Courses of Study

Number of Standards matching query: 324

Arts Education, Grade K, Dance, 2006

1.) Demonstrate basic locomotor skills, including galloping, sliding, running, and walking.

•  Demonstrating basic nonlocomotor skills, including bending and stretching
2.) Describe feelings, ideas, or images found in dance movements.

Example: recognizing emotions in Baloo's dances in the movie The Jungle Book

•  Creating movements reflecting emotions
Example: creating a dance depicting happiness or anger

3.) Identify the basic elements of movement, including time, space, and energy.


- time--recognizing a steady beat,

- space--recognizing personal space,

- energy--recognizing strong and light movements

4.) Identify dance, music, theatre, and visual arts as the four arts disciplines.

5.) Demonstrate the ability to stop, go, freeze, and move safely on cue.

•  Moving in self space and general space

- self space--reaching in all directions without touching other persons or objects,

- general space--moving across the floor without touching other persons

•  Performing simple movements with varying degrees of energy
Examples: punching lightly, punching strongly

•  Demonstrating movement using a steady beat
Example: moving to the regular beat of a drum

•  Performing at varying tempos
Examples: moving slowly, moving quickly

6.) Identify purposes for which people dance.

Examples: celebrations, rituals, performances, social gatherings

7.) Identify elements of movement that relate to other subject areas.

Examples: identifying geometric shapes made with the body, including squares, circles, and triangles; identifying relative locations in dance using positional terms such as over, under, around, above, and through

8.) Identify healthy food choices for a dancer.

9.) Utilize design software to illustrate elements of space.

Example: drawing floor patterns, shapes, and relative location using a paint program

Arts Education, Grade 1, Dance, 2006

1.) Demonstrate movement in various tempos, rhythms, and meters.

Example Image

•  Combining various tempos
Example: progressing from a slow swing to a fast swing

2.) Demonstrate the element of space through movement involving size, level, shape, direction, and pathways.


- size--creating a small shape;

- level--moving in a high, middle, and low level;

- shape--creating curved and straight lines;

- direction--performing forward movements;

- pathways--skipping in a circle

•  Demonstrating laterality
Example: distinguishing right side from left side

•  Demonstrating isolated movements of various body parts
Examples: leading with ear, circling with hip, jabbing with knee, flexing the foot

3.) Demonstrate movement that has a relationship to a person, place, or object.

Examples: skipping around a box, crawling under a partner, sliding near a wall, focusing on a general or specific object while moving

•  Demonstrating leading, following, mirroring, and sculpturing
4.) Create movement with varying degrees of energy.

•  Creating sequences with a beginning, middle, and end
•  Improvising movement based on concepts, ideas, and feelings
Examples: creating sly movements for the wolf in The Three Little Pigs, creating waddling movements for ducklings in Make Way for Ducklings

5.) Demonstrate proper body alignment for the head, shoulders, hips, and feet while standing.

6.) Demonstrate basic even and uneven locomotor movements.


- even movements--walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping;

- uneven movements--skipping, galloping, sliding

7.) Describe movement that reflects contrasting elements of time, space, and energy.

•  Identifying beginning, middle, and end of movement sequences
•  Relating movement to concepts, ideas, and feelings
8.) Identify movement qualities in music.

Examples: lightness in George Frideric Handel's Water Music, heaviness in Edvard Grieg's In the Hall of the Mountain King

9.) Identify choreographic elements in a dance.

Example: dance with a clear beginning, middle, and end that can be repeated

10.) Demonstrate the ability to move safely through general space without touching others.

•  Demonstrating locomotor movements safely while holding hands with a partner
11.) Demonstrate traditional American dances in various cultures.

Examples: Virginia reel, heel-toe polka, Cotton-Eyed Joe

•  Describing the use of the Internet to discover traditional dances
12.) Explain how adequate rest, nutrition, and exercise affect dancers.

13.) Demonstrate concepts from other content areas through movement.

Examples: performing a dance relating to weather in science, creating a consonant and vowel dance relating to English language arts content, creating an addition dance relating to mathematics content, creating a dance using characters from a Jacob Lawrence painting relating to visual arts content

Arts Education, Grade 2, Dance, 2006

1.) Perform movement in rhythmic patterns that combine various tempos.

