Courses of Study: Social Studies

Number of Standards matching query: 25
Social Studies (2010)
Grade(s): 7
Civics
All Resources: 13
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 12
Multimedia: 1
Unit Plans: 0
1 ) Compare influences of ancient Greece, the Roman Republic, the Judeo-Christian tradition, the Magna Carta, federalism, the Mayflower Compact, the English Bill of Rights, the House of Burgesses, and the Petition of Rights on the government of the United States.

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Strand: History, Civics and Government
Course Title: Civics
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Summarize the contributions of various historical influences and classify how each of these influences impacted the establishment of the American Government.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • direct democracy
  • representative democracy
  • Feudal system
  • royalty
  • nobility
  • common people
  • Parliament
  • rights
  • due process
  • rule of law
  • quartering
  • punishment
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Many important principles of American government originated with the Greeks, Romans and early English governments.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Distinguish relevant material about the historical influence.
  • Cite evidence to show similarities between influences. Analyze primary source documents.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The Founding Fathers were impacted by several historical influences that helped them create our system of government.
Social Studies (2010)
Grade(s): 7
Civics
All Resources: 15
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 15
Multimedia: 0
Unit Plans: 0
2 ) Explain essential characteristics of the political system of the United States, including the organization and function of political parties and the process of selecting political leaders.

•  Describing the influence of John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Paine, Niccolò Machiavelli, Charles de Montesquieu, and François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) on the political system of the United States
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Strand: History, Civics and Government
Course Title: Civics
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Describe the influence of important philosophers on the U.S. political system.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • philosophers
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The important ideas and contributions of historical thinkers such as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jaques Rousseau, Thomas Paine, Niccolo Machiavelli, Charles de Montesquieu, Voltaire.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Relate the ideas put forth by important philosophers to founding ideas and documents of American government. Interpret primary source documents to identify original ideas.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Many of the founding documents of the United States are based upon the ideas of various Enlightenment Philosophers.
Social Studies (2010)
Grade(s): 7
Civics
All Resources: 8
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 7
Multimedia: 0
Unit Plans: 0
3 ) Compare the government of the United States with other governmental systems, including monarchy, limited monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, theocracy, and pure democracy.

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Strand: History, Civics and Government
Course Title: Civics
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Compare and Contrast other forms of government with the U.S. government focusing on who has the power and how power is acquired/achieved.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • power
  • federalism
  • republic
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The characteristics of the various forms of government found around the world including Federal Republic (representative democracy), Monarchy (absolute monarchy), Limited monarchy (constitutional monarchy), Oligarchy, Dictatorship, Theocracy, and Pure democracy (direct democracy).
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Interpret primary source documents.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The system of government of the United States can be compared to other forms of government in the world.
Social Studies (2010)
Grade(s): 7
Civics
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 5
Multimedia: 0
Unit Plans: 0
4 ) Describe structures of state and local governments in the United States, including major Alabama offices and officeholders. (Alabama)

•  Describing how local and state governments are funded (Alabama)
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Strand: Economics, History, Civics and Government
Course Title: Civics
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Explain the organization of state and local governments focusing on Alabama's state government, officials, and sources of funding.
  • Teacher Vocabulary:
    • funding
    • revenue
    • taxes
    • county
    • city
    • branches of government: legislative, executive, judicial
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • The basic organizational structure of Alabama's government including the legislative, judicial and executive branches.
    • The basic funding sources of state and local governments.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Identify the major office holders of the three branches of Alabama's government.
    • Identify types of local government.
    • Classify the different types of state and local government funding.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Alabama's state and local office holders are elected and that funding comes from a variety of sources.
Social Studies (2010)
Grade(s): 7
Civics
All Resources: 19
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 17
Multimedia: 1
Unit Plans: 0
5 ) Compare duties and functions of members of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of Alabama's local and state governments and of the national government. (Alabama)

