Courses of Study: Science

Number of Standards matching query: 19
Matter and Its Interactions
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 3
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
1 ) Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models (e.g., molecular-level models, including drawings; computer representations) that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Analyze patterns within the periodic table.
  • Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms.
  • Construct models that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of molecules.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Element
  • Atom
  • Protons
  • Nucleus
  • Electrons
  • Neutrons
  • Atomic number
  • Periodic table
  • Array
  • Atomic mass
  • Period
  • Group
  • Chemical properties
  • Physical properties
  • Molecule
  • Bond
  • Chemical bond
  • Valence electron
  • Ion
  • Ionic bond
  • Nonmetal
  • Metal
  • Covalent bond
  • Metallic bond
  • Conductivity
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Elements are substances composed of only one type of atom each having an identical number of protons in each nucleus.
  • Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements.
  • Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.
  • The number of protons in an atom's nucleus is equal to the atomic number.
  • The periodic table arranges all the known elements in an informative array.
  • Elements are arranged left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number. Order generally coincides with increasing atomic mass.
  • Rows in the periodic table are called periods. As one moves from left to right in a given period, the chemical properties of the elements slowly change.
  • Columns in the periodic table are called groups. Elements in a given group in the periodic table share many similar chemical and physical properties.
  • The period number of an element signifies the highest energy level an electron in that element occupies (in the unexcited state). The number of electrons in a period increases as one traverses down the periodic table; therefore, as the energy level of the atom increases, the number of energy sub-levels per energy level increases.
  • A molecule is formed when two or more atoms bond together chemically.
  • A chemical bond is the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms.
  • Ionic bonds are the result of an attraction between ions that have opposite charges. Ionic bonds usually form between metals and nonmetals; elements that participate in ionic bonds are often from opposite ends of the periodic table. One example of a molecule that contains an ionic bond is table salt, NaCl.
  • Covalent bonds form when electrons are shared between atoms rather than transferred from one atom to another. The two bonds in a molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2, are covalent bonds.
  • Metallic bonds exist only in metals, such as aluminum, gold, copper, and iron. In metals, each atom is bonded to several other metal atoms, and their electrons are free to move throughout the metal structure. This special situation is responsible for the unique properties of metals, such as their high conductivity.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models of atomic and molecular structure, composition, and characteristics.
  • Identify the relevant components of the atomic and molecular models.
  • Describe relationships between components of the atomic and molecular models.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Patterns in the periodic table predict characteristic properties of elements. These trends exist because of the similar atomic structure of the elements within their respective group families or periods, and because of the periodic nature of the elements.
  • The structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules are dependent upon their position in the periodic table.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
2 ) Plan and carry out investigations to generate evidence supporting the claim that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Plan an investigation to generate evidence supporting the claim that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.
  • Carry out an investigation to generate evidence supporting the claim that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Investigation
  • Claims
  • Evidence
  • Substance
  • Matter
  • Composition
  • Property
  • Element
  • Compound
  • Pure substance
  • Characteristic properties
  • Physical property (includes, but not limited to, color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, solubility)
  • Chemical property (includes, but not limited to, flammability, reactivity with water, pH)
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • A substance is matter which has a specific composition and specific properties.
  • Every pure element is a substance. Every pure compound is a substance.
  • Pure substances have characteristic properties.
  • Characteristic properties are physical or chemical properties that are not affected by the amount or shape of a substance.
  • Characteristic properties can be used to identify a pure substance.
  • Physical properties of a substance are characteristics that can be observed without altering the identity (chemical nature) of the substance.
  • Color, odor, density, melting temperature, boiling temperature, and solubility are examples of physical properties.
  • Chemical properties of a substance are characteristics that can be observed but alter the identity (chemical nature) of the substance.
  • Flammability, reactivity with water, and pH are examples of chemical properties.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Identify the phenomena under investigation, which includes pure substances and their characteristic properties.
  • Identify the purpose of the investigation, which includes demonstrating that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.
  • Develop a plan for the investigation individually or collaboratively.
  • Describe factors used in the investigation including appropriate units (if necessary), independent and dependent variables, controls and number of trials for each experimental condition.
  • Perform the investigation as prescribed by the plan.
  • Make a claim, to be supported by evidence, to support or refute an explanation or model for a given phenomenon, including the idea that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.
