Courses of Study : English Language Arts

Recurring Standards
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 16
Lesson Plans: 5
Classroom Resources: 10
Unit Plans: 1
R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R1.
  • Active listening
  • Discussion
  • Conversation
  • Rules
  • Participation
Knowledge:
R1. Students know:
  • Active listening skills.
  • How to engage in discussions and conversations in a variety of settings.
  • Agreed-upon rules for participation.
Skills:
R1. Students are able to:
  • Demonstrate active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings.
  • Converse in pairs, small groups, and large groups.
  • Practice the agreed-upon rules for participation.
Understanding:
R1. Students understand that:
  • Conversations and discussions follow agreed-upon rules which help us actively listen and gain understanding.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 5
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 3
R2. Use knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R2.
  • Decode
  • Encode
  • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
  • Word-analysis skills
Knowledge:
R2. Students know:
  • Phoneme (sound) to grapheme (letter or letters) correspondences to encode (spell) words accurately.
  • Grapheme (letter or letters) to phoneme (sound) correspondences to decode (read) words accurately.
  • Word-analysis skills.
Skills:
R2. Students are able to:
  • Encode and decode words accurately using knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
  • Encode and decode words accurately using word-analysis skills.
Understanding:
R2. Students understand that:
  • Mapping graphemes to phonemes is essential for learning to read or decode words efficiently.
  • Mapping phonemes to graphemes is essential for learning to spell or encode words efficiently.
  • Analyzing a word's structure helps to read and spell a word.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
R3. Expand background knowledge and build vocabulary through discussion, reading, and writing.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R3.
  • Background knowledge
  • Vocabulary
  • Discussion
Knowledge:
R3. Students know:
  • Relating experiences through discussions, reading, and writing will help build background knowledge and improve vocabulary.
Skills:
R3. Students are able to:
  • Connect new concepts to prior experiences to increase background knowledge through discussions, reading, and writing.
  • Construct the meaning of words through discussions, reading, and writing.
Understanding:
R3. Students understand that:
  • Background knowledge can increase by relating experiences to new ideas, topics, and words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
  • Vocabulary will increase by constructing the meaning of words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 2
Classroom Resources: 1
R4. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically for research and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R4.
  • Digital tools
  • Electronic tools
  • Appropriately
  • Safely
  • Ethically
  • Research
  • Individually
  • Collaboratively
Knowledge:
R4. Students know:
  • Digital and electronic tools must be used appropriately, safely, and ethically.
  • Digital and electronic tools can be used for research or for writing tasks.
  • Digital and electronic tools can be independently or with others.
Skills:
R4. Students are able to:
  • Engage in safe and ethical behavior when using digital and electronic tools individually and collaboratively.
Understanding:
R4. Students understand that:
  • Safe behaviors, interactions that keep you out of harm's way, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
  • Ethical behavior, interactions that align to one's moral code, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
R5. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Recurring Standard
Teacher Vocabulary:
R5.
  • Writing process
  • Plan
  • Draft
  • Revise
  • Edit
  • Publish
  • Genres
Knowledge:
R5. Students know:
  • The writing process steps are to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish.
  • Various genres of writing.
Skills:
R5. Students are able to:
  • Plan writings in various genres.
  • Draft writings in various genres.
  • Revise writings in various genres.
  • Edit writings in various genres.
  • Publish writings in various genres.
Understanding:
R5. Students understand that:
  • The writing process is a set of steps that make writing easier.
  • There are different categories, or genres, of writing that can be used for different purposes.
Literacy Foundations
Oral Language
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 2
Classroom Resources: 2
1. Actively listen and speak using agreed-upon rules for discussion, with guidance and support.

a. Use speech that is understandable with only grade-appropriate errors.

b. Use word endings to indicate plurals, possessives, and verb tenses in speech.

Examples: dogs, brother's shirt, jumped

c. Use age-appropriate irregular plurals in conversation.

Examples: foot/feet, tooth/teeth, mouse/mice

d. Listen to others and take turns speaking, carrying on a conversation through multiple exchanges.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
1.
  • Discussion
  • Actively listen
  • Agreed-upon rules
  • Guidance
  • Support
1a.
  • Speech
  • Grade-appropriate errors
1b.
  • Word endings
  • Plurals
  • Possessives
  • Verb tenses
1c.
  • Age-appropriate irregular plurals
  • Conversation
1d.
  • Listen
  • Speak
  • Conversation
  • Exchanges
Knowledge:
1. Students know:
  • How to actively listen and speak.
  • Agreed-upon rules for discussions.
1a.
  • How the grade-appropriate speech sounds are articulated.
1b.
  • Word endings that indicate a plural noun, a possessive noun, or a change in verb tense when speaking.
1c.
  • How to use age-appropriate irregular plural nouns in conversation.
1d.
  • How to carry on a conversation through multiple exchanges by listening and taking turns speaking.
Skills:
1. Students are able to:
With guidance and support,
  • Actively listen and speak while carrying on a discussion.
  • Use the agreed-upon rules for discussions.
1a.
  • Speak and be understood, with only grade-appropriate errors.
1b.
  • Speak using word endings to indicate plural nouns, possessive nouns, and changes in verb tense.
1c.
  • Use age-appropriate words that form irregular plurals in conversation, such as foot/feet, tooth/teeth, mouse/mice.
1d.
  • Carry on a conversation through multiple exchanges by listening to others and taking turns speaking.
Understanding:
1. Students understand that:
  • Good conversations occur when participants listen well, build on others' ideas, and ask clarifying questions.
1a.
  • There is an appropriate way to speak and articulate speech sounds in order to be understood.
1b.
  • Endings must be added to words to indicate plural nouns, possessive nouns, or changes in verb tense.
1c.
  • Some nouns form plurals in an irregular way, and they must be used correctly in conversation.
1d.
  • They must listen to others and take turns speaking to carry on a conversation through multiple exchanges.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 23
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 3
Classroom Resources: 18
Unit Plans: 1
2. Actively engage in teacher-led reading experiences and collaborative discussions with peers to build background knowledge needed to be successful as they learn to read and, later, read to learn.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
2.
  • Actively engage
  • Teacher-led reading experiences
  • Collaborative discussions
  • Background knowledge
  • Peers
Knowledge:
2. Students know:
  • How to engage in teacher-led reading experiences and collaborative discussions with peers to build background knowledge.
Skills:
2. Students are able to:
  • Build background knowledge by actively engaging in teacher-led reading experiences and collaborative discussions with peers.
Understanding:
2. Students understand that:
  • They need to build background knowledge to be successful as they learn to read and read to learn.
  • They need to actively engage in teacher-led reading experiences and discussions with peers to build their background knowledge.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 2
Classroom Resources: 2
3. Actively participate in teacher-led choral and shared reading experiences.

Examples: reciting nursery rhymes, songs, poems, stories
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
3.
  • Actively participate
  • Choral reading
  • Shared reading
Knowledge:
3. Students know:
  • How to actively participate in teacher-led choral and shared reading experiences.
Skills:
3. Students are able to:
  • Actively participate in teacher-led choral and shared reading experiences.
Understanding:
3. Students understand that:
  • Actively participating in choral and shared reading activities helps them build their background knowledge and improve their reading fluency, so they can become fluent readers.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 2
4. With guidance and support, ask and answer questions to seek help, get information, or clarify information presented orally, through text, or other media.

