with long and short vowel patterns.

e. Encode words with two- and three-consonant blends, including those containing digraphs.

Examples: st, sm, sn, sl, cl, dr, br, bl, str, scr, thr, squ, spl, spr

f. Encode words with consonant digraphs, trigraphs, and combinations.

Examples: ph, gh, ch, sh, wh, th, ng, tch, dge, qu

g. Encode words with the common vowel teams, including diphthongs.

Examples: ai, ay, ea, ee, ei, igh, oa, ow, ou, ue, ew, eigh

h. Encode words with vowel-r combinations.

Examples: ar, or, ir, er, ur, air, ear, oar

i. Encode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.

Examples: wild, cold, most, colt, mind

j. Encode words with a after w read /ä/ and a before l read /â/.

Examples: wash, water, wasp; tall, all, talk, small, fall

k. Encode words with or after w read /er/.

Examples: world, word, worm, worst, work

l. Encode words with hard and soft c and g.

Examples: carry, cent; game, giraffe

m. Encode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words, distinguishing the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words, and words with vowel y in medial position, producing the short /ĭ/ sound for these words.

Examples: fly, my; baby, happy; myth, gym

n. Encode words with prefixes and suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.

Examples: pro-, trans-, non-, mid-, -ful, -less, -ness, -ed, ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly

o. Encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, including those that contain only one irregularity.

Examples: decodable - number, way, my, than, word
decodable except for one irregularity - other (o is schwa); from- (o is schwa);
what- (a is schwa or short o depending on dialect)

p. Encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, using apostrophes appropriately.

Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll

q. Encode frequently confused homophones accurately, using knowledge of English orthography and meaning to facilitate learning.

Examples: their/they're/there; eight/ate; cent/scent/sent
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
39. Organize a list of words into alphabetical order according to first, second, and third letters.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
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40. Write a personal or fictional narrative using a logical sequence of events, including details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings and providing a sense of closure.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
41. Write informative or explanatory texts, introducing the topic, providing facts and relevant details to develop points, and providing a conclusion.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
42. Write an opinion piece about a topic or text with details to support the opinion, using transitional words and providing a sense of closure.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
43. Write complete sentences demonstrating knowledge of punctuation conventions.

a. Utilize commas with words in a series in a sentence.

b. Use apostrophes to form contractions and possessives.

Examples: contractions with am, is, has, not (I'm, she's, don't)

c. Use punctuation to set off interjections.

d. Expand sentences using frequently-occurring conjunctions.

Examples: because, so, but
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
44. With prompting and support, compose and develop a well-organized paragraph with a topic sentence, details to support, and a concluding sentence.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
45. Demonstrate understanding of standard English language conventions when writing.

a. Identify the role of a noun, verb, adjective, and adverb within a sentence and explain the type of the information it conveys.

b. Form regular nouns and verbs by adding -s or -es.

c. Form and use simple present and past verb tenses.

d. Form plurals by changing -y to -ies.

e. Form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns and verbs.

f. Use plural possessives.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): 2
All Resources: 0
46. Gather and use research to answer questions to complete a research product.

a. Create topics of interest for a research project.

b. Create questions to gather information for a research project.

c. Find information from a variety of sources.

Examples: books, magazines, newspapers, digital media

d. Define plagiarism and explain the importance of using their own words.