•  Locating political and geographic districts of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of Alabama's local and state governments and of the national government (Alabama)
•  Describing the organization and jurisdiction of courts at the local, state, and national levels within the judicial system of the United States (Alabama)
•  Explaining concepts of separation of powers and checks and balances among the three branches of state and national governments (Alabama)
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Strand: Geography, History, Civics and Government
Course Title: Civics
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Relate the organization, duties and functions of state and local government examining how they compare and contrast to the organization, duties and functions of the federal government.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • branches: executive, legislative, judicial
  • duties
  • functions
  • organization
  • jurisdiction
  • federal
  • districts
  • separation of powers
  • checks and balances
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The functions of each of the three branches of the Federal Government and the three branches of Alabama's government.
  • The functions of the local government.
  • The organizational structure of local, state and Federal Courts.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Locate state and federal political districts and geographic districts in Alabama on a map.
  • Cite evidence in primary source documents to support important concepts of American Government.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The structure of government at the federal and state level and the unique duties and functions of each are set forth by the U.S. and Alabama Constitutions.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Civics
    All Resources: 5
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 4
    Multimedia: 1
    Unit Plans: 0
    6 ) Explain the importance of juvenile, adult, civil, and criminal laws within the judicial system of the United States.

    •  Explaining rights of citizens as guaranteed by the Bill of Rights under the Constitution of the United States
    •  Explaining what is meant by the term rule of law
    •  Justifying consequences of committing a civil or criminal offense
    •  Contrasting juvenile and adult laws at local, state, and federal levels (Alabama)
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    Strand: History, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Civics
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Differentiate between juvenile and adult laws, as well as between civil and criminal laws. Identify the protections given in the U.S. Bill of Rights.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • juvenile
    • civil law
    • criminal law
    • rights
    • Bill of Rights
    • rule of law
    • state
    • federal
    • local
    • court
    • offense
    • felony
    • misdemeanor
    • jail
    • prison
    • juvenile detention center
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • The similarities and differences between civil and criminal law.
    • The structure of the juvenile court system.
    • The rights and freedoms guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Use primary source documents to justify the actions of courts.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Laws are different for adults and juveniles and that there are separate civil and criminal laws and courts.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Civics
    All Resources: 4
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 4
    Multimedia: 0
    Unit Plans: 0
    7 ) Determine how people organize economic systems to address basic economic questions regarding which goods and services will be produced, how they will be distributed, and who will consume them.

    •  Using economic concepts to explain historical and current developments and issues in global, national, state, or local contexts (Alabama)
    Example: increase in oil prices resulting from supply and demand

    •  Analyzing agriculture, tourism, and urban growth in Alabama for their impact on economic development (Alabama)
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    Strand: Economics, Geography, History
    Course Title: Civics
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Describe how the different economic systems influence the answers to the questions: What goods and services are produced? How they are distributed? and Who consumes them?
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • economic system
    • consumer
    • land
    • labor
    • capital
    • good
    • service
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • The economic system under which you operate will help determine which goods and services are produced, how they will be distributed and who will consume them.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Analyze and interpret charts, graphs, and tables to support assumptions.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Within the various economic systems, several factors contribute to determining what is produced, where it is produced, and how items are distributed.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Civics
    All Resources: 5
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 4
    Multimedia: 1
    Unit Plans: 0
    8 ) Appraise the relationship between the consumer and the marketplace in the economy of the United States regarding scarcity, opportunity cost, trade-off decision making, and the stock market.