Example: Use interrogatives who, what, where, when, why, and how to ask questions.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
4.
  • Ask
  • Answer
  • Seek
  • Clarify
  • Orally
  • Media
  • Guidance
  • Support
Knowledge:
4. Students know:
  • Questions to seek help.
  • Questions to get information.
  • Questions to clarify information.
  • Common stems for asking questions (i.e., interrogatives like who, what, when, why, and how).
Skills:
4. Students are able to:
  • Ask and answer questions to seek help, get information, or clarify information presented orally, through text, or other media with guidance and support.
Understanding:
4. Students understand that:
  • They can seek help, get information, or clarify information presented orally, through text, or other media by asking and answering questions.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 1
5. With guidance and support, present information orally, using complete sentences in correct word order.

a. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.

b. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details in a story with three to five events.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
5.
  • Present
  • Orally
  • Complete sentence
  • Word order
  • Guidance
  • Support
5a.
  • Audibly
  • Clearly
  • Express
  • Thoughts
  • Feelings
  • Ideas
5b.
  • Describe
  • People
  • Places
  • Things
  • Events
  • Relevant details
Knowledge:
5. Students know:
  • How to arrange words in a complete sentence when presenting information orally.
  • A complete sentence represents a complete thought.
5a.
  • What audible speech sounds like.
  • Common stems for adding thoughts, feelings, and ideas to conversation (I think..., I feel..., etc.).
5b.
  • Words to describe people, places, things, and events.
  • How to identify relevant details about people, places, things, and events in a story.
Skills:
5. Students are able to:
  • Speak in complete sentences with correct word order when presenting information orally, with guidance and support.
5a.
  • Speak audibly in a variety of settings.
  • Articulate thoughts clearly.
  • Articulate feelings clearly.
  • Articulate ideas clearly.
5b.
  • Orally describe relevant details about the people, places, things, and events in a story containing three to five events.
Understanding:
5. Students understand that:
  • To be understood by others, they should speak in complete sentences.
  • A complete sentence must have a noun (subject) and a verb (predicate) to state a complete thought.
5a.
  • To be understood by others, they must speak in an audible voice and have a clear message.
  • A speaker's message is impacted by his/her technique.
5b.
  • Describing relevant details about the people, places, things, and events in a story help listeners understand the message of the story.
English Language Arts (2021)
Grade(s): K
All Resources: 0
6. Uses spatial and temporal concepts correctly.

Examples: top/bottom, up/down, under/over, above/below, left/right, upside down/inside out,beginning/middle/end, first/next/last

Note: This is important as children learn to match print to speech in order to read, and speech to print in order to write.
Unpacked Content
Content Area:
Literacy Foundations
Focus Area:
Oral Language
Teacher Vocabulary:
6.
  • Spatial concepts
  • Temporal concepts
    Knowledge:
    6. Students know:
    • Spatial concepts are those related to location (i.e., up, down, middle, over, inside, under, etc.).
    • Temporal concepts are those related to time (i.e., before, after, first, next, last, etc.).
    Skills:
    6. Students are able to:
    • Use spatial and temporal words correctly in content areas, such as finding the beginning, middle, and ending sound in a spoken word or tracking text from left to right.
    Understanding:
    6. Students understand that:
    • Spatial and temporal words are important for describing location and direction, even in reading words and completing math tasks.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    7. Restate and follow one- and two-step directions.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    7.
    • Restate
    • Follow
    • One-step directions
    • Two-step directions
    Knowledge:
    7. Students know:
    • How to restate and follow one- and two-step directions.
    Skills:
    7. Students are able to:
    • Restate one- and two-step directions to clarify understanding.
    • Follow one- and two-step directions.
    Understanding:
    7. Students understand that:
    • Restating directions helps them clarify and understand how to follow one- and two-step directions.
    Concepts of Print
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 6
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 4
    8. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of printed materials.

    a. Recognize and demonstrate that print conveys meaning.

    Examples: Share a favorite book with peers. Share a list of birthday gifts received.

    b. With prompting and support, explain the roles of the author and illustrator of a text.

    c. Track print, moving left to right and top to bottom on the printed page, returning to the beginning of the next line.

    d. Identify the beginning and end of a sentence by locating the capital letter and end punctuation.

    e. Point to words using one-to-one correspondence, noting that words are separated by spaces.

    f. Distinguish letters from words within sentences.

    g. Compare and contrast letters based upon similarities and differences, including name, shape, sound, and approach strokes for writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Concepts of Print
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    8.
    • Demonstrate
    • Organization
    • Basic features of print
    • Printed materials
    8a.
    • Recognize
    • Demonstrate
    • Print
    • Conveys
    8b.
    • Prompting
    • Support
    • Role
    • Author
    • Illustrator
    8c.
    • Track
    • Print
    • Line
    8d.
    • Sentence
    • Capital letter
    • End punctuation
    8e.
    • Spaces
    • One-to-one correspondence
    8f.
    • Distinguish
    • Letters
    • Words
    • Sentences
    8g.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Similarities
    • Differences
    • Name
    • Shape
    • Sound
    • Approach strokes
    Knowledge:
    8. Students know:
    • The organization and basic features of printed materials.
    8a.
    • Print conveys a message.
    8b.
    • The role of a text's author.
    • The role of a text's illustrator.
    8c.
    • Print is organized and read from left to right and top to bottom.
    8d.
    • A sentence begins with a capital letter.
    • A sentence ends with an ending punctuation mark.
    8e.
    • The one-to-one correspondence of words in printed text.
    8f.
    • Letters are used to represent sounds in a word.
    • A word is a group of letters put together to represent all the sounds in that word.
    8g.
    • The name, shape, sound, and approach stroke of each letter.
    • How the letters are similar and different.
    Skills:
    8. Students are able to:
    • Explain the organization and basic features of printed materials.
    8a.
    • Recognize that printed materials convey a message.
    • Demonstrate their understanding of the message relayed by print (e.g., by sharing their favorite book with a peer or by sharing a list of birthday gifts received).
    8b. With prompting and support,
    • Explain the role of a text's author.
    • Explain the role of a text's illustrator.
    8c.
    • Track printed words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
    8d.
    • Identify the beginning of a sentence by locating the capital letter.
    • Identify the end of a sentence by locating the ending punctuation mark.
    8e.
    • Point to words using one-to-one correspondence, using spaces to identify separate words.
    8f.
    • Distinguish letters from words within sentences.
    8g.
    • Compare and contrast letters based upon their similarities and differences, including the name, shape, sound, and approach strokes for writing.
    Understanding:
    8. Students understand that:
    • Printed materials have predictable features that help readers locate information.
    8a.
    • Letters and words relay a message in printed materials.
    8b.
    • The words and illustrations in a text communicate the author's and/or illustrator's intended message.
    8c.
    • Print is organized and read from left to right and top to bottom.
    8d.
    • Capital letters are used to begin a sentence and certain punctuation marks are used to end a complete sentence.
    8e.
    • Words are separated by spaces in print to help the reader know where one word begins and the other ends, which assists readers in accurately decoding text.
    8f.
    • Letters make up words and words make up sentences.
    8g.
    • Letters have names, sounds, shapes, and use different approach strokes for writing.
    • Letters have similarities and differences.
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 15
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 14
    9. Demonstrate early phonological awareness to basic phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.

    a. Count the number of words in a spoken sentence.

    b. Recognize alliterative spoken words.

    c. Recognize and produce pairs of rhyming words and distinguish them from non-rhyming pairs using pictures and/or spoken words.

    d. Count, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words, including compound words.

    e. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.

    f. Identify the initial, final, and medial sounds of spoken words.

    g. Blend and segment phonemes in single-syllable spoken words made up of three to four phonemes.

    h. Distinguish between commonly confused cognate consonant sounds, using knowledge of voiced and unvoiced sounds and manner of articulation.