  • Identify evidence to support the claim from the given materials.
  • Evaluate the evidence for its necessity and sufficiency for supporting the claim.
  • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and evaluation to the claim that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it.
  • Pure substances can be distinguished from other pure substances based on characteristic properties.
  • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Exploring the Properties of Matter
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
3 ) Construct explanations based on evidence from investigations to differentiate among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.

a. Collect and analyze information to illustrate how synthetic materials (e.g., medicine, food additives, alternative fuels, plastics) are derived from natural resources and how they impact society.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions; Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Analyze evidence from investigations related to compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
  • Interpret evidence from investigations related to compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
  • Construct explanations to differentiate among compounds, mixtures, and solutions based on evidence from investigations.
  • Collect information related to how synthetic materials are derived from natural resources and how they impact society.
  • Analyze information related to how synthetic materials are derived from natural resources and how they impact society.
  • Use information to illustrate how synthetic materials are derived from natural resources and how they impact society.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Molecule
  • Atom
  • Compound
  • Element
  • Mixture
  • Intermingled
  • Component
  • Physical means
  • Properties
  • Solution
  • Homogeneous
  • Solute
  • Solvent
  • Dissolve
  • Analyze
  • Synthetic
  • Natural resources
  • Society
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • A molecule is formed when two or more atoms join together chemically.
  • A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements.
  • All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds.
  • A mixture consists of two or more different elements and/or compounds physically intermingled.
  • A mixture can be separated into its components by physical means, and often retains many of the properties of its components.
  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. A solution may exist in any phase.
  • A solution consists of a solute and a solvent. The solute is the substance that is dissolved in the solvent.
  • Synthetic materials are made by humans.
  • Synthetic materials can be derived from natural resources through chemical processes.
  • The effects of the production and use of synthetic materials have impacts on society.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including the differences among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
  • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation differentiating among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
  • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation of differences among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
  • Identify and describe the phenomenon under investigation, which includes the differences among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
  • Identify and describe the purpose of the investigation, which includes providing evidence of differences among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
  • Collect and record data, according to the given investigation plan.
  • Evaluate the data to determine the differences between compounds, mixtures, and solutions.
  • Obtain information about synthetic materials from published, grade-level appropriate material from multiple sources.
  • Determine and describe whether the gathered information is relevant.
  • Use information to illustrate how synthetic materials are derived from natural resources.
  • Use information to illustrate how synthetic materials impact society.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Compounds, mixtures, and solutions can be differentiated from one another based on characteristics.
  • Synthetic materials come from natural resources.
  • Synthetic materials have an impact on society.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Exploring the Properties of Matter
Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
4 ) Design and conduct an experiment to determine changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Design an experiment to determine changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed from a system.
  • Conduct an experiment to determine changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed from a system.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Particle motion
  • Temperature
  • State [of Matter]
  • Pure substance
  • Thermal Energy
  • Kinetic Energy
  • System
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Changes in particle motion of a pure substance occur when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.
  • Changes in temperature of a pure substance occur when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.
  • Changes in state of a pure substance occur when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Identify the phenomena under investigation, which includes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.
  • Identify the purpose of the investigation, which includes determining changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.
  • Develop a plan for the investigation individually or collaboratively.
  • Describe factors used in the investigation including appropriate units (if necessary), independent and dependent variables, controls and number of trials for each experimental condition.
  • Perform the investigation as prescribed by the plan.
  • Use data from the investigation to provide an causal account of the relationship between the addition of removal of thermal energy from a substance and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Adding or removing thermal energy from a system causes changes in particle motion of a pure substance.
  • Adding or removing thermal energy from a system causes changes in temperature of a pure substance.
  • Adding or removing thermal energy from a system causes changes in state of a pure substance.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Exploring the Properties of Matter
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
5 ) Observe and analyze characteristic properties of substances (e.g., odor, density, solubility, flammability, melting point, boiling point) before and after the substances combine to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Observe characteristic properties of substances before and after the substances combine.
  • Analyze characteristic properties of substances before and after the substances combine.
  • Determine if chemical reactions have occurred based on observations and analysis of the characteristic properties of substances before and after the substances combined.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Characteristic properties (e.g., odor, density, solubility, flammability, melting point, boiling point)
  • Substances
  • Chemical reaction
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties that can be used to identify it.