    •  Describing effects of government policies on the free market
    •  Identifying laws protecting rights of consumers and avenues of recourse when those rights are violated
    •  Comparing economic systems, including market, command, and traditional
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    Strand: Economics, History, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Civics
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Draw conclusions about the relationship between the consumer and the marketplace in U.S. economy.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • supply and demand
    • free enterprise
    • market economy
    • command economy
    • traditional economy
    • mixed economy
    • good
    • service
    • scarcity
    • opportunity cost
    • trade-off decision making
    • stock market
    • policy
    • regulations
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • The following economies answers the three basic questions:
      • Traditional Economy
        • Goods are produced for the community based on traditional needs.
        • Individuals produce goods based on custom.
        • They produce for themselves and the community.
      • Market Economy
        • Goods are produced based on consumer demand.
        • Individuals and businesses are free to choose how items are produced.
        • Goods are produced for the customer in hopes of gaining a profit.
      • Command Economy
        • The government decides what goods will be produced.
        • The government decides how goods will be produced.
        • Goods are produced for the purposes of the government.
    • The U.S. economy is based on principles of free market. Due to the effect of government policies and regulations, the U.S. economy resembles a Mixed Economy. U.S. laws that protect employees include minimum wage, safe work conditions, and child labor laws. Some U.S. laws that protect the consumers are food labeling requirements and safety features on cars. Consumers who have problems with products can register complaints with the government or seek recourse under the judicial system.
    • The U.S. stock market is a gauge of U.S. economic health. When the stock market is strong, it influences businesses to invest and expand (increase in profit leads to employment, rise in consumer confidence ) When the stock market is weak, businesses are less likely to take risks which can affect the overall economic health of our country (loss of revenue, rise in unemployment rate, fewer new businesses created). Consumer behavior influences the fluctuation in the stock market.
    • The consumer is influenced by the following:
      • Scarcity- is a shortage or limited amount of resources like time, money, land, labor, capital et al.
      • Trade-off decisions- the alternative you face if you decide to do one thing rather than another. (Example: A farmer can grow corn or cotton. A student can attend University of South Alabama or University of North Alabama)
      • Opportunity cost — the cost of the next best use of resources when choosing to do one thing or another. (Example: Because the farmer grows corn, he cannot grow cotton. Because the student choose to go University of South Alabama, he does not cannot go to University of North Alabama).
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Define Traditional Economy, Market Economy, Command Economy, and Mixed Economy.
    • Understand how each Economy answers the three basic economic questions.
    • Identify the U.S. economic system.
    • Explain how the stock market impacts the Marketplace.
    • Relate the ideas of scarcity, opportunity cost and trade-off decisions to the consumer's role in the Marketplace.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Scarcity, opportunity costs, and trade-off decisions influence the consumer's behavior causing changes in the marketplace and the U.S. stock market.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Civics
    All Resources: 9
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 9
    Multimedia: 0
    Unit Plans: 0
    9 ) Apply principles of money management to the preparation of a personal budget that addresses housing, transportation, food, clothing, medical expenses, insurance, checking and savings accounts, loans, investments, credit, and comparison shopping.

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    Strand: Economics, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Civics
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Demonstrate the ability to manage money effectively through a personal budget.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • calculate
    • estimate
    • principles of money management
    • budget
    • savings
    • checking account
    • income
    • expenses
    • insurance
    • taxes
    • comparison
    • shopping
    • credit
    • debt
    • investments
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Effective money management means that a citizen has to take into account that the money they make should be enough to cover expenses like housing, transportation, food, clothing, medical expenses, and insurance and this can be accomplished by making and following a budget.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Estimate and calculate income and expenses in order to create a budget.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Effective money management includes making a budget based on income and expenses.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Civics
    All Resources: 19
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 17
    Multimedia: 2
    Unit Plans: 0
    10 ) Describe individual and civic responsibilities of citizens of the United States.

    Examples: individual—respect for rights of others, self-discipline, negotiation, compromise, fiscal responsibility

    civic—respect for law, patriotism, participation in political process, fiscal responsibility

    •  Differentiating rights, privileges, duties, and responsibilities between citizens and noncitizens
    •  Explaining how United States' citizenship is acquired by immigrants
    •  Explaining character traits that are beneficial to individuals and society
    Examples: honesty, courage, compassion, civility, loyalty

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    Strand: History, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Civics
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Describe the rights, duties, and responsibilities of U.S. citizens, as well as paths to citizenship.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • responsibilities
    • duties
    • rights
    • privileges
    • citizen
    • alien
    • immigrants
    • naturalization
    • character
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • The distinction between right, duties and responsibilities. There is a way for immigrants to become a citizen.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Cite primary source documents to provide evidence that an idea is a right guaranteed to citizens.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • There are rights, duties, responsibilities, and privileges of U.S. citizenship.
    Alabama Archives Resources:
    Click below to access all Alabama Archives resources aligned to this standard.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Civics
    All Resources: 11
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 9
    Multimedia: 2
    Unit Plans: 0
    11 ) Compare changes in social and economic conditions in the United States during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

    Examples: social—family values, peer pressure, education opportunities, women in the workplace

    economic—career opportunities, disposable income, consumption of goods and services