    Examples: /t/ and /d/, /p/ and /b/, /ch/ and /j/, /s/ and /z/, /f/ and /v/, /k/ and /g/, /sh/ and /zh/, /th/ (voiced and unvoiced)

    Note: Standard 9 is important as a foundational phonemic awareness skill for all learners.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    9.
    • Demonstrate
    • Early phonological awareness skills
    • Basic phonemic awareness skills
    • Spoken words
    9a.
    • Count
    • Sentence
    9b.
    • Alliteration
    • Beginning sound
    • Phonemes
    9c.
    • Rhyming words
    • Non-rhyming pairs
    9d.
    • Blend
    • Segment
    • Syllable
    • Compound words
    9e.
    • Blend
    • Segment
    • Onset
    • Rime
    • Single-syllable
    9f.
    • Identify
    • Initial sound
    • Final sound
    • Medial sound
    • Spoken word
    9g.
    • Blend
    • Segment
    • Phonemes
    • Single-syllable
    9h.
    • Distinguish
    • Cognate consonant sounds
    • Voiced
    • Unvoiced
    • Articulation
    Knowledge:
    9. Students know:
    • Early phonological awareness skills.
    • Basic phonemic awareness skills.
    9a.
    • That spoken sentences are composed of individual words.
    9b.
    • That alliterative words begin with the same sound.
    9c.
    • Rhyming words.
    • Non-rhyming words.
    9d.
    • A word is made up of one or more syllables.
    • Syllables in spoken words are made of a sequence of sounds.
    • Compound words have more than one syllable.
    9e.
    • The "onset" is the initial phonological unit of any word (e.g., c in cat).
    • The term "rime" refers to the string of letters that follow the onset, usually a vowel and final consonants (e.g., at in cat).
    9f.
    • Spoken words have an initial, final, and medial sound.
    9g.
    • Phonemes are individual speech sounds.
    • Single-syllable spoken words are composed of a combination of phonemes.
    • Individual phonemes can be blended to create a complete spoken word or a spoken word can be segmented into its individual phonemes.
    9h.
    • Consonant sounds are produced by using different places and manners of articulation.
    Skills:
    9. Students are able to:
    • Demonstrate early phonological awareness to basic phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.
    9a.
    • Count the number of words in a spoken sentence.
    9b.
    • Recognize when spoken words begin with the same sound.
    9c. Using pictures and/or spoken words,
    • Recognize pairs of rhyming words.
    • Produce pairs of rhyming words.
    • Distinguish non-rhyming words from rhyming words.
    9d.
    • Count syllables in spoken words, including compound words.
    • Blend syllables in spoken words, including compound words.
    • Segment syllables in spoken words, including compound words.
    9e.
    • Blend a spoken onset and rime to make a complete single-syllable word.
    • Segment a single-syllable spoken word into its onset and rime.
    9f. In spoken words,
    • Identify the initial sound.
    • Identify the final sound.
    • Identify the medial sound.
    9g.
    • Blend three to four phonemes to make a single-syllable spoken word.
    • Segment a single-syllable spoken word into three to four phonemes.
    9h.
    • Distinguish between commonly confused cognate consonant sounds by using their knowledge of voiced sounds, unvoiced sounds, and each sound's place and manner of articulation.
    Understanding:
    9. Students understand that:
    • The sounds of spoken language work together to make words.
    9a.
    • Sentences are made up of individual words.
    9b.
    • Alliterative words are two or more adjacent or closely connected words that begin with the same sound.
    9c.
    • Words that rhyme have the same vowel and ending sound.
    9d.
    • A syllable is a unit of speech that is organized around a vowel sound, so all syllables must have at least one vowel.
    9e.
    • The "onset" is the initial phonological unit of any word (e.g., c in cat) and the term "rime" refers to the string of letters that follow, usually a vowel and final consonants (e.g., at in cat).
    • An onset and rime can be blended to make one complete single-syllable word, or a single-syllable spoken word can be segmented into its onset and rime.
    9f.
    • Spoken words have initial (first), final (last), and medial (middle) sounds.
    9g.
    • Blending is the ability to hear each individual sound in a word, join the sounds together, and produce the word.
    • Segmenting is the ability to break a word down into its individual sounds.
    9h.
    • The knowledge of voiced and unvoiced consonant sounds, in addition to their place and manner of articulation, is required for the proper pronunciation of spoken words and the accurate decoding and encoding of written words.
    Phonics
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 4
    Classroom Resources: 4
    10. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word-analysis skills to decode and encode (spell) words accurately in both isolation and in decodable, grade-appropriate text.

    a. Produce the most frequent sound(s) for each consonant, including x and q, which have two phonemes (sounds).

    Examples: x= /ks/ and q=/kw/

    b. Identify the vowel in a closed syllable and produce the short vowel sound for the five major vowels when decoding closed syllables.

    c. Decode consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in isolation and in decodable text.

    d. Identify the vowel in an open syllable and produce the long vowel sound for the five major vowels when decoding open syllables.

    e. With prompting and support, identify the vowel-consonant-e syllable pattern and produce the long vowel sounds for the five major vowels in vowel-consonant-e syllables.

    f. With prompting and support, decode words with suffix -s, using knowledge of unvoiced /s/ and voiced /z/ sounds for letter s.

    Examples: pups, cats, pigs, dogs

    Note: Unvoiced /s/ follows unvoiced sounds such as /p/ and /t/ and voiced /z/ follows voiced sounds such as /g/.

    g. With prompting and support, produce the most frequent sound for digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ng, and combination qu, making the connection that a two-letter grapheme can represent one phoneme (sound).

    h. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the phonemes and graphemes that differ.