  • Characteristic properties of substances may include odor, density, solubility, flammability, melting point, and boiling point.
  • Chemical reactions change characteristic properties of substances.
  • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways.
  • In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Observe characteristic physical and chemical properties of pure substances before and after they interact.
  • Analyze characteristic physical and chemical properties of pure substances before and after they interact.
  • Analyze the properties to identify patterns (i.e., similarities and differences), including the changes in physical and chemical properties of each substance before and after the interaction.
  • Use the analysis to determine whether a chemical reaction has occurred.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Observations and analyses can be used to determine whether a chemical reaction has occurred.
  • The change in properties of substances is related to the rearrangement of atoms in the reactants and products in a chemical reaction (e.g., when a reaction has occurred, atoms from the substances present before the interaction must have been rearranged into new configurations, resulting in the properties of new substances).
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Exploring the Properties of Matter
Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
6 ) Create a model, diagram, or digital simulation to describe conservation of mass in a chemical reaction and explain the resulting differences between products and reactants.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Create a model, diagram or digital simulation to describe conservation of mass in a chemical reaction.
  • Explain the differences between products and reactants in a chemical reaction.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Conservation of mass
  • Chemical reaction
  • Product
  • Reactant
  • Model (e.g., diagram, digital simulation)
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways.
  • In a chemical reaction, the atoms that make up the original substances (reactants) are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances (products) have different properties from those of the original substances (reactants).
  • In a chemical reaction, the total number of each type of atom is conserved, and the mass does not change. In a chemical reaction, each molecule in each of the reactants is made up of the same type(s) and number of atoms.
  • In a chemical reaction, the number and types of atoms that make up the products are equal to the number and types of atoms that make up the reactants.
  • Each type of atom has a specific mass, which is the same for all atoms of that type.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a model, diagram, or digital simulation in which they identify the relevant components for a given chemical reaction.
  • Describe relationships between the components.
  • Use the model to describe that the atoms that make up the reactants rearrange and come together in different arrangements to form the products of a reaction.
  • Use the model to provide a causal account that mass is conserved during chemical reactions because the number and types of atoms that are in the reactants equal the number and types of atoms that are in the products, and all atoms of the same type have the same mass regardless of the molecule in which they are found.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • In a chemical reaction, the atoms of the reactants are regrouped into different molecules, and these products have different properties from those of the original reactants.
  • Mass is conserved during chemical reactions and the mass of reactants is equal to the mass of the products.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Exploring the Properties of Matter
Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
7 ) Design, construct, and test a device (e.g., glow stick, hand warmer, hot or cold pack, thermal wrap) that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions (e.g., dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride in water) and modify the device as needed based on criteria (e.g., amount/concentration, time, temperature).*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Design a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions.
  • Construct a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions.
  • Test a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions.
  • Modify the device as needed based on criteria.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Design
  • Construct
  • Test
  • Modify
  • Device (e.g., glow stick, hand warmer, hot or cold pack, thermal wrap)
  • Engineering
  • Engineering Design
  • Process
  • Temperature
  • Exothermic (release thermal energy)
  • Endothermic (absorb thermal energy
  • Thermal energy
  • Chemical reactions (e.g., dissolving calcium chloride in water)
  • Criteria (e.g., amount/concentration, time, temperature)
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Engineering is a systematic and often iterative approach to designing objects, processes, and systems to meet human needs and wants.
  • The Engineering Design Process (EDP) is a series of steps engineers use to guide them as they solve problems.
  • The EDP may include the following cyclical steps: ask, imagine, plan, create, and improve.
  • In chemical reactions, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into new substances with different properties.
  • Chemical reactions can release thermal energy or store thermal energy. Criteria are requirements for successful designs.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Design and construct a solution to a problem that requires either heating or cooling.
  • Describe the given criteria and constraints.
  • Test the solution for its ability to solve the problem via the release or absorption of thermal energy to or from the system.
  • Use the results of the tests to systematically determine how well the design solution meets the criteria and constraints, and which characteristics of the design solution performed the best.
  • Modify the design of the device based on the results of iterative testing, and improve the design relative to the criteria and constraints.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Some chemical reactions release energy, others store energy.
  • The transfer of energy can be measured as energy flows through a designed or natural system.
  • A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it.
  • Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process - that is, some of the characteristics may be incorporated into the new design.