    •  Determining benefits of Alabama's role in world trade (Alabama)
    •  Tracing the political and social impact of the modern Civil Rights Movement from 1954 to the present, including Alabama's role (Alabama)
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    Strand: Economics, History, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Civics
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Describe changes over the past hundred years in Alabama's political, social, and economic conditions.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • social conditions
    • economic conditions
    • world trade
    • Civil Rights Movement
    • voting rights
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Many political, social, and economic changes have occurred in the United States over the past 100 years.
    • Alabama played a major role in the Civil Rights Movement.
    • Alabama's role in contemporary world trade includes being a major exporter of poultry, steel, and machinery, in addition to attracting many international companies to the state.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Investigate social changes and their impact in the U.S. and Alabama during the 20th and 21st centuries.
    • Investigate economic changes and their impact in the U.S. and Alabama during the 20th and 21st centuries.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • There have been many social and economic changes in the past 100 years and Alabama has been at the forefront of many of these changes.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Civics
    All Resources: 19
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 15
    Multimedia: 4
    Unit Plans: 0
    12 ) Describe how the United States can be improved by individual and group participation in civic and community activities.

    •  Identifying options for civic and community action
    Examples: investigating the feasibility of a specific solution to a traffic problem, developing a plan for construction of a subdivision, using maps to make and justify decisions about best locations for public facilities

    •  Determining ways to participate in the political process
    Examples: voting, running for office, serving on a jury, writing letters, being involved in political parties and political campaigns

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    Strand: Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Civics
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Explain how participating in civic and community activities improves life in our community, state, and country.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • civic
    • community
    • political process
    • political participation
    • political parties
    • campaigns
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Individual citizens and community groups can improve their community by actively participating in the political process. Examples of participating in the political process include voting; running for office; writing letters to office holders; being involved in political parties and political campaigns.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • List ways to actively participate in the political process and in their community.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Individual and community participation has the potential to improve the U.S. society.
    Alabama Archives Resources:
    Click below to access all Alabama Archives resources aligned to this standard.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Civics
    All Resources: 6
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 4
    Multimedia: 2
    Unit Plans: 0
    13 ) Identify contemporary American issues since 2001, including the establishment of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the enactment of the Patriot Act of 2001, and the impact of media analysis.

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    Strand: Civics and Government
    Course Title: Civics
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Draw conclusions to support or refute the development of Homeland Security, the Patriot Act and contemporary media bias since 2001.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • Homeland Security
    • Patriot Act
    • media bias
    • privacy
    • terrorism
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • The events that led to the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the passage of Patriot Act.
    • The main duties of the Department of Homeland Security.
    • The major provisions of the Patriot Act that allow those suspected of terrorism to have their property, public and private records, or phone searched or seized without warrant.
    • There is bias in American media.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Detect bias statements by examining multiple sources of information.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Events of 2001 led to major changes in American government designed to further protect the country.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 29
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 26
    Multimedia: 3
    Unit Plans: 0
    1 ) Describe the world in spatial terms using maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies.

    •  Explaining the use of map essentials, including type, projections, scale, legend, distance, direction, grid, and symbols
    Examples: type—reference, thematic, planimetric, topographic, globe and map projections, aerial photographs, satellite images

    distance—fractional, graphic, and verbal scales

    direction—lines of latitude and longitude, cardinal and intermediate directions

    •  Identifying geospatial technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective
    Examples: Google Earth, Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), satellite-remote sensing, aerial photography

    •  Utilizing maps to explain relationships and environments among people and places, including trade patterns, governmental alliances, and immigration patterns
    •  Applying mental maps to answer geographic questions, including how experiences and cultures influence perceptions and decisions
    •  Categorizing the geographic organization of people, places, and environments using spatial models
    Examples: urban land-use patterns, distribution and linkages of cities, migration patterns, population-density patterns, spread of culture traits, spread of contagious diseases through a population

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    Strand: Economics, Geography, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Demonstrate the use of geographic representations, tools and technologies.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • spatial thinking
    • spatial relationships
    • spatial perspective
    • spatial patterns
    • spatial models
    • geospatial technologies
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Types of maps or geographic resources—reference, thematic, planimetric, topographic, globe and map projections, aerial photographs, satellite images.
    • The difference between aerial photography and satellite images and their properties for interpreting spatial patterns.
    • The uses of GIS in portraying geographic or spatial patterns and in answering geographic questions.
    • The uses of mapping technology to trace diseases through a population geographic trade patterns, governmental alliances, and immigration patterns, mental maps, cultures, urban land-use patterns, distribution and linkages of cities, migration patterns, population-density patterns, spread (diffusion) of culture traits, spread (diffusion) of contagious.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Read, analyze and interpret maps, aerial photography, satellite images, and other types of mapping technology.
    • Use mental maps.
    • Use GPS for locations.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Maps portray human and physical geographic patterns, understand the use of GPS and GIS in explaining geographic patterns, that mental maps are important in understanding cultural perceptions and the organization of cultural landscapes.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 18
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 15
    Multimedia: 3
    Unit Plans: 0
    2 ) Determine how regions are used to describe the organization of Earth's surface.