    Example: mat/sat, pan/pat, tip/top

    i. Decode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

    Examples: am, at, get, like, make, that, this, me, she, be

    Note: The main emphasis of a high-frequency word lesson should be on regular correspondences and patterns, noting the high-frequency words with exceptions or oddities and what they are, using specific strategies to help them remember the irregular part of the word. Example: LETRS© heart word strategy
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonics
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    10.
    • Apply
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondence
    • Word-analysis skills
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Isolation
    • Decodable
    • Grade-appropriate text
    10a.
    • Produce
    • Frequent
    • Consonant
    • Phoneme
    10b.
    • Vowel
    • Closed syllable
    • Produce
    • Short vowel sound
    • Five major vowels
    • Decode
    10c.
    • Decode
    • CVC words
    • Isolation
    • Decodable text
    10d.
    • Vowel
    • Open syllable
    • Produce
    • Long-vowel sound
    • Five major vowels
    • Decode
    10e.
    • Identify
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllable pattern
    • Produce
    • Long-vowel sound
    • Five major vowels
    • Prompting
    • Support
    10f.
    • Decode
    • Suffix -s
    • Sounds of letter s
    • Unvoiced /s/
    • Voiced /z/
    • Prompting
    • Support
    10g.
    • Produce
    • Most frequent sound
    • Digraph
    • Two-letter grapheme
    • Represent
    • Phoneme
    • Prompting
    • Support
    10h.
    • Distinguish
    • Phonemes
    • Graphemes
    10i.
    • Decode
    • High-frequency words
    • Predictable
    • Decodable
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    Knowledge:
    10. Students know:
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word-analysis skills to decode words.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word-analysis skills to encode words.
    10a.
    • The most common sound for each consonant letter.
    10b.
    • The five major vowels.
    • Short vowel sounds.
    • The features of closed syllables.
    10c.
    • Words with the CVC pattern.
    10d.
    • The five major vowels.
    • Long vowel sounds.
    • The features of open syllables.
    10e.
    • The five major vowels.
    • Long vowel sounds.
    • The features of vowel-consonant-e syllables.
    10f.
    • How to identify a word ending with an s or suffix -s.
    • Whether suffix is will be sounded as voiced /z/ or unvoiced /s/ based on the sound before it.
    10g.
    • The most frequent sound for digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, and ng.
    • The sound for combination qu.
    10h.
    • How to identify the grapheme and/or phoneme that differs in similarly spelled words.
    10i.
    • Predictable and decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    Skills:
    10. Students are able to:
    • Decode words in isolation and within decodable, grade-appropriate text by applying knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and by using word-analysis skills.
    • Encode words by applying knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and using word-analysis skills.
    10a.
    • Identify consonant letters.
    • Produce the most common consonant sounds, including x and q.
    10b.
    • Identify the vowel in a closed syllable when decoding.
    • Produce the short vowel sound for the five major vowels when decoding closed syllables.
    10c.
    • Decode CVC words in isolation and in decodable text.
    10d.
    • Identify the vowel in an open syllable when decoding.
    • Produce the long-vowel sound for the five major vowels when decoding open syllables.
    10e. With prompting and support,
    • Identify the vowel-consonant-e syllable pattern.
    • Produce the long-vowel sounds for the five major vowels in vowel-consonant-e syllables.
    10f. With prompting and support,
    • Decode words with suffix -s, using knowledge of unvoiced /s/ and voiced /z/ sounds for letter s.
    10g. With prompting and support,
    • Produce the most frequent sound for digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, and ng.
    • Produce the combination qu sound.
    • Begin making the connection that a two-letter grapheme can represent one phoneme (sound).
    10h.
    • Identify the phonemes (sounds) and graphemes (letters) that differ in similarly spelled words. For example, in the word pair mat/sat, a student could identify the first letter changed which changed the word's first sound.
    10i.
    • Decode grade-appropriate high-frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, such as am, at, get, like, make, that, this, me, she, be.
    Understanding:
    10. Students understand that:
    • Graphemes represent specific phonemes they can use to decode (read) words, and phonemes can be represented by graphemes to encode (spell) words.
    • Word-analysis skills are used to determine how to decode or encode based on letter position, adjacent letters, etc.
    10a. Students understand that:
    • Consonants are the letters in the alphabet that are not vowels, such as b, d, g, n, r, s, and t. Consonant sounds are made by blocking air using your teeth, tongue, or lips.
    • The consonants x and q make two sounds when decoding text.
    10b.
    • a, e, i, o, and u are the five major vowels.
    • Vowels are voiced phonemes that are produced with no blocking of air with your mouth.
    • Every syllable must have a vowel.
    • A closed syllable is a syllable with a short vowel sound and one or more consonants at the end.
    10c.
    • CVC words follow predictable patterns that they can be used to decode accurately and automatically.
    10d.
    • a, e, i, o, and u are the five major vowels, and they can make different sounds depending on their placement in a syllable.
    • An open syllable is a syllable that ends with one vowel.
    10e.
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllables contain one vowel, followed by a single consonant, and then the letter e.
    • The vowel sound is long and the e is silent.
    10f.
    • When suffix -s is after an unvoiced consonant, it makes the unvoiced /s/ sound, like in the words pups or cats.
    • When suffix -s is after an voiced consonant, it makes the voiced /z/ sound, like in the words pigs and dogs.
    10g.
    • The digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ng, and qu are made of two graphemes (letters) and represent one phoneme (sound).
    • Combination qu represents two unexpected speech sounds, /k/ and /w/.
    10h.
    • There is a relationship between letters and sounds, and that changing a letter in a word changes how it is read.
    10i.
    • High-frequency words are words that commonly appear in text, so it is important to decode them accurately and automatically.
    Fluency
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    11. Recognize and name all upper and lower case letters in non-sequential order with accuracy and automaticity.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    11.
    • Recognize
    • Uppercase letters
    • Lowercase letters
    • Non-sequential order
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    Knowledge:
    11. Students know:
    • The name and shape of all upper- and lowercase letters, regardless of the order in which they are presented.
    Skills:
    11. Students are able to:
    • Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters in non-sequential order with accuracy and automaticity. For example, when shown a printed letter of the alphabet, the student can say the correct letter name within several seconds.
    Understanding:
    11. Students understand that:
    • Recognizing all upper- and lowercase letters correctly and quickly will help them improve their decoding automaticity.
    • A letter's name is the only attribute of a letter that never changes. For example, the letter A can make different sounds depending on its position in a word, however, it will always be the letter A.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    12. Arrange and name letters of the alphabet in sequential order from a to z, with accuracy and automaticity.

    Example: Use the alphabet arc to arrange the letters in alphabetical order, then touch and name the letters.

    Note: This will help students with alphabetical order requirements in future grades and also facilitate learning of positional words like before/after, initial/final, reversals, and letter naming in general.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    12.
    • Arrange
    • Alphabet
    • Sequential order
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    Knowledge:
    12. Students know:
    • Letters of the alphabet in sequential order.
    Skills:
    12. Students are able to:
    • Arrange and name letters of the alphabet in sequential order from a to z, with accuracy and automaticity. For example, a student can use the alphabet arc to arrange the letters in alphabetical order, then point to and name each letter.
    Understanding:
    12. Students understand that:
    • The letters of the alphabet have specific sequential order that we call alphabetical order.
    • Positional words like before/after and initial/final can be used to describe a letter's position in a sequence.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    13. With prompting and support, recognize and name digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ng, and combination qu.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    13.
    • Digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, ng
    • Combination qu
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    13. Students know:
    With prompting and support,
    • The names of the letters in digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, and ng.
    • The names of the letters in the combination qu.
    Skills:
    13. Students are able to:
    • Recognize and name digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ng, and combination qu with prompting and support.
    Understanding:
    13. Students understand that:
    • Recognizing common digraphs and letter combinations will improve their decoding accuracy and automaticity.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    14. Apply previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences to decodable words with accuracy and automaticity, in and out of context.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    14.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Decodable words
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    • Context
    Knowledge:
    14. Students know:
    • Previously taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences in and out of context.
    Skills:
    14. Students are able to:
    • Decode words accurately and automatically by applying previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    Understanding:
    14. Students understand that:
    • Applying the phoneme-grapheme correspondences they have learned will help them decode text accurately and automatically in many different contexts.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 10
    Classroom Resources: 10
    15. Orally read and reread grade-appropriate decodable texts smoothly, accurately, and expressively, at an appropriate rate to support comprehension.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    15.
    • Fluency
    • Orally read
    • Grade-appropriate decodable texts
    • Smoothly
    • Accurately
    • Expressively
    • Appropriate rate
    • Comprehension
    Knowledge:
    15. Students know:
    • Fluent reading requires accurate decoding.
    • Fluent reading is smooth and expressive.
    • Reading at an appropriate rate will support their comprehension.
    Skills:
    15. Students are able to:
    • Fluently read grade-appropriate decodable texts with accuracy and expression.
    • Read orally at an appropriate rate.
    • Comprehend text that they read aloud.
    Understanding:
    15. Students understand that:
    • Reading smoothly, accurately, expressively, and at an appropriate rate, supports comprehension, or their understanding of the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 3
    Classroom Resources: 3
    16. Recognize and read grade-appropriate high frequency words with accuracy and automaticity.