  • The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements
Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 3
Unit Plans: 0
8 ) Use Newton's first law to demonstrate and explain that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force (e.g., model car on a table remaining at rest until pushed).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Demonstrate, using Newton's First Law, that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.
  • Explain Newton's First Law.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Newton's First Law of Motion
  • Constant velocity
  • Balanced force
  • Unbalanced force
  • External force
  • Rest
  • Motion
  • Inertia
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • An object at rest remains at rest unless acted on by an external force.
  • An object in motion remains in motion unless acted upon by an external force.
  • Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
  • An object subjected to balanced forces does not change its motion.
  • An object subjected to unbalanced forces changes its motion over time.
  • Constant velocity indicates that an object is moving in a straight line at a constant speed.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Demonstrate Newton's first law.
  • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including Newton's first law and the motion of an object.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Newton's First Law states that an object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by an external force.
  • Newton's First Law states that an object at in motion remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 7
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 5
Unit Plans: 0
9 ) Use Newton's second law to demonstrate and explain how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object (e.g., billiard balls moving when hit with a cue stick).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Demonstrate, using Newton's Second Law, how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
  • Explain, using Newton's Second Law, how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Newton's Second Law of Motion
  • Mass
  • Acceleration
  • Potential energy
  • Kinetic energy
  • Force
  • External force
  • Sum
  • Motion
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The acceleration of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change.
  • The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion.
  • For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. Force = mass x acceleration; F=ma.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Demonstrate Newton's second law.
  • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including Newton's second law and the motion of an object.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Newton's Second Law states that changes in an object's motion depends on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 4
Unit Plans: 0
10 ) Use Newton's third law to design a model to demonstrate and explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects (e.g., two cars bumping into each other, a hammer hitting a nail).*

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Design a model of two colliding objects.
  • Demonstrate Newton's Third Law, which states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction.
  • Use Newton's Third Law to explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Sir Isaac Newton
  • Newton's Third Law of
  • Motion
  • Force
  • Model
  • Mass
  • Speed
  • Velocity
  • Action
  • Reaction
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Whenever two objects interact with each other, they exert forces upon each other.
  • These forces are called action and reaction forces; forces always come in pairs.
  • For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
  • The size of the force on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object.
  • The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object.
  • The momentum of an object increases if either the mass or the speed of the object increases or if both increases.
  • The momentum of an object decreases if either the mass or the speed of the object decreases or if both decrease.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a model that demonstrates Newton's third law and identify the relevant components.
  • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
  • Use observations from the model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Newton's Third Law states that for any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
11 ) Plan and carry out investigations to evaluate how various factors (e.g., electric force produced between two charged objects at various positions; magnetic force produced by an electromagnet with varying number of wire turns, varying number or size of dry cells, and varying size of iron core) affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Plan investigations that evaluate how various factors affect the strength of electric forces.
  • Carry out investigations that evaluate how various factors affect the strength of electric forces.
  • Plan investigations that evaluate how various factors affect the strength of magnetic forces.
  • Carry out investigations that evaluate how various factors affect the strength of magnetic forces.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Investigation
  • Evaluate
  • Factors (e.g., electric force produced between two charged objects at various positions; magnetic force produced by an electromagnet with varying number of wire turns, varying number or size of dry cells, and varying size of iron core)
  • Force
  • Magnetic force
  • Electric force
  • Electromagnetic Force
  • Attraction
  • Repulsion
  • Magnitude
  • Charges
  • Currents
  • Magnetic strength
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The strength of electric forces can vary.
  • Cause-and-effect relationships affect the strength of electric forces. These relationships include the magnitude and signs of the electric charges on the interacting objects and distances between the interacting objects.
  • The strength of magnetic forces can vary.
  • Cause-and-effect relationships affect the strength of magnetic forces. These relationships include the magnitude of any electric current present in the interaction, or other factors related to the effect of the electric current (e.g., number of turns of wire in a coil), the distance between the interacting objects, the relative orientation of the interacting objects, and the magnitude of the magnetic strength of the interacting objects.
  • Electric and magnetic forces can be attractive or gravitational.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Identify the phenomena under investigation, which includes objects (which can include particles) interacting through electric and magnetic forces.
  • Identify the purpose of the investigation, which includes which includes objects (which can include particles) interacting through electric and magnetic forces.