    •  Identifying physical and human features used as criteria for mapping formal, functional, and perceptual regions
    Examples: physical—landforms, climates, bodies of water, resources

    human—language, religion, culture, economy, government

    •  Interpreting processes and reasons for regional change, including land use, urban growth, population, natural disasters, and trade
    •  Analyzing interactions among regions to show transnational relationships, including the flow of commodities and Internet connectivity
    Examples: winter produce to Alabama from Chile and California, poultry from Alabama to other countries (Alabama)

    •  Comparing how culture and experience influence individual perceptions of places and regions
    Examples: cultural influences—language, religion, ethnicity, iconography, symbology, stereotypes

    •  Explaining globalization and its impact on people in all regions of the world
    Examples: quality and sustainability of life, international cooperation

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    Strand: Economics, Geography
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Identify the reasons for organizing geographic information by region and use regional information to organize geographic information.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • regional geography
    • functional and perceptual regions
    • spatial process and regional change
    • regional interactions
    • culture
    • perception
    • globalization
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Geographic features can be organized into regions in order to understand activities and processes within and between places.
    • Formal, functional, and perceptional regions; land use, urban growth, natural disaster, commodity, Internet connectivity, globalization, sustainability, international cooperation.
    • Physical regions—landforms, climates, bodies of water, resources.
    • Human regions—language, religion, culture, economy, government.
    • Cultural influences characterizing regions—language, religion, ethnicity, iconography, symbology, stereotypes how to use regions for identification of related phenomena, interpretation of processes causing regional change, analysis of interactions among regions in terms of economic activities, migration, cultural diffusion, and evaluation of the impacts of globalization.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Construct various types of regions, determine regional boundaries or transitional boundary zones.
    • Read and analyze thematic maps that display information, such as climate, religion, international commodity flows, arranged by geographic regions.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Regions are a way of organizing spatial (geographic) information for specific social, economic, and political purposes.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 15
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 12
    Multimedia: 3
    Unit Plans: 0
    3 ) Compare geographic patterns in the environment that result from processes within the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere of Earth's physical systems.

    •  Comparing Earth-Sun relationships regarding seasons, fall hurricanes, monsoon rainfalls, and tornadoes
    •  Explaining processes that shape the physical environment, including long-range effects of extreme weather phenomena
    Examples: processes—plate tectonics, glaciers, ocean and atmospheric circulation, El Niño

    long-range effects—erosion on agriculture, typhoons on coastal ecosystems

    •  Describing characteristics and physical processes that influence the spatial distribution of ecosystems and biomes on Earth's surface
    •  Comparing how ecosystems vary from place to place and over time
    Examples: place to place—differences in soil, climate, and topography

    over time—alteration or destruction of natural habitats due to effects of floods and forest fires, reduction of species diversity due to loss of natural habitats, reduction of wetlands due to replacement by farms, reduction of forest and farmland due to replacement by housing developments, reduction of previously cleared land due to reforestation efforts

    •  Comparing geographic issues in different regions that result from human and natural processes
    Examples: human—increase or decrease in population, land-use change in tropical forests