Examples: slow — fast — fast — slow, fast — medium — fast — slow

•  Demonstrating accented movement on the down beat of a measure
Example Image

2.) Demonstrate the ability to work with a group to create a sculpture using the spatial elements of low, middle, and high levels.

•  Demonstrating multiple possibilities for moving in and out of a sculpture
3.) Demonstrate symmetrical design through leading, following, mirroring, and shaping.

Example: creating movements that illustrate the mathematical concepts of sliding, turning, and flipping

4.) Perform two or more movements of body parts simultaneously.

Example: swinging arm while stomping foot

•  Sharing weight with a partner while connecting body parts
Examples: leaning away from partner while holding hands, leaning toward partner while standing back-to-back

5.) Demonstrate changing movement with a range of dynamics.

Example: walking lightly, then gradually changing to stomping

6.) Demonstrate proper body alignment while performing a plié.

7.) Demonstrate shift of support from one foot to the other.

Example: shifting weight in steps such as tombé and ball change

8.) Create sequences that have a beginning, middle, and end, with and without rhythmic accompaniment.

•  Improvising movement based on rhythms from various sounds
Example: moving to sounds of birds chirping, persons whispering, leaves crunching underfoot

9.) Identify the role of a choreographer.

10.) Recognize how dance element choices create a kinesthetic response.

Examples: describing angular lines as strong, describing curved lines as inviting

11.) Identify locomotor and nonlocomotor movements in filmed dance.

Example: identifying locomotor movements, including running and splashing, and nonlocomotor movements, including swaying and shuddering, in Gene Kelley's performance of "Singing in the Rain"

12.) Describe safe ways to move with a partner while dancing.

13.) Demonstrate traditional world dances.

Examples: Chinese Ribbon Dance, Hungarian czardas

14.) Explain how good nutrition and safety enhance the ability to dance.


- good nutrition--eating a balanced diet to provide ample energy for dancing,

- safety--wearing proper footwear to prevent injuries

•  Describing sequentially correct warm-up procedures, including raising body temperature and activating joints, then strengthening and stretching muscles
15.) Relate dance concepts to similar and contrasting concepts in other content areas.

Example: relating body directions to compass directions, relating expressions of emotion in dance through energy and in visual arts through line

Arts Education, Grade 3, Dance, 2006

1.) Apply musical concepts to movement, including tempo, beat, accent, meter, and rhythm.

•  Identifying meter signatures in musical selections
•  Improvising movement that illustrates the timbre of music
Examples: floating movement to soft music, sharp movement to strong music

2.) Demonstrate sequences of movements that combine elements of space, including shape, level, direction, and relationships.

Examples: creating parallel lines with the arms, creating 45 degree angles with the legs, filling negative space

3.) Differentiate symmetry and asymmetry through dance.

4.) Differentiate the energy found in movements, including bound, free, strong, and light.


- bound--moving as if trapped in a small box,

- free--moving as if playing in an open field,

- strong--jabbing elbows through space,

- light--walking as if on a cloud

5.) Demonstrate proper body alignment while moving.

•  Demonstrating the ability to move from a balanced position to an off-balanced position
6.) Analyze movement for content.

Example: asking questions, including who, what, when, where, why, and how

•  Identifying ways that lighting, costuming, sound effects, makeup, props, and sets enhance dance productions
•  Locating the audience, backdrop, and orchestra of a performance space
7.) Identify the elements of space, time, and energy in video productions involving dance.

Examples: using words identifying spatial relationships such as over, under, around, through, and between to describe how Scarecrow and Dorothy dance down the yellow brick road in The Wizard of Oz; identifying elements of dance in video streaming available on dance company Web sites

8.) Demonstrate safe ways to move while dancing with a group.

•  Connecting to others with various body parts, including elbows, knees, toes, and head
9.) Explain the purposes of ritual, social, and theatre dance.


- ritual--enhancing ceremonies,

- social--strengthening communities,

- theatre--inspiring an audience

•  Relating regional dances to climate and culture

- climate--Native American rain and sun dances,

- culture--Russian wedding dance

10.) Apply concepts from other content areas while improvising movement.

Example: improvising a dance that illustrates the movement of the continental plates

•  Explain the importance of proper warm-up for dancers.

Arts Education, Grade 4, Dance, 2006

1.) Create movement that reflects musical qualities.