  • Develop a plan for the investigation individually or collaboratively.
  • Describe factors used in the investigation including appropriate units (if necessary), independent and dependent variables, controls and number of trials for each experimental condition.
  • Perform the investigation as prescribed by the plan.
  • Use data from the investigation to provide an causal account of the relationship between various factors and the strength of electric and magnetic forces.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Various factors affect the strength of electric forces.
  • Various factors affect the strength of magnetic forces.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
Experimenting with Forces and Motion
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
12 ) Construct an argument from evidence explaining that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other (e.g., interactions of magnets, electrically charged strips of tape, electrically charged pith balls, gravitational pull of the moon creating tides) even when the objects are not in contact.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Construct an argument using evidence that fields exist between objects that are exerting forces on each other even when they are not in contact.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Argument
  • Evidence
  • Field
  • Forces
  • Distance
  • Exert
  • Contact
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Two interacting objects can exert forces on each other even though the two interacting objects are not in contact with each other.
  • Fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the two interacting objects are not in contact with each other. The existing fields may be electric, magnetic, or gravitational.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including the idea that objects can interact at a distance.
  • Identify and use multiple valid and reliable sources of evidence to construct an explanation that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even when the objects are not in contact.
  • Use reasoning to connect the evidence and support an explanation that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even when the objects are not in contact.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even when the objects are not in contact.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion
Energy
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
13 ) Create and analyze graphical displays of data to illustrate the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass and speed of an object (e.g., riding a bicycle at different speeds, hitting a table tennis ball versus a golf ball, rolling similar toy cars with different masses down an incline).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Create graphical displays of data to illustrate relationships of kinetic energy to the mass and the speed of an object.
  • Analyze graphical displays of data to illustrate relationships of kinetic energy to the mass and speed of an object.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Graphical display
  • Data
  • Kinetic energy
  • Motion
  • Mass
  • Speed linear
  • Nonlinear
  • Proportional
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Kinetic energy is energy that an object possesses due to its motion or movement.
  • Kinetic energy increases if either the mass or the speed of the object increases or both.
  • Kinetic energy decreases if either the mass or the speed of the object decreases or both. The relationship between kinetic energy and mass is a linear proportional relationship (KE ∝ m).
  • In the linear proportional relationship, the kinetic energy doubles as the mass of the object doubles.
  • In the linear proportional relationship, the kinetic energy halves as the mass of the object halves.
  • The relationship between kinetic energy and speed is a nonlinear (square) proportional relationship (KE ∝ v2).
  • In the nonlinear proportional relationship, the kinetic energy quadruples as the speed of the object doubles.
  • In the nonlinear proportional relationship, the kinetic energy decreases by a factor of four as the speed of the object is cut in half.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a graphical display of data that illustrates the relationships between kinetic energy and the mass and speed of an object.
  • Use observations from the display of data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The relationship between kinetic energy, mass, and speed is proportional.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
14 ) Use models to construct an explanation of how a system of objects may contain varying types and amounts of potential energy (e.g., observing the movement of a roller coaster cart at various inclines, changing the tension in a rubber band, varying the number of batteries connected in a series, observing a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate's hair).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Construct an explanation, using models, to show how a system of objects may contain varying types of potential energy.
  • Construct an explanation, using models, to show how a system of objects may contain varying amounts of potential energy.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Model
  • System
  • Potential energy
  • Force
  • Electric force
  • Magnetic force
  • Gravitational force
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Potential energy is stored energy.
  • When two objects interact a distance, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from an object. The exerted forces may include electric, magnetic, or gravitational forces.
  • As the relative position of two objects (neutral, charged, magnetic) changes, the potential energy of the system (associated with interactions via electric, magnetic, and gravitational forces) changes.
  • Elastic potential energy is potential energy stored as a result of work done to an elastic object, such as the stretching of a spring. It is equal to the work done to stretch the spring, which depends upon the spring constant k as well as the distance stretched.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Use a model of a system containing varying types and amounts of potential energy and identify the relevant components.
  • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
  • Articulate a statement that relates a given phenomenon to a scientific idea, including how a system of objects may contain varying types and amounts of potential energy.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The types of potential energy in a system of objects may include electric, magnetic, or gravitational potential energy.