    natural—hurricanes, tsunamis, tornadoes, floods

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    Strand: Economics, Geography
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Use maps, charts, and diagrams to: recognize, compare, and understand spatial (geographic) patterns resulting from human and natural processes within the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere of Earth's physical systems.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • geographic or spatial patterns
    • regions
    • compare
    • geographic issues
    • human and natural processes
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Geographic patterns in the environment that result from processes within the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere of Earth's physical systems.
    • Earth-Sun relationships regarding seasons, fall hurricanes, monsoon rainfalls, and tornadoes.
    • Processes that shape the physical environment, including long-range effects of extreme weather phenomena, such as plate tectonics, glaciers, ocean and atmospheric circulation, El Niño long-range effects—erosion on agriculture, typhoons on coastal ecosystems.
    • Characteristics and physical processes that influence the spatial distribution of ecosystems and biomes on Earth's surface.
    • How ecosystems vary from place to place and over time, such as alteration or destruction of natural habitats due to effects of floods and forest fires, reduction of species diversity due to loss of natural habitats, reduction of wetlands due to replacement by farms, reduction of forest and farmland due to replacement by housing developments, reduction of previously cleared land due to reforestation efforts.
    • Geographic issues in different regions that result from human and natural processes.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Interpret reasons for spatial patterns of Earth's regions.
    • Compare variations between and within geographic regions.
    • Explain processes that shape the physical environment.
    • Compare and explain geographic issues in different regions.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Spatial patterns are caused by human and physical processes in the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and the hydrosphere.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 15
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 12
    Multimedia: 3
    Unit Plans: 0
    4 ) Evaluate spatial patterns and the demographic structure of population on Earth's surface in terms of density, dispersion, growth and mortality rates, natural increase, and doubling time.

    Examples: spatial patterns—major population clusters

    demographic structure—age and sex distribution using population pyramids

    •  Predicting reasons and consequences of migration, including push and pull factors
    Examples: push—politics, war, famine

    pull—potential jobs, family

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    Strand: Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Describe and analyze spatial patterns, the demographic structure of population on Earth's surface, and changes in the demographic structure of population.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • demographic structure
    • population pyramid
    • density
    • dispersion
    • growth
    • mortality rate
    • natural population increase
    • doubling time and migration
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Spatial patterns—major population clusters. Demographic structure—age and sex distribution using population pyramids.
    • Types of migration and reasons for migration including both push and pull reasons.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Interpret demographic and population data.
    • Predict and calculate changes in population.
    • Evaluate causes and consequences of historical events, such as migration.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • There are spatial patterns and demographic structure to the population on Earth's surface.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 14
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 12
    Multimedia: 2
    Unit Plans: 0
    5 ) Explain how cultural features, traits, and diffusion help define regions, including religious structures, agricultural patterns, ethnic enclaves, ethnic restaurants, and the spread of Islam.

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    Strand: Economics, Geography, History
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Explain how cultural features, traits, and diffusion help define regions.
    • Analyze changes in regions over time.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • cultural traits
    • diffusion
    • agriculture
    • ethnic
    • cultural landscape
    • culture regions
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • How cultural features, traits, and diffusion help define regions.
    • Cultural characteristics of regions including religious structures and agricultural patterns.
    • Changes in the cultural characteristics of regions including development of ethnic enclaves, introduction of ethnic restaurants, and changes in religious belief such as the spread of Islam.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Define and recognize elements of culture and expressions of culture on the landscape that collectively define a culture region, i.e., Mormon culture region.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Cultural features, traits, and diffusion help define regions and change over time.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 4
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Multimedia: 1
    Unit Plans: 0
    6 ) Illustrate how primary, secondary, and tertiary economic activities have specific functions and spatial patterns.

    Examples: primary—forestry, agriculture, mining

    secondary—manufacturing furniture, grinding coffee beans, assembling automobiles

    tertiary—selling furniture, selling caffé latte, selling automobiles

    •  Comparing one location to another for production of goods and services
    Examples: fast food restaurants in highly accessible locations, medical offices near hospitals, legal offices near courthouses, industries near major transportation routes

    •  Analyzing the impact of economic interdependence and globalization on places and their populations
    Examples: seed corn produced in Iowa and planted in South America, silicon chips manufactured in California and installed in a computer made in China that is purchased in Australia

    •  Explaining why countries enter into global trade agreements, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA), the European Union (EU), the Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
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    Strand: Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Evaluate the nature of primary, secondary, and tertiary economic activities.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • primary economic activities
    • secondary economic activities
    • tertiary economic activities
    • economic interdependence
    • globalization
    • trade agreements
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • The nature, characteristics and spatial expressions of three broad categories of economic activities.
      Examples:
      • primary—forestry, agriculture, mining
      • secondary—manufacturing furniture, grinding coffee, beans, assembling automobiles
      • tertiary— selling furniture, selling café latte, selling automobiles
    • Economic activities create spatial patterns and the type and degree often reveal the developmental nature of the geographic area.
    • Reasons for trade between regions.
    • Definition and examples of globalization and the effects of increased globalization.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Evaluate the properties of primary, secondary and tertiary economic activities.
    • Compare locations of economic activities.
    • Evaluate benefits and drawbacks of trade agreements.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Primary, secondary, and tertiary economic activities have specific functions and spatial patterns.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 14
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 11
    Multimedia: 3
    Unit Plans: 0
    7 ) Classify spatial patterns of settlement in different regions of the world, including types and sizes of settlement patterns.