Examples: sharp movement as staccato, slow movement as legato

2.) Duplicate combinations of movement sequences without assistance.

Example: performing dance steps in line dances, square dances, classical ballet, and modern dance in correct sequence as demonstrated by an instructor

3.) Demonstrate proper body alignment while performing movement skills.

Examples: jumping, leaping, hopping

4.) Demonstrate contrasting elements of effort, including focus, time, and weight.


- focus--moving directly to a designated spot in a room, moving indirectly as if blown by the wind;

- time--moving quickly in one direction, moving as slowly as possible;

- weight--moving strongly creating a stomp, moving lightly on tiptoe

5.) Create a dance using production elements, including simple props, costumes, and appropriate music.

6.) Solve a variety of movement problems.

Examples: creating a sad dance using a fast tempo, creating a happy dance using a strong force

•  Improvising shapes and movements that require partial and mutual support
7.) Explain ways in which silence, sound, music, or words affect the meaning of a dance.

8.) Identify ways in which technology is used to preserve dance.

Examples: DVD, photography, 8-millimeter film, dance notation software

9.) Analyze a dance work to determine meaning, message, or ideas conveyed.

Example: identifying conflict and resolution in Swan Lake

10.) Utilize safe practices when participating in movement activities.

Examples: remaining aware of other dancers' positions and movements, coordinating movements with other dancers, maintaining control of movement

11.) Identify stage directions, including upstage right, downstage left, and center stage.

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•  Demonstrating movements that use stage directions
12.) Summarize the role dance has played throughout the history of Alabama.

•  Explaining the importance of dance in Native American cultures
Example: performing the Eagle Dance as representative of the soaring flight of the eagle in Native American communities

13.) Explain possible connections between dance concepts and concepts from other content areas.

Example: explaining how student-created artwork in visual arts, music, and theatre may be translated to dance

•  Demonstrating the difference between pantomime and dance
14.) Describe the importance of proper personal hygiene for a dancer.

Arts Education, Grade 5, Dance, 2006

1.) Demonstrate movement to changing elements of time.

Example Image

2.) Use the elements of time, space, and energy to create an effect through dance.

Example: creating the effect of ocean waves by using contrasts in level, size, and tempo

•  Creating movements that change from literal to abstract
Example: "coughing" or "yawning" using different parts of the body

•  Solving dance problems with multiple parameters
Example: creating a dance using changing levels and varied floor patterns to reflect shoppers at a mall

3.) Demonstrate effort actions, including punch, press, slash, wring, float, flick, dab, and glide.

4.) Demonstrate proper body alignment during elevations.

•  Demonstrating five ways to elevate, including jump, hop, leap, sissonne, and assemblé
Examples: jumping two feet to two feet; hopping one foot to same foot; leaping one foot to other foot; using sissonne, two feet to one foot; using assemblé, one foot to two feet

5.) Demonstrate movements that use stage directions to define facings and pathways.

Example: skipping from upstage left to downstage right while facing downstage

6.) Evaluate dance to determine the effectiveness of the elements of movement.

Examples: developing a rubric to evaluate time, space, and energy; discussing how elements create intent; writing suggestions for changing movement elements

7.) Compare ways in which ideas and emotions are expressed in dance, music, theatre, and visual arts.

Examples: comparing the expression of sadness in Martha Graham's Lamentations to the sadness of Antonín Dvorák's Symphony No. 9 (From the New World), comparing the wonder of childhood in the "Kingdom of the Sweets" in The Nutcracker to the wonder of childhood in the prologue to the symphony Peter and the Wolf.

8.) Utilize rules and strategies for creating safe movement experiences.

Examples: dancers maintaining a distance of an arm's length, stage-left dancers traveling downstage when passing stage-right dancers

9.) Describe dance from the 1400s through the 1800s.

Example: creating a timeline of dances related to social studies and music curricula

•  Identifying different genres of dance
Examples: ballet, modern, jazz, tap

10.) Demonstrate ways to record dance using various modes of technology.

Examples: using a graphing program to plot energy, using dance notation software to record shifts of weight, using a paint program to draw floor patterns, using photography to capture posed shapes, using a video camera to record a class improvisation

•  Describing difficulties encountered when using technology to record dance
11.) Explain methods used by dancers for improving muscle flexibility and strength.

