Courses of Study: Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources

Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources, Grade 9 - 12, Plant Biotechnology, 2009

1.) Identify career opportunities associated with plant biotechnology.

Examples: environmental chemist, genetic engineer, plant breeder, plant physiologist

2.) Identify safety considerations and procedures required in plant biotechnology.

Examples: biohazards, chemical hazards, laboratory protocol, waste disposal

3.) Identify the twelve plant kingdom divisions.

•  Classifying native Alabama plants using dichotomous keys
4.) Describe phylogenetic relationships between plants and other organisms.

•  Classifying plants as vascular or nonvascular
•  Classifying seed-bearing and spore-bearing plants
•  Classifying plants as gymnosperms or angiosperms
•  Contrasting monocots and dicots
•  Describing mutualism among algae and fungi in lichens
5.) List plant adaptations required for life on land.

•  Describing the alternation of generations in plants
•  Comparing characteristics of algae and plants
6.) Identify major types of plant tissues found in roots, stems, and leaves.

Examples: parenchyma, sclerenchyma, collenchyma

•  Critiquing tissue culturing procedures
Example: callus production

7.) Identify types of roots, stems, and leaves.

Examples: roots—tap, fibrous

- stems—herbaceous, woody

- leaves—simple, compound

8.) Explain the importance of soil type, texture, and nutrients to plant growth.

•  Describing water and mineral absorption in plants
•  Analyzing the roles of capillarity and turgor pressure
9.) Explain plant cell processes, including light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis, glycolysis, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and transport.

10.) Describe plant responses to various stimuli.

•  Identifying effects of hormones on plant growth
Examples: gibberellin, cytokinin, auxin

•  Differentiating among phototropism, gravitropism, and thigmotropism
11.) Identify life cycles of mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms.

12.) Describe the structure and function of flower parts.

•  Describing seed germination, development, and dispersal
•  Germinating monocot and dicot seeds
13.) Describe various natural and artificial methods of vegetative propagation.

Examples: natural—stem runners, rhizomes, bulbs, tubers

- artificial—cutting, grafting, layering

14.) Describe the ecological and economic importance of plants.

Examples: ecological—algae-producing oxygen, bioremediation, soil preservation

- economic—food, medication, timber, fossil fuels, clothing

•  Analyzing effects of human activity on the plant world
15.) Identify viral, fungal, and bacterial plant diseases and their effects.

Examples: viral—tobacco mosaic, Rembrandt tulips;

- fungal—mildew, rust

- bacterial—black rot

16.) Explain the historical development of plant biotechnology.

Examples: making cheese, wine, bread; distilling vinegar; pickling fruits and vegetables

•  Identifying medical advancements in plant biotechnology
Examples: insulin, vaccines, vitamin enrichment of grains, therapeutic proteins

•  Describing environmental advancements in plant biotechnology
Examples: reduced pesticide usage, lower energy requirements, disease-resistant plants, herbicide-resistant plants, bioremediation, phytoremediation

•  Describing food product advancements in plant biotechnology, including genetic alteration and selective breeding
Examples: increased yield, potatoes with higher solid content, higher protein peanuts, tomatoes with longer shelf life, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn

17.) Describe methods of genetic engineering.

Examples: tissue culturing, plant breeding

18.) Explain the concept of hybridization as it relates to plant biotechnology.

19.) Evaluate properties of plants for selecting superior plants for harvest.

Examples: cold tolerance, salt tolerance, ripening rate, higher starch content, Vitamin A content, water and mineral absorption

20.) Identify public agencies that conduct research and regulate the usage of plant biotechnology.

Examples: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

•  Describing positive and negative aspects of labeling genetically modified organisms for import and export
•  Evaluating the effects of plant hormones on plants, animals, and human growth and development
Examples: indigenous hormones, intentionally introduced hormones, unintentionally introduced hormones

•  Describing how public opinion on marketing, sales, labeling, and government regulations affect plant products grown in the United States