    Note: As noted in the phonics standards, high-frequency words should be taught with the main emphasis of the lesson being on regular correspondences and patterns within the word. The student should be able to read the word accurately three times in a row on different days to be considered accurate enough to add it to a personal word box, word ring, or fluency folder. Avoid teaching high-frequency words as "sight words" that need to be memorized as a whole word, unless there are no regular correspondences in the word. "Of" is an example of a word with no regular correspondences.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    16.
    • High-frequency words
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    Knowledge:
    16. Students know:
    • Grade-appropriate high-frequency words.
    Skills:
    16. Students are able to:
    • Recognize and read grade-appropriate high-frequency words with accuracy and automaticity. For example, a student is able to read the target high-frequency word accurately and automatically three times in a row on different days.
    Understanding:
    16. Students understand that:
    • High-frequency words are words that are found regularly in kindergarten text and material, so it is important to recognize and read them correctly and quickly.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    17. With guidance and support, orally utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary and relate new words to prior knowledge.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    17.
    • Orally utilize
    • Academic vocabulary
    • Content-specific vocabulary
    • Grade-level vocabulary
    • Prior knowledge
    • Guidance
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    17. Students know:
    • New academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary.
    Skills:
    17. Students are able to:
    With guidance and support,
    • Orally utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary.
    • Relate new vocabulary words to prior knowledge.
    Understanding:
    17. Students understand that:
    • Their existing knowledge can help them determine the meaning of new vocabulary words.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    18. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately.

    Example: multiple meaning words such as duck, run, and bat
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    18.
    • Meanings
    • Familiar words
    Knowledge:
    18. Students know:
    • Words can have multiple meanings, such as duck, run, and bat.
    Skills:
    18. Students are able to:
    • Identify new meanings for familiar words.
    • Apply new meanings for familiar words accurately.
    Understanding:
    18. Students understand that:
    • The meaning of a word varies with specific context and can be related to its spelling.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 7
    Classroom Resources: 7
    19. Ask and answer questions about unfamiliar words in discussions and/or text.

    a. Describe the relationship between words, including relating them to synonyms and antonyms.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    19.
    • Unfamiliar words
    • Text
    19a.
    • Describe
    • Relationships
    • Synonyms
    • Antonyms
    Knowledge:
    19. Students know:
    • Several question stems related to unknown words.
    • Techniques for identifying unknown words.
    19a.
    • Synonyms are words that have the same or a similar meaning.
    • Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings.
    Skills:
    19. Students are able to:
    • Ask and answer questions about unfamiliar words in discussions and/or text.
    19a.
    • Describe the relationship between words, including relating them to synonyms and antonyms.
    Understanding:
    19. Students understand that:
    • It is important to ask questions to learn the meanings of unfamiliar words.
    19a.
    • Words can be related to each other, such as some words having similar meanings (synonyms) and some words having opposite meanings (antonyms).
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    20. Name and sort pictures of objects into categories based on common attributes while relating vocabulary to prior knowledge and building background knowledge.

    Examples: apples, oranges, grapes; hammer, nails, screwdriver
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    20.
    • Name
    • Sort
    • Categories
    • Common attributes
    • Relating
    • Vocabulary
    • Prior knowledge
    • Background knowledge
    Knowledge:
    20. Students know:
    • Common attributes of objects.
    • Several common categories of objects.
    Skills:
    20. Students are able to:
    • Name and sort pictures of objects into categories based on common attributes while relating vocabulary to prior knowledge and building background knowledge. For example, students can sort pictures of an apple, an orange, and grapes into the category of Fruits and sort pictures of a hammer, nails, and a screwdriver into the category of Tools.
    Understanding:
    20. Students understand that:
    • Objects with similar characteristics can be grouped together to build vocabulary and background knowledge.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    21. Use new and previously-taught vocabulary to produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

    a. Use previously-taught vocabulary words, including nouns, verbs, and adjectives, in speaking and writing.

    b. Use new words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    21.
    • New vocabulary
    • Previously-taught vocabulary
    • Produce
    • Expand
    • Complete sentences
    • Shared language activities
    21a.
    • Previously-taught vocabulary
    • Nouns
    • Verbs
    • Adjectives
    • Speaking
    • Writing
    21b.
    • New words
    • Phrases
    • Acquired
    • Conversations
    • Reading
    • Being read to
    • Responding to text
    Knowledge:
    21. Students know:
    • Components of a complete sentence.
    21a.
    • Previously-taught vocabulary words, including nouns, verbs, and adjectives, orally and in writing .
    21b.
    • New words and phrases that were acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to text.
    Skills:
    21. Students are able to:
    • Use new and previously-taught vocabulary in complete sentences in shared language activities.
    • Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
    21a.
    • Use previously-taught vocabulary words, including nouns, verbs, and adjectives, when speaking and in writing.
    21b.
    • Use new words and phrases that were acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to text.
    Understanding:
    21. Students understand that:
    • They can use new and previously-taught vocabulary to produce and expand complete sentences.
    • Using vocabulary words in complete sentences can help them convey meaning in speaking and writing.
    21a.
    • Using a variety of vocabulary words can improve the effectiveness of their message when speaking and writing.
    21b.
    • Conversations, reading, being read to, and responding to text will help them to learn new words and phrases.
    Comprehension
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    22. Use content knowledge built during read-alouds of informational texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through drawing or writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    22.
    • Content knowledge
    • Read-alouds
    • Informational text
    • Participating
    • Content-specific discussions
    • Peers
    • Drawing
    • Writing
    Knowledge:
    22. Students know:
    • Content knowledge gained from read-alouds of informational texts.
    Skills:
    22. Students are able to:
    • Use content knowledge built during read-alouds of informational texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through drawing or writing.
    Understanding:
    22. Students understand that:
    • Their understanding of and appreciation for informational text grows through discussions and active collaboration with others.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    23. With prompting and support, manipulate words and/or phrases to create simple sentences, including declarative and interrogative, to help build syntactic awareness and comprehension at the sentence level.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    23.
    • Manipulate words
    • Manipulate phrases
    • Create
    • Simple sentences
    • Declarative sentence
    • Interrogative sentence
    • Syntactic awareness
    • Comprehension
    • Sentence level
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    23. Students know:
    • Simple sentences.
    • Declarative and interrogative sentences.
    Skills:
    23. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Modify words and/or phrases to create simple sentences, including declarative and interrogative.
    Understanding:
    23. Students understand that:
    • The way words and phrases are ordered in a sentence contributes to the overall meaning of a sentence.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Learning Activities: 1
    24. With prompting and support, identify common types of texts and their features, including literary, informational, fairy tale, and poetry.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    24.
    • Common types of texts
    • Features of texts
    • Literary text
    • Informational text
    • Fairy tale
    • Poetry
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    24. Students know:
    • Features of common types of texts.
    Skills:
    24. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Identify common types of texts and their features, including literary, informational, fairy tale, and poetry.
    Understanding:
    24. Students understand that:
    • Texts can be categorized based on predictable features.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    25. With prompting and support, identify the topic of texts, using titles, headings, illustrations, and text clues.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    25.
    • Topic
    • Text
    • Title
    • Heading
    • Illustrations
    • Text clues
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    25. Students know:
    • The topic of a text.
    • Text features, such as title, headings, illustrations, and text clues.
    Skills:
    25. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Use titles, headings, illustrations, and text clues to identify the topic of texts.
    Understanding:
    25. Students understand that:
    • Texts have topics and they can use text features as clues to identify the topic.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 8
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 7
    26. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    26.
    • Describe
    • Relationship
    • Illustration
    • Text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    26. Students know:
    • The role of illustrations in a text.
    Skills:
    26. Students are able to:
    • Describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear.
    • Describe the portion of a text depicted by an illustration.
    Understanding:
    26. Students understand that:
    • Illustrations can be used to support their understanding of a text's meaning.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 9
    Learning Activities: 3
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 5
    27. Identify and describe the main story elements in a literary text.