  • The amount of potential energy in a system of objects changes when the distance between stationary objects interacting in the system changes because a force has to be applied to move two attracting objects farther apart, or a force has to be applied to move two repelling objects closer together, both resulting in a transfer of energy to the system.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Experimenting with Forces and Motion
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
15 ) Analyze and interpret data from experiments to determine how various factors affect energy transfer as measured by temperature (e.g., comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melt in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, observing the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass and the same material with different masses when adding a specific amount of energy).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Analyze data from experiments to determine how various factors affect energy transfer as measured by temperature.
  • Interpret data from experiments to determine how various factors affect energy transfer as measured by temperature.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Factors
  • Matter
  • State of matter
  • Energy transfer
  • Temperature
  • Mass
  • Volume
  • Environment
  • Kinetic energy
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Various factors affect the transfer of energy.
  • The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
  • The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a sample of matter by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment.
  • Temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of particles of matter.
  • Temperature, when measured in Kelvin, is directly proportional to average kinetic energy.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Organize given data to allow for analysis and interpretation to determine how various factors affect energy transfer.
  • Analyze the data to identify possible causal relationships between various factors and energy transfer.
  • Interpret patterns observed from the data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
  • Various factors, such as the state of matter, the amounts of matter present, and the environment, affect the amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a sample of matter. A measure of temperature can indicate the amount of energy transfer.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
16 ) Apply the law of conservation of energy to develop arguments supporting the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object (e.g., bowling ball hitting pins, brakes being applied to a car).

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Apply the law of conservation of energy to develop arguments supporting the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Argument
  • Claim
  • Kinetic Energy
  • Energy Transfer
  • System
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Kinetic energy is energy that an object possesses due to its motion or movement.
  • Changes in kinetic energy may include changes in motion, temperature, or other observable features of an object.
  • When the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from that object.
  • When the kinetic energy of an object increases or decreases, the energy of other objects or the surroundings within the system increases or decreases, indicating that energy was transferred to or form the object.
  • The Law of Conservation of Energy states that in a closed system, the total energy of the system is conserved and energy is neither created nor destroyed.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Make a claim about a given explanation or model for a phenomenon, including the idea that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from that object .
  • Identify and describe the given evidence that supports the claim.
  • Evaluate the evidence and identify its strengths and weaknesses.
  • Use reasoning to connect the necessary and sufficient evidence and construct the argument.
  • Present oral or written arguments to support or refute the given explanation or model for the phenomenon.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • The law of conservation of energy states that in a closed system, the total amount of energy remains constant and energy is neither created nor destroyed.
  • Energy can be converted from one form to another, but the total energy within the system remains fixed.
  • Energy can be transferred between objects in the system.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
17 ) Create and manipulate a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength) and energy.

a. Analyze and interpret data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Create a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties and energy.
  • Manipulate a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties and energy.
  • Analyze data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Interpret data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Manipulate
  • Model
  • Wave
  • Simple wave
  • Predict
  • Wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength)
  • Energy
  • Analyze
  • Interpret
  • Illustrate
  • Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Photons
  • Hertz
  • Volts
  • Joules
  • Displacement
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Waves represent repeating quantities.
  • A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.
  • The frequency of a wave is the number of waves passing a point in a certain time. The unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz) and one hertz is equal to one wave per second.
  • Amplitude is the maximum displacement of the wave pattern from equilibrium.
  • Wavelength is the distance between consecutive wave crests or troughs.
  • The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it travels.
  • The types of electromagnetic radiation that make up the electromagnetic spectrum are radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
  • Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of a stream of mass-less particles, called photons, each traveling in a wave-like pattern at the speed of light. Each photon contains a certain amount of energy. The different types of radiation are defined by the amount of energy found in the photons. Radio waves have photons with low energies, microwave photons have a little more energy than radio waves, infrared photons have still more, then visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and, the most energetic of all, gamma-rays.
  • Electromagnetic radiation can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency. Frequency is measured in cycles per second, or Hertz. Wavelength is measured in meters. Energy is measured in electron volts or Joules.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a model of a simple wave and identify the relevant components.
  • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
  • Use patterns observed from their model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
  • Organize given data to allow for analysis and interpretation of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Analyze the data to identify possible causal relationships between waves and their positions in the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Interpret patterns observed from the data to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Relationships exist between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength) and energy.