Examples: holding a stretch for thirty seconds, repeating exercises to build muscle strength

•  Explaining principles of proper body alignment
•  Determining effects of eating disorders of dancers
12.) Create a dance project that utilizes concepts from another content area.

•  Collaborating with a group to create a dance with forms of bound and free energy to reflect potential and kinetic energy

Arts Education, Grade 6 - 12, Dance:Level I, 2006

1.) Identify various tempos, rhythms, and meters.

•  Identifying changing meter signatures
Example Image

•  Creating dance sequences using rhythmic variations
Example: accenting counts 1, 3, and 5 in a six-count phrase or accenting 1 and 4 in the same six-count phrase

2.) Demonstrate the elements of space, including level, shape, size, direction, and pathways.

•  Identifying symmetrical and asymmetrical shapes and movement
•  Performing movement in relation to other dancers and props
Examples: near, far, over, under, around, between, through

3.) Create a group dance using a variety of compositional forms, including a beginning, middle, and end.

Example: creating AB and ABA forms, call and response, and canon

4.) Solve dance problems through improvisation and dance compositions.

Examples: improvising movement that illustrates a landscape, improvising movement that reflects texture in a painting

•  Demonstrating various levels of energy
5.) Identify the elements of time, space, and energy in improvisations.

6.) Analyze dance productions to determine how light is used to create a desired effect.

Examples: shadow to create mystery, spotlight to create focus

•  Explaining the use of colored lights to create mood
Examples: red light for danger, blue light for coolness

7.) Explain the importance of rehearsal to the safety of the dancer.

8.) Explain principles required for proper body alignment.

Examples: engaging core muscles to lengthen spine, keeping weight centered over the middle of the foot, turning out from the hip

9.) Describe the development of dance in various cultures.

Examples: tracing the origins of American dance forms, including break dancing and hip hop; tracing the origins of Scottish dance forms, including Highland Fling and Sword Dance

10.) Utilize dance to reflect concepts in other content areas.

Example: improvising sequences that relate to specific paintings, drawings, and sculptures

•  Improvising movement in response to a specific narrative
Example: creating four movements in response to a newspaper headline or short story

11.) Identify basic procedures for treating dance injuries.

Example: rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE)

•  Describing methods of injury prevention
Examples: proper warm-up, balanced nutrition, appropriate rest, recognition of pain as signal for treatment

12.) Describe movable joints in the body.

•  Identifying actions possible at each joint in the body
Example: explaining how the knee is a hinge joint with possible actions of flexion and extension

Arts Education, Grade 6 - 12, Dance:Level II, 2006

1.) Demonstrate movement using rhythmic variations.

Example Image

•  Creating movement sequences with spatial complexity, including changes in focus, body shape, and level
2.) Apply varying levels of energy to improvisations.

•  Differentiating between bound and free energy in movement phrases
Examples: performing bound energy to project anger, using free energy to project joy

3.) Create appropriate lighting using traditional or computerized light programs to accompany a dance.

Examples: suggesting lighting for a class improvisation, designing a lighting chart for a dance production

4.) Analyze movement compositions to determine content and form.

Examples: describing a story represented in a classical ballet mimed sequence, analyzing movement that depicts a variety of feelings and emotions

5.) Demonstrate the ability to record self-evaluations and peer evaluations, aesthetic responses, and compositional methods.

Examples: keeping a dance journal, creating rubrics for evaluations of student works

6.) Demonstrate correct partnering techniques while dancing.

Example: supporting weight of partner while standing side by side

7.) Analyze various dance techniques for correct body alignment.

8.) Describe the historical development of dance, including major personalities and social, political, and economic factors.

Example: discussing the results of research on the Civil Rights Movement and the development of African-American dance from 1950 to the present

9.) Explain behavior that adversely affects the health and safety of a dancer.

Example: explaining the relationship of smoking to stress fractures

10.) Solve a movement problem that reflects concepts from other content areas.

Example: discovering movement sequences that represent mathematical patterns

Arts Education, Grade 6 - 12, Dance:Level III, 2006

1.) Perform rhythmic sequences with contrasting meters.

Example Image

2.) Apply elements of time, space, and energy to choreography and performance.

Examples: creating a dance with contrasting effort actions to project indecision, designing duets and trios from a solo study

3.) Perform warm-up patterns that demonstrate technical skills necessary for a variety of dance styles.