    a. With prompting and support, retell a text orally, including main character(s), setting, and important events in logical order.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    27.
    • Identify
    • Describe
    • Characters
    • Settings
    • Important events
    • Literary text
    27a.
    • Retell
    • Text
    • Orally
    • Main character(s)
    • Setting
    • Events
    • Logical order
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    27. Students know:
    • Main story elements in a literary text.
    27a.
    • Techniques for retelling a text orally using key details.
    • How to sequence events in logical order (first, next, last).
    Skills:
    27. Students are able to:
    • Identify the main story elements (characters, settings, and important events) in a literary text.
    • Describe the main story elements (characters, settings, and important events) in a literary text.
    27a. With prompting and support,
    • Recall key details and important events in a text.
    • Orally retell a text, including main character(s), setting, and important events in logical order.
    Understanding:
    27. Students understand that:
    • Identifying the characters, setting, and important events in a text help them better understand the overall meaning of the text.
    27a.
    • Recalling important events and details of a text helps to retell the story and understand the meaning of the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    28. With prompting and support, use text clues to determine main ideas and make predictions about an ending in a literary text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    28.
    • Text clues
    • Determine
    • Main idea
    • Make predictions
    • Ending
    • Literary text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    28. Students know:
    • Text clues can help make inferences.
    • The main idea of a literary text.
    • Techniques for predicting the end of a literary text.
    Skills:
    28. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Identify the main idea in a literary text using text clues.
    • Make predictions about an ending in a literary text using text clues.
    Understanding:
    28. Students understand that:
    • Text clues will help them identify the main idea and make predictions about the end of a story which helps to comprehend the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    29. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and key details in an informational text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    29.
    • Identify
    • Main topic
    • Key details
    • Informational text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    29. Students know:
    • The main topic in an informational text.
    • Key details in an informational text.
    Skills:
    29. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Identify the main topic in an informational text.
    • Identify key details in an informational text.
    Understanding:
    29. Students understand that:
    • Authors of informational text include key details to help readers make meaning of the text.
    • Good readers use key details in an informational text to identify the main topic.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 11
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 9
    Unit Plans: 1
    30. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in literary and informational texts.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    30.
    • Ask
    • Answer
    • Key details
    • Literary text
    • Informational text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    30. Students know:
    • Key details in literary and informational texts.
    Skills:
    30. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Ask questions about key details in literary and informational texts.
    • Answer questions about key details in literary and informational texts.
    Understanding:
    30. Students understand that:
    • Text includes key details.
    • After reading a text, knowledge and understanding can be expanded by asking and answering questions.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    31. With prompting and support, self-monitor comprehension of text by pausing to summarize and rereading for clarification, when comprehension is lacking.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    31.
    • Self-monitor
    • Comprehension
    • Text
    • Summarize
    • Reread
    • Clarification
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    31. Students know:
    • Comprehension is understanding the text.
    • Techniques to self-monitor comprehension, such as summarizing and rereading.
    Skills:
    31. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Summarize text.
    • Reread for clarity.
    • Self-monitor comprehension.
    Understanding:
    31. Students understand that:
    • The purpose of reading is understanding the text, so when they don't understand the text, they need to take action to improve their comprehension.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    32. With prompting and support, compare and contrast two texts.

    a. Distinguish between literary texts and informational texts.

    b. Compare and contrast the experiences of characters in a literary text.

    c. Compare and contrast two informational texts on the same topic.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    32.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    32a.
    • Distinguish
    • Literary text
    • Informational text
    32b.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Experiences
    • Characters
    • Literary text
    32c.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Informational text
    • Topic
    Knowledge:
    32. Students know:
    • Techniques to compare (identify similarities) and contrast (identify differences) two texts.
    32a.
    • Characteristics of literary and informational texts.
    32b.
    • Literary text tells about the experiences of characters.
    32c.
    • Characteristics of informational texts.
    Skills:
    32. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Identify similarities between two texts.
    • Identify differences between two texts.
    32a.
    • Identify characteristics of literary texts.
    • Identify characteristics of informational texts.
    • Identify the differences between literary texts and informational texts.
    32b.
    • Identify characters in a literary text.
    • Identify similarities (compare) of the experiences of characters.
    • Identify differences (contrast) of the experiences of characters.
    32c.
  • Identify similarities between two informational texts on the same topic.
  • Identify differences between two informational texts on the same topic.
  • Understanding:
    32. Students understand that:
    • Good readers make meaning of text by identifying similarities and differences between two texts.
    32a.
    • Literary text is a story about people, animals, or events that is made up by an author.
    • Informational (nonfiction) text gives information or facts about real people, things, or events.
    32b.
    • Comparing and contrasting experiences of characters helps readers to understand their role in the literary text which can lead to better reading comprehension.
    32c.
    • Good readers can improve their understanding of informational text by identifying similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic.
    Writing
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 10
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 8
    33. Express ideas orally and connect these ideas through drawing and emergent writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    33.
    • Express
    • Ideas
    • Orally
    • Connect
    • Drawing
    • Emergent writing
    Knowledge:
    33. Students know:
    • Techniques for using discussion, drawing, and basic writing to express their thoughts.
    Skills:
    33. Students are able to:
    • Express ideas orally.
    • Connect ideas through drawing and emergent writing to express their thoughts.
    Understanding:
    33. Students understand that:
    • They can express ideas through discussion, drawing, and basic writing.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 4
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 1
    Unit Plans: 1
    34. Print legibly, using proper pencil grip.

    a. Print upper and lower case letters using proper approach strokes, letter formation, and line placement.

    b. With prompting and support, print first and last names using proper letter formation, capitalizing only the first letter of each name.

    Note: In Kindergarten, students are learning the most basic forms of capitalization. While the standard only requires that the first letter of each name be capitalized, some students' names may include additional capital letters, hyphens, or apostrophes. In such cases, students should learn to write their own names using proper capitalization and punctuation.

    Examples: De'Andre McGill, Kim Mi-Sun, Juan de Jesus

    c. With prompting and support, use lower case letters in majority of written work, using capitals only when appropriate.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    34.
    • Print
    • Legibly
    • Proper pencil grip
    34a.
    • Print
    • Upper case letters
    • Lowercase letters
    • Approach strokes
    • Letter formation
    • Line placement
    34b.
    • Print
    • First name
    • Last name
    • Letter formation
    • Capitalizing
    • Prompting
    • Support
    34c.
    • Lowercase letters
    • Written work
    • Capitals
    • Appropriate
    Knowledge:
    34. Students know:
    • Proper pencil grip.
    • Proper letter formation.
    34a.
    • Proper upper- and lowercase letter formation and line placement.
    34b.
    • The capitalization and letter formation of first and last names.
    34c.
    • Capitalization rules.
    Skills:
    34. Students are able to:
    • Print legibly.
    • Use proper pencil grip.
    34a.
    • Print upper- and lowercase letters.
    • Use correct approach strokes to form letters.
    • Place letters correctly on a line.
    34b. With prompting and support,
    • Print first and last names using proper letter formation, capitalizing only the first letter of each name.
    34c. With prompting and support,
    • Use capital and lowercase letters correctly when writing.
    Understanding:
    34. Students understand that:
    • A proper pencil grip creates better letter formation.
    34a.
    • Handwriting of upper- and lowercase letters is produced by a series of strokes with accurate line placement.
    34b.
    • Each person has a first and last name.
    • First and last names start with a capital letter and legible writing includes proper letter formation.
    34c.
    • There are rules to follow to appropriately use lowercase and capital letters.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    35. Apply knowledge of grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences and spelling rules (or generalizations) to encode words accurately.

    a. Encode at the phoneme level, using the most common grapheme/spelling(s), for a spoken phoneme (sound).

    Examples: /b/=b, /m/=m, /k/=k, c, -ck

    b. With prompting and support, encode vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words, while using some knowledge of basic position-based rules for spelling English words.

    Examples: /k/=k before i, e, or y; /k/= c before a, o, u, or any consonant; /k/= -ck after an accented short vowel

    c. With prompting and support, encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

    Examples: am, at, can, he, we, be, in, it, came, like

    d. With prompting and support, encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences and patterns in all but one position, pointing out the part of the word that does not follow the regular pattern.

    Example: In said, /s/ and /d/ are spelled using phoneme-grapheme correspondence, but ai must be learned by heart or memorized.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    35.
    • Knowledge
    • Grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Spelling rules
    • Generalizations
    • Encode
    • Accurately
    35a.
    • Encode
    • Phoneme level
    • Most common grapheme/spelling(s)
    • Spoken phoneme
    35b.
    • Encode
    • Vowel-consonant words
    • Consonant-vowel-consonant words
    • Knowledge
    • Position-based rules for spelling
    • English words
    • Prompting
    • Support
    35c.
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high-frequency words
    • Regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Prompting
    • Support
    35d.
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high-frequency words
    • Regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Patterns
    • Position
    • Regular pattern
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    35. Students know:
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Spelling rules (or generalizations).
    35a.
    • Phonemes (individual sound in a word).
    • Common grapheme/spelling(s) associated with phonemes.
    35b.
    • Vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words.
    • Basic position-based rules for spelling English words.
    35c.
    • Grade-appropriate high-frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences, such as am, at, can, he, we, be, in it, came, like.
    35d.
    • Grade-appropriate high-frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences in all but one position, such as in the word said, /s/ and /d/ are spelled using regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences, but ai is not, so it must be learned by heart or memorized.
    Skills:
    35. Students are able to:
    • Encode (spell) words accurately by applying knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and spelling rules.
    35a.
    • Encode using a grapheme(s)/spelling(s) that corresponds with a sound (phoneme), such as /b/=b, /m/=m, /k/=k, c, -ck.
    35b. With prompting and support,
    • Accurately spell vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words.
    35c. With prompting and support,
    • Encode grade-appropriate high-frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    35d. With prompting and support,
    • Spell grade-appropriate high-frequency words using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and irregular spelling patterns.
    Understanding:
    35. Students understand that:
    • They can use spelling generalizations/rules, syllable division principles, and their knowledge of letters and sounds to spell words accurately.
    35a.
    • A spoken sound (phoneme) can be represented with a grapheme(s) (written symbol) to accurately encode (spell) words.
    35b.
    • There are rules and patterns that can help them to accurately encode (spell) vowel-consonant and consonant-vowel-consonant words.
    35c.
    • High-frequency words are words that they will use often in writing, so they must learn to write them quickly and accurately.
    35d.
    • They can spell words by using a variety of strategies which include letter and sound relationships, predictable spellings, and their knowledge of irregularly spelled high-frequency words.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    36. When speaking and writing, follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and grade-appropriate spelling.

    a. With prompting and support, transcribe spoken words to demonstrate that print represents oral language.

    b. With prompting and support, compose a simple sentence, including necessary components to create a complete sentence rather than a fragment.

    c. With prompting and support, identify the role or purpose of a noun and a verb within a sentence and the type of information it conveys.

    d. With prompting and support, write the correct number of words, with proper spacing, for a spoken phrase or sentence.

    e. With prompting and support, begin each sentence with a capital letter.

    f. With prompting and support, capitalize the pronoun I and names of individuals.

    g. With prompting and support, recognize, name, and correctly use end punctuation.

    Examples: period, question mark, exclamation mark
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    36.
    • Speaking
    • Writing
    • Standard English grammar
    • Punctuation
    • Capitalization
    • Grade-appropriate spelling
    36a.
    • Transcribe
    • Spoken words
    • Demonstrate
    • Print
    • Represents
    • Oral language
    • Prompting
    • Support
    36b.
    • Compose
    • Simple sentence
    • Necessary components
    • Create
    • Complete sentence
    • Fragment
    • Prompting
    • Support
    36c.
    • Identify
    • Role
    • Purpose
    • Noun
    • Verb
    • Sentence
    • Conveys
    • Prompting
    • Support
    36d.
    • Write
    • Correct number of words
    • Proper spacing
    • Spoken phrase
    • Sentence
    • Prompting
    • Support
    36e.
    • Sentence
    • Capital letter
    • Prompting
    • Support
    36f.
    • Capitalize
    • Pronoun I
    • Names of individuals
    36g.
    • Recognize
    • Name
    • Correctly use
    • End punctuation
    Knowledge:
    36. Students know:
    • Standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling rules for speaking and writing.
    36a.
    • Spoken words can be transcribed into written words.
    36b.
    • The components of a simple, complete sentence.
    36c.
    • The purpose and function of a noun and verb within a sentence.
    36d.
    • Spoken phrase or sentences are composed of individual words that must be spaced properly when writing.
    36e.
    • Sentences begin with capital letters.
    36f.
    • The pronoun I and names of individuals are capitalized.
    36g.
    • The three types of end punctuation: period, question mark, and exclamation mark.
    • End punctuation occurs at the end of a sentence.
    Skills:
    36. Students are able to:
    • Write and speak abiding by the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.
    36a. With prompting and support,
    • Write spoken words.
    36b. With prompting and support,
    • Compose a simple, complete sentence.
    36c. With prompting and support,
    • Identify nouns and verbs in sentences.
    • Describe the information a noun or verb conveys within a sentence.
    36d. With prompting and support,
    • Accurately write a phrase or sentence from dictation.
    • Properly space words when writing a phrase or sentence from dictation.
    36e. With prompting and support,
    • Begin each sentence with a capital letter.
    36f. With prompting and support,
    • Capitalize the pronoun I and names of individuals.
    36g. With prompting and support,
    • Recognize, name, and correctly use end punctuation.
    Understanding:
    36. Students understand that:
    • The English language has grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling rules.
    36a.
    • Writing words from dictation requires knowledge of capitalization and spelling rules.
    36b.
    • Simple, complete sentences are composed of a subject and predicate, while a sentence fragment lacks one or both parts.
    36c.
    • Nouns and verbs have rules for placement in a sentence and convey certain information within the sentence.
    36d.
    • When writing a spoken phrase or sentence, proper spacing must be placed between words.
    36e.
    • All sentences begin with a capital letter.
    36f.
    • People's names and the pronoun I are capitalized.
    36g.
    • There are three types of ending punctuation.
    • Question marks are used for questions.
    • Periods are used for statements.
    • Exclamation marks are used for exclamatory statements.
    • Sentences have different end punctuation based on the meaning of the sentence.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 11
    Learning Activities: 2
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Classroom Resources: 6
    37. Actively participate in shared and independent writing experiences, for varied purposes and audiences, across different genres.