  • These relationships can be predicted and described with models of simple waves.*The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Electromagnetic radiation can be expressed in terms of energy, wavelength, or frequency and the types of radiation are arranged in the spectrum based on the measure of their energy, wavelength, and/or frequency.
  • The types of electromagnetic radiation that make up the electromagnetic spectrum are radio waves, visible light, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
18 ) Use models to demonstrate how light and sound waves differ in how they are absorbed, reflected, and transmitted through different types of media.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use models to demonstrate how light waves differ in how they are absorbed, reflected, and transmitted through different types of media.
  • Use models to demonstrate how sound waves differ in how they are absorbed, reflected, and transmitted through different types of media.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Light
  • Sound
  • Absorption
  • Reflection
  • Transmission
  • Media
  • Transparent
  • Translucent
  • Opaque
  • Frequency
  • Amplitude
  • Wavelength
  • Electromagnetic waves
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • A medium is not required to transmit electromagnetic waves.
  • A sound wave, a type of mechanical wave, needs a medium through which it is transmitted.
  • When a sound wave strikes an object, it is absorbed, reflected, or transmitted depending on the object's material.
  • When a light wave shines on an object, it is absorbed, reflected, or transmitted depending on the object's material and the frequency of the light.
  • The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the path of light bends.
  • The absorption, reflection, and transmission of light and sound waves can be identified by observing relevant characteristics of the wave, such as frequency, amplitude, and wavelength.
  • Materials with certain properties are well-suited for particular functions (e.g., lenses and mirrors, sound absorbers in concert halls, colored light filters, sound barriers next to highways).
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop models of light and sound waves and identify the relevant components.
  • Describe the relationships between components of the model.
  • Use observations from the model to provide causal accounts for events and make predictions for events by constructing explanations.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Light and sound waves differ in how they interact with different types of media.
  • The absorption, reflection, and transmission of light and sound waves depends on the type of media through which they are transmitted.
  • Materials with certain properties are well-suited for particular functions (e.g., lenses and mirrors, sound absorbers in concert halls, colored light filters, sound barriers next to highways).
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 0
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 0
Unit Plans: 0
19 ) Integrate qualitative information to explain that common communication devices (e.g., cellular telephones, radios, remote controls, Wi-Fi components, global positioning systems [GPS], wireless technology components) use electromagnetic waves to encode and transmit information.

Insight Unpacked Content
Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use qualitative information to explain how communication devices use electromagnetic waves to encode information.
  • Use qualitative information to explain how communication devices use electromagnetic waves to transmit information.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Qualitative
  • Information
  • Communication devices (e.g., cellular phone, Global Positioning System (GPS), remote control, Wi-Fi, etc.)
  • Electromagnetic waves
  • Energy
  • Energy wave
  • Electric field
  • Magnet
  • Magnetic field
  • Mechanical wave
  • Vacuum
  • Frequency
  • Wavelength
  • Crest
  • Medium
  • Amplitude
  • Displacement
  • Rest position
  • Encode
  • Transmit
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Electromagnetic waves are a form of energy waves that have both an electric and magnetic field. Electromagnetic waves are different from mechanical waves in that they can transmit energy and travel through a vacuum.
  • The different types of electromagnetic waves have different uses and functions in our everyday lives.
  • Electromagnetic waves differ from each other in wavelength, frequency, and energy, and are classified accordingly. Wavelength is the distance between one wave crest to the next.
  • Frequency refers to how often the particles of the medium vibrate when a wave passes through the medium
  • The amount of energy carried by a wave is related to the amplitude of the wave. A high energy wave is characterized by a high amplitude; a low energy wave is characterized by a low amplitude. The amplitude of a wave refers to the maximum amount of displacement of a particle on the medium from its rest position.
  • Electromagnetic waves can be used to encode information.
  • Electromagnetic waves can be used to transmit information.
  • Examples of common communication devices may include cellular telephones, radios, remote controls, Wi-Fi components, global positioning systems (GPS), and wireless technology components.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Gather evidence sufficient to explain a phenomenon that includes the idea that using waves to carry digital signals is a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than using waves to carry analog signals.
  • Combine the relevant information (from multiple sources) to articulate the explanation.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Common communication devices use electromagnetic waves to encode and transmit information.
AMSTI Resources:
AMSTI Module:
Electricity, Waves, and Information Transfer