    Examples: types—linear, clustered, grid

    sizes—large urban, small urban, and rural areas

    •  Explaining human activities that resulted in the development of settlements at particular locations due to trade, political importance, or natural resources
    Examples: Timbuktu near caravan routes; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Birmingham, Alabama, as manufacturing centers near coal and iron ore deposits; Singapore near a major ocean transportation corridor (Alabama)

    •  Describing settlement patterns in association with the location of resources
    Examples: fall line settlements near waterfalls used as a source of energy for mills, European industrial settlements near coal seams, spatial arrangement of towns and cities in North American Corn Belt settlements

    •  Describing ways in which urban areas interact and influence surrounding regions
    Examples: daily commuters from nearby regions; communication centers that service nearby and distant locations through television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet; regional specialization in services or production

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    Strand: Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Analyze and describe spatial patterns of settlement in different regions of the world.
    • Evaluate the influence of changes in settlement over time.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • linear
    • clustered
    • grid
    • settlement
    • settlement patterns
    • urban area
    • spatial interaction
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Different types of settlements by type, size, major functions, such as linear, clustered, grid, large urban, small urban, and rural.
    • Ways in which urban areas interact and influence surrounding regions.
      Examples: daily commuters from nearby regions; communication centers that service nearby and distant locations through television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet; regional specialization in services or production
    • Regions where human activities resulted in the development of settlements at particular locations due to trade, political importance, or natural resources.
      Examples: Timbuktu near caravan routes; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Birmingham, Alabama, as manufacturing centers near coal and iron ore deposits; Singapore near a major ocean transportation corridor (Alabama)
    • Settlement patterns in association with the location of resources.
      Examples: fall line settlements near waterfalls used as a source of energy for mills, European industrial settlements near coal seams, spatial arrangement of towns and cities in North American Corn Belt settlements
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Classify types and sizes of settlements.
    • Determine geographic and cultural reasons for settlement locations.
    • Evaluate relationships between different settlement regions.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • There are spatial patterns of settlement in different regions of the world.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 7
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 6
    Multimedia: 1
    Unit Plans: 0
    8 ) Determine political, military, cultural, and economic forces that contribute to cooperation and conflict among people.

    •  Identifying political boundaries based on physical and human systems
    Examples: physical—rivers as boundaries between counties

    human—streets as boundaries between local government units

    •  Identifying effects of cooperation among countries in controlling territories
    Examples: Great Lakes environmental management by United States and Canada, United Nations (UN) Heritage sites and host countries, Antarctic Treaty on scientific research

    •  Describing the eruption of territorial conflicts over borders, resources, land use, and ethnic and nationalistic identity
    Examples: India and Pakistan conflict over Jammu and Kashmir, the West Bank, the Sudan, Somalia piracy, ocean fishing and mineral rights, local land-use disputes

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    Strand: Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Evaluate the effects of political, military, cultural and economic forces on cooperation and conflict among people.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • conflict
    • cooperation
    • economic forces
    • human and physical systems
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • Political boundaries created by human and physical systems.
    • The effect of cooperation among countries in controlling territories.
    • The effects of territorial conflicts over borders, resources, land use, and ethnic and nationalistic identity.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Evaluate the spatial influence of political, military, cultural forces on the landscape and among people.
    • Identify various ways boundaries are identified.
    • Evaluate the reasons for territorial conflicts.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Political, military, cultural and economic forces contribute to cooperation and conflict among people.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 10
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 7
    Multimedia: 3
    Unit Plans: 0
    9 ) Explain how human actions modify the physical environment within and between places, including how human-induced changes affect the environment.

    Examples: within—construction of dams and downstream water availability for human consumption, agriculture, and aquatic ecosystems

    between—urban heat islands and global climate change, desertification and land degradation, pollution and ozone depletion

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    Strand: Economics, Geography, History
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Explain the ways peoples' actions produce both positive and negative effects on the physical environment at the local to global level.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • modification
    • induced changes
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • How human actions modify the physical environment within and between places.
    • How human-induced changes affect the environment.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Recognize the effects of human actions on the physical environment.
    • Evaluate changes in the physical environment.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Physical environment and actions play a major role in changing the face of Earth's environments.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 9
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 7
    Multimedia: 2
    Unit Plans: 0
    10 ) Explain how human systems develop in response to physical environmental conditions.

    Example: farming practices in different regions, including slash-and-burn agriculture, terrace farming, and center-pivot irrigation

    •  Identifying types, locations, and characteristics of natural hazards, including earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and mudslides
    •  Differentiating ways people prepare for and respond to natural hazards, including building storm shelters, conducting fire and tornado drills, and establishing building codes for construction
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    Strand: Economics, Geography, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Explain how human systems develop in response to physical environmental conditions.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • human systems
    • differentiating
    • response
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • How human systems develop in response to physical environmental conditions.
    • Farming practices in different regions, including slash-and-burn agriculture, terrace farming, and center-pivot irrigation.
    • Types, locations, and characteristics of natural hazards, including earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and mudslides.
    • Ways people prepare for and respond to natural hazards, including building storm shelters, conducting fire and tornado drills, and establishing building codes for construction.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Interpret regional and global spatial patterns.
    • Evaluate adaptions to physical environmental conditions.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Human systems develop in response to physical environmental conditions.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 8
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 6
    Multimedia: 2
    Unit Plans: 0
    11 ) Explain the cultural concept of natural resources and changes in spatial distribution, quantity, and quality through time and by location.

    •  Evaluating various cultural viewpoints regarding the use or value of natural resources
    Examples: salt and gold as valued commodities, petroleum product use and the invention of the internal combustion engine

    •  Identifying issues regarding depletion of nonrenewable resources and the sustainability of renewable resources
    Examples: ocean shelf and Arctic exploration for petroleum, hybrid engines in cars, wind-powered generators, solar collection panels

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    Column Definitions

    Strand: Economics, Geography, History
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Evaluate and explain different cultural viewpoints about use and value of natural resources and changes in distribution, quantity, and quality of resources through time and by location.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • cultural concept
    • cultural viewpoint
    • spatial distribution
    • non-renewable and renewable
    • resources
    • sustainability
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • The ways cultural viewpoints about the use and value of natural resources can change over time.
    • Reasons for the changes in value, distribution, quantity, and quality of resources.
    • Issues related to the use of non-renewable resources.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Read thematic maps to locate particular resources and their global distribution.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Cultural concepts of natural resources and changes in spatial distribution of resources differ over time.
    Social Studies (2010)
    Grade(s): 7
    Geography
    All Resources: 11
    Learning Activities: 0
    Lesson Plans: 10
    Multimedia: 1
    Unit Plans: 0
    12 ) Explain ways geographic features and environmental issues have influenced historical events.

    Examples: geographic features—fall line, Cumberland Gap, Westward Expansion in the United States, weather conditions at Valley Forge and the outcome of the American Revolution, role of ocean currents and winds during exploration by Christopher Columbus

    environmental issues—boundary disputes, ownership of ocean resources, revitalization of downtown areas

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    Column Definitions

    Strand: Economics, Geography, History, Civics and Government
    Course Title: Geography
    Evidence of Student Attainment:
    Students:
    • Analyze and describe the ways geographic features and environmental issues have influenced historical events.
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    • geographic features
    • physical environments
    • environmental issues
    • revitalization
    Knowledge:
    Students know:
    • The ways geographic feature can effect historical events.
    • The ways environmental issues can effect historical events.
    • Geographic features: fall line, Cumberland Gap, desert southwest, global and local landscape patterns, climate and weather conditions (local to global), central business district/downtown.
    Skills:
    Students are able to:
    • Read and interpret physical geography maps related to historical events.
    • Trace the progression of a historical event or era on a map.
    • Analyze changing realities of natural resources.
    Understanding:
    Students understand that:
    • Historical events are influenced by geographic features and environmental issues.