- ballet--barre work,

- modern--floor work

4.) Demonstrate an established dance repertoire, including selections that involve two or more dance techniques.

Examples: dancing traditional world dance pieces, performing Anna Sokolow's Rooms, dancing the "Russian Dance" from The Nutcracker

5.) Produce movement sequences that communicate nonliteral content or ideas.

Example: responding to Pablo Picasso's Three Musicians through movement

6.) Create a dance utilizing multimedia technology.

Examples: recording images within a space to use as inspiration for the creation of movement, locating photographs on a Web site that depict images of conflict, creating dances with dance software, creating a visual presentation of scenery using computer software

7.) Evaluate a dance performance to determine performance skills displayed by the dancer.

Example: critiquing a professional or student performance

8.) Analyze a dance performance to determine the intent of the choreographer.

Examples: discussing the intent of a student choreographer, researching the intent of a master choreographer, analyzing program notes from a live performance

9.) Identify technological developments in the dance profession.

Examples: choreography computer software; interactively controlled video, sound, and light; live dance performances on the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Web site

•  Explaining how technological developments have impacted dance
Examples: using software programs for notating movement, incorporating multimedia software and hardware into live performances

10.) Perform partnered sequences with technical proficiency.

Examples: demonstrating leading and following in a cha-cha or supporting and balancing in pas de deux, illustrating equal responsibility for support in contact improvisation

11.) Compare correct body alignment in various dance techniques.

Example: hips leading in fall and recovery compared to hips remaining under shoulders for tombé pas de bourré

12.) Describe the impact of major personalities and historical factors on dance in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

Examples: explaining the importance of collaborations between Merce Cunningham, John Cage, and Robert Rauschenberg; interpreting the impact of the events of September 11, 2001, on current artistic works

13.) Explain healthy ways to acquire optimum weight as a dancer.

Example: eating a balanced diet

•  Describing ways dancers avoid eating disorders
•  Explaining appropriate methods for stretching and conditioning muscles
14.) Create a dance that communicates a topic from another content area.

Example: creating a dance that reflects deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication

Arts Education, Grade 6 - 12, Dance:Level IV, 2006

1.) Create dance using a variety of dance technologies.

Example: composing movement using computer software, digital projectors and cameras, and interactive multimedia

2.) Choreograph a dance utilizing a variety of compositional methods.

Examples: using choreography by chance; employing motif and development, including retrograde, fragmentation, inversion, and diminution; using theme and variation

3.) Apply variations in time, space, and energy to choreography and performance.

4.) Demonstrate the ability to increase technical proficiency, including strength, stamina, and consistency.

Examples: dancing the "Garland Dance" from Marius Petipa's The Sleeping Beauty, dancing the role of Laurie in the "Dream Ballet" from the musical Oklahoma!

•  Performing specialized dance techniques
Examples: contact improvisation, Russian traditional dance, pas de deux

5.) Create a dance for production, including costumes, lighting, sound, and makeup.

•  Organizing complete rehearsal and production schedules
6.) Explain how movement elements and production choices affect the impact of choreography.

•  Comparing sound scores and music choices
•  Evaluating master works to determine content, context, and compositional elements
Examples: analyzing Jerome Robbins' The Cage for elements of feminism, analyzing Frederick Ashton's Winter Dreams for parallels to Romanticism

7.) Evaluate choreographic influence on dance works.

Examples: George Balanchine's influence on twentieth-century classical dance, Merce Cunningham's influence on modern dance choreography

8.) Create partnered dance sequences with fluidity and control.

9.) Analyze the development of dance to determine its relationship to political, social, artistic, and scientific developments.

Examples: analyzing Anna Sokolow's Dreams and the impact of the Holocaust, analyzing social injustice in Donald McKayle's Rainbow 'Round My Shoulder

10.) Create a dance project utilizing abstract concepts that bridge content areas.

Examples: translating newspaper text into movement, creating movement based on thoughts or analogies

11.) Create an individual dance-wellness plan.

Example: establishing a calendar that includes exercise and eating plans

12.) Apply kinesiological concepts to dance.

Example: identifying most efficient muscle or muscle groups to perform specific actions

13.) Evaluate performance skills to determine proper alignment, projection, stage presence, memory, interpretation, focus, musicality, and execution.