    a. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create messages, lists, and labels for a drawing or illustration.

    b. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create narratives with the events in chronological order and share feelings about the story, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.

    c. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create opinion pieces about a topic or text, state the opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide a sense of closure, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.

    d. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to create explanatory texts or provide factual information about a topic, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.

    e. With prompting and support, compose writing for varied purposes and audiences, across different genres.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    37.
    • Actively participate
    • Shared writing experiences
    • Independent writing experiences
    • Varied purposes
    • Varied audiences
    • Difference genres
    37a.
    • Actively participate
    • Shared writing experiences
    • Create
    • Messages
    • Lists
    • Labels
    • Drawing
    • Illustration
    37b.
    • Actively participate
    • Shared writing experiences
    • Create
    • Narratives
    • Events
    • Chronological order
    • Feelings
    • Story
    • Drawing
    • Dictating
    • Writing
    37c.
    • Actively participate
    • Shared writing experiences
    • Create
    • Opinion pieces
    • Topic
    • Text
    • State
    • Opinion
    • Supply
    • Reason
    • Sense of closure
    • Drawing
    • Dictating
    • Writing
    37d.
    • Actively participate
    • Shared writing experiences
    • Create
    • Explanatory text
    • Factual information
    • Topic
    • Drawing
    • Dictating
    • Writing
    37e.
    • Compose
    • Writing
    • Varied purposes
    • Varied audiences
    • Different genres
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    37. Students know:
    • Different genres of writing.
    • The purpose and audience for writing can change.
    37a.
    • Writing, such as messages, lists, and labels, can be added to a drawing or illustration to convey meaning.
    37b.
    • Narrative writing tells a story with events in chronological order.
    • Readers should be able to share their feelings after reading a narrative story.
    37c.
    • To express an opinion in writing, an author should state the opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and include a closing statement.
    37d.
    • Explanatory texts provide factual information.
    37e.
    • The format of writing will change, depending on its purpose, audience, and genre.
    Skills:
    37. Students are able to:
    • Write for various purposes and audiences across different genres, with teacher assistance and independently.
    37a.
    • Create messages, lists, and labels for a drawing or illustration.
    37b.
    • Create a narrative with the events in chronological order and share their feelings about the narrative, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.
    37c.
    • Create an opinion piece with reason and closure using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.
    37d.
    • Create explanatory texts or provide factual information about a topic, using drawing, dictating, and/or writing.
    37e. With prompting and support,
    • Compose writing for varied purposes and audiences, across different genres.
    Understanding:
    37. Students understand that:
    • Writing conveys a message, and the format of writing will change, depending on its purpose, audience, and intended meaning.
    37a.
    • Creating a message, list, or label for a drawing or illustration can help provide readers with important information.
    37b.
    • Narratives should be written in chronological order and express the author's feelings.
    • They can share their feelings about a story using drawing, dictating, or writing.
    37c.
    • Opinions may be expressed through writings based on reasoning.
    37d.
    • When writing an explanatory text, they must provide factual information.
    37e.
    • Writing communicates ideas, and the format of writing must change in order to convey its message to its intended audience.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    38. Improve pictorial and written presentations, as needed, by planning, revising, editing, and using suggestions from peers and adults.

    Examples: Plan by brainstorming; revise to clarify or aid audience's comprehension; edit written presentations to ensure appropriate spacing between letters and words, correct spelling and punctuation, and legibility as a courtesy to the audience and to show pride in one's work.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    38.
    • Improve
    • Pictorial presentations
    • Written presentations
    • Planning
    • Revising
    • Editing
    • Suggestions
    • Peers
    Knowledge:
    38. Students know:
    • The writing process, including planning, revising, and editing.
    • Incorporating suggestions from peers and adults can improve their writing.
    Skills:
    38. Students are able to:
    • Plan, revise, edit, and use suggestions from peers and adults to improve pictorial and written presentations.
    Understanding:
    38. Students understand that:
    • Planning, revising, and editing written work is the writing process.
    • They can plan by brainstorming, revise to clarify or aid audience's comprehension, and edit to ensure appropriate language conventions are followed.
    • Engaging in the complete writing process is courteous to their audience and shows pride in their work.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 8
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Classroom Resources: 5
    39. Participate in shared research and writing projects to answer a question or describe a topic.

    a. Include information recalled from personal experiences in research and writing projects.

    b. Gather information from provided sources for research and writing projects.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    39.
    • Participate
    • Shared research
    • Shared writing projects
    • Answer a question
    • Describe a topic
    39a.
    • Include
    • Information
    • Recalled
    • Personal experiences
    • Research projects
    • Writing projects
    39b.
    • Gather
    • Information
    • Provided sources
    • Research projects
    • Writing projects
    Knowledge:
    39. Students know:
    • Research and writing can answer questions or describe a topic.
    39a.
    • Information recalled from personal experiences can be added to research and writing projects.
    39b.
    • Information gathered from different sources can be added to research and writing projects.
    Skills:
    39. Students are able to:
    • Work collaboratively with peers and adults in research and writing projects.
    • Use research and writing to answer questions about a topic.
    • Use research and writing to describe a topic.
    39a.
    • Recall information from personal experiences.
    • Include information from personal experiences in research and writing projects.
    39b.
    • Use strategies to gather information from provided sources to research and write about a topic.
    Understanding:
    39. Students understand that:
    • Shared research and writing projects can help answer questions or describe a topic.
    39a.
    • Information gathered from personal experiences can help to understand and write about a topic.
    39b.
    • Gathering information from a variety of sources can help increase their understanding of a topic and improve their research and writing projects.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): K
    All Resources: 0
    40. With guidance and support, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, working both independently and collaboratively with peers.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    40.
    • Variety
    • Digital tools
    • Produce
    • Publish
    • Writing
    • Independently
    • Collaboratively
    • Peers
    • Guidance
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    40. Students know:
    • Digital tools can help produce and publish writing.
    Skills:
    40. Students are able to:
    With guidance and support,
    • Use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing independently.
    • Collaborate with peers to use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing.
    Understanding:
    40. Students understand that:
    • Digital tools may be used to produce and publish writing, alone or with peers.
    Recurring Standards
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 13
    Learning Activities: 2
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 9
    R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R1.
    • Active Listening
    • Discussion
    • Conversation
    • Rules
    • Participation
    Knowledge:
    R1. Students know:
    • Active listening skills.
    • Agreed-upon rules for participation.
    Skills:
    R1. Students are able to:
    • Demonstrate active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings.
    • Converse in pairs, small groups, and large groups.
    • Practice the agreed-upon rules for participation.
    Understanding:
    R1. Students understand that:
    • Conversations and discussions follow agreed-upon rules to help us actively listen and gain understanding.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 12
    Learning Activities: 3
    Lesson Plans: 7
    Classroom Resources: 2
    R2. Use knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R2.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Word-analysis skills
    Knowledge:
    R2. Students know:
    • Phoneme (sound) to grapheme (letter or letters) correspondences to encode (spell) words accurately.
    • Grapheme (letter or letters) to phoneme (sound) correspondences to decode (read) words accurately.
    • Word-analysis skills.
    Skills:
    R2. Students are able to:
    • Encode and decode words accurately using knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Encode and decode words accurately using word analysis skills.
    Understanding:
    R2. Students understand that:
    • Mapping graphemes to phonemes is essential for learning to read or decode words efficiently.
    • Mapping phonemes to graphemes is essential for learning to spell or encode words efficiently.
    • Analyzing a word's structