Courses of Study : Science

Number of Standards matching query: 19
Matter and Its Interactions
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 10
Learning Activities: 4
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 5
1 ) Analyze patterns within the periodic table to construct models (e.g., molecular-level models, including drawings; computer representations) that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms and molecules.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.2: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.

NAEP Statement::
P12.3: In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (called the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.3a: All substances are composed of 1 or more of approximately 100 elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.3b: The periodic table organizes the elements into families of elements with similar properties.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4a: Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4b: Compounds are composed of two or more different elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5b: Metals and acids are examples of such classes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5c: Metals are a class of elements that exhibit common physical properties such as conductivity and common chemical properties such as reacting with nonmetals to produce salts.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.1- Identify parts of an atom (i.e. protons, neutrons, electrons); recognize that the periodic table is organized to show patterns of common traits of elements; locate metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 2
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 1
2 ) Plan and carry out investigations to generate evidence supporting the claim that one pure substance can be distinguished from another based on characteristic properties.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.4c: Each element and compound has physical and chemical properties, such as boiling point, density, color, and conductivity, which are independent of the amount of the sample.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5a: Substances are classified according to their physical and chemical properties.

NAEP Statement::
P8.5d: Acids are a class of compounds that exhibit common chemical properties, including a sour taste, characteristic color changes with litmus and other acid/base indicators, and the tendency to react with bases to produce a salt and water.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.2- Identify characteristics that distinguish one pure substance from another (e.g., color, hardness, flammability).


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 7
Learning Activities: 3
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 3
3 ) Construct explanations based on evidence from investigations to differentiate among compounds, mixtures, and solutions.

a. Collect and analyze information to illustrate how synthetic materials (e.g., medicine, food additives, alternative fuels, plastics) are derived from natural resources and how they impact society.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.4a: Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4b: Compounds are composed of two or more different elements.

NAEP Statement::
P8.4c: Each element and compound has physical and chemical properties, such as boiling point, density, color, and conductivity, which are independent of the amount of the sample.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.3- Differentiate between compounds and mixtures.
SCI.AAS.8.3a- Recognize that synthetic materials are made from natural resources; identify a synthetic material and the natural resource from which it is derived.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 4
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 3
4 ) Design and conduct an experiment to determine changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added to or removed from a system.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.5: Changes of state require a transfer of energy. Water has a very high specific heat, meaning it can absorb a large amount of energy while producing only small changes in temperature.

NAEP Statement::
P12.8: Atoms and molecules that compose matter are in constant motion (translational, rotational, or vibrational).

NAEP Statement::
P8.1: Properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by a model of matter that is composed of tiny particles in motion.

NAEP Statement::
P8.6a: Changes of state are explained by a model of matter composed of tiny particles that are in motion.

NAEP Statement::
P8.6b: When substances undergo changes of state, neither atoms nor molecules themselves are changed in structure.

NAEP Statement::
P8.6c: Mass is conserved when substances undergo changes of state.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.4- Recognize that changes in temperature can cause changes in the state of matter of a substance; recognize that these changes are a result of changes in particle motion.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 8
Learning Activities: 6
Classroom Resources: 2
5 ) Observe and analyze characteristic properties of substances (e.g., odor, density, solubility, flammability, melting point, boiling point) before and after the substances combine to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.2: Chemical properties of substances are explained by the arrangement of atoms and molecules.

NAEP Statement::
P8.7a: Chemical changes can occur when two substances, elements, or compounds react and produce one or more different substances whose physical and chemical properties are different from the reacting substances.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.5- Compare the properties of substances (color, texture, odor, state of matter) before and after chemical changes have occurred (e.g. burning sugar, burning steel wool, rust, effervescent tablets).


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
6 ) Create a model, diagram, or digital simulation to describe conservation of mass in a chemical reaction and explain the resulting differences between products and reactants.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.7b: When substances undergo chemical change, the number and kinds of atoms in the reactants are the same as the number and kinds of atoms in the products.

NAEP Statement::
P8.7c: Mass is conserved when substances undergo chemical change.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 2
Classroom Resources: 2
7 ) Design, construct, and test a device (e.g., glow stick, hand warmer, hot or cold pack, thermal wrap) that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical reactions (e.g., dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride in water) and modify the device as needed based on criteria (e.g., amount/concentration, time, temperature).*


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.7- Critique objects or materials used to minimize or maximize thermal energy transfer (e.g., gloves, insulated hot pad, foam cup).


Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 8
Learning Activities: 3
Lesson Plans: 3
Classroom Resources: 2
8 ) Use Newton's first law to demonstrate and explain that an object is either at rest or moves at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force (e.g., model car on a table remaining at rest until pushed).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.14a: An object's motion can be described by its speed and the direction in which it is moving. An object's position can be measured and graphed as a function of time. An object's speed can be measured and graphed as a function of time.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16b: Forces can be added.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.8- Compare an object at rest and an object in motion; recognize that an object at rest remains at rest if not acted on by an outside force; demonstrate a method to change an object's motion; identify forces that cause an object in motion to slow down or stop moving.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 6
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 3
Classroom Resources: 2
9 ) Use Newton's second law to demonstrate and explain how changes in an object's motion depend on the sum of the external forces on the object and the mass of the object (e.g., billiard balls moving when hit with a cue stick).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16b: Forces can be added.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.9- Investigate and identify ways to change the motion of an object (e.g., change an incline's slope, change the mass of the object).


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 5
Lesson Plans: 3
Classroom Resources: 2
10 ) Use Newton's third law to design a model to demonstrate and explain the resulting motion of two colliding objects (e.g., two cars bumping into each other, a hammer hitting a nail).*


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.16a: Forces have magnitude and direction.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16b: Forces can be added.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16c: The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16d: A nonzero net force on an object changes the object's motion; that is, the object's speed and/or direction of motion changes.

NAEP Statement::
P8.16e: A net force of zero on an object does not change the object's motion; that is, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.10- Describe the motion of two colliding objects before and after the collision.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 2
Classroom Resources: 1
11 ) Plan and carry out investigations to evaluate how various factors (e.g., electric force produced between two charged objects at various positions; magnetic force produced by an electromagnet with varying number of wire turns, varying number or size of dry cells, and varying size of iron core) affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.10: Electromagnetic waves are produced by changing the motion of charges or by changing magnetic fields. The energy of electromagnetic waves is transferred to matter in packets. The energy content of the packets is directly proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves.

NAEP Statement::
P12.23: Electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel. The strength of the electric force is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Between any two charged particles, the electric force is vastly greater than the gravitational force.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.11- Investigate the effect of distance on the magnetic force of two magnets; use a simple electromagnet to pick up paper clips; investigate the effect of increasing the number of wire turns in the electromagnet on its strength.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 1
Classroom Resources: 3
12 ) Construct an argument from evidence explaining that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other (e.g., interactions of magnets, electrically charged strips of tape, electrically charged pith balls, gravitational pull of the moon creating tides) even when the objects are not in contact.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.22: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

NAEP Statement::
P12.23: Electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel. The strength of the electric force is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Between any two charged particles, the electric force is vastly greater than the gravitational force.

NAEP Statement::
P8.15a: Some forces between objects act when the objects are in direct contact or when they are not touching.

NAEP Statement::
P8.15b: Magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act at a distance.


Energy
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
13 ) Create and analyze graphical displays of data to illustrate the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass and speed of an object (e.g., riding a bicycle at different speeds, hitting a table tennis ball versus a golf ball, rolling similar toy cars with different masses down an incline).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.14b: An object's position can be measured and graphed as a function of time.

NAEP Statement::
P8.14c: An object's speed can be measured and graphed as a function of time.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.13-Investigate how the mass of an object affects the speed at which it travels (e.g., toy car traveling down an incline).


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 9
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 6
14 ) Use models to construct an explanation of how a system of objects may contain varying types and amounts of potential energy (e.g., observing the movement of a roller coaster cart at various inclines, changing the tension in a rubber band, varying the number of batteries connected in a series, observing a balloon with static electrical charge being brought closer to a classmate's hair).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.13: The potential energy of an object on Earth's surface is increased when the object's position is changed from one closer to Earth's surface to one farther from Earth's surface.

NAEP Statement::
P8.9a: Three forms of potential energy are gravitational, elastic, and chemical.

NAEP Statement::
P8.9b: Gravitational potential energy changes in a system as the relative positions of objects are changed.

NAEP Statement::
P8.9c: Objects can have elastic potential energy due to their compression, or chemical potential energy due to the nature and arrangement of the atoms.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Classroom Resources: 1
15 ) Analyze and interpret data from experiments to determine how various factors affect energy transfer as measured by temperature (e.g., comparing final water temperatures after different masses of ice melt in the same volume of water with the same initial temperature, observing the temperature change of samples of different materials with the same mass and the same material with different masses when adding a specific amount of energy).

Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 3
Classroom Resources: 2
16 ) Apply the law of conservation of energy to develop arguments supporting the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object (e.g., bowling ball hitting pins, brakes being applied to a car).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P12.16: Total energy is conserved in a closed system.

NAEP Statement::
P8.12a: When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer.

NAEP Statement::
P8.12b: For example, as an object falls, its potential energy decreases as its speed, and consequently, its kinetic energy increases.

NAEP Statement::
P8.12c: While an object is falling, some of the object's kinetic energy is transferred to the medium through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it.

NAEP Statement::
P8.8a: Objects and substances in motion have kinetic energy.

NAEP Statement::
P8.8b: For example, a moving baseball can break a window; water flowing down a stream moves pebbles and floating objects along with it.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.16- Make observations about energy transfers in common everyday occurrences (e.g., bowling ball hitting pins, brakes being applied to a bicycle or car).


Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 1
Classroom Resources: 4
17 ) Create and manipulate a model of a simple wave to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, wavelength) and energy.

a. Analyze and interpret data to illustrate an electromagnetic spectrum.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
P8.10a: Energy is transferred from place to place.

NAEP Statement::
P8.10b: Light energy from the Sun travels through space to Earth (radiation).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10c: Thermal energy travels from a flame through the metal of a cooking pan to the water in the pan (conduction).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10d: Air warmed by a fireplace moves around a room (convection).

NAEP Statement::
P8.10e: Waves (including sound and seismic waves, waves on water, and light waves) have energy and transfer energy when they interact with matter.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.17- Use a model to investigate ways to change the properties of a simple wave (frequency, amplitude, wavelength).


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 6
Learning Activities: 1
Classroom Resources: 5
18 ) Use models to demonstrate how light and sound waves differ in how they are absorbed, reflected, and transmitted through different types of media.


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.18- Investigate and describe how light and sound waves travel through a variety of media.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 8
Physical Science
All Resources: 2
Classroom Resources: 2
19 ) Integrate qualitative information to explain that common communication devices (e.g., cellular telephones, radios, remote controls, Wi-Fi components, global positioning systems [GPS], wireless technology components) use electromagnetic waves to encode and transmit information.


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.8.19- Recognize that common communication devices use electromagnetic waves to transmit information, and that these electromagnetic waves are invisible to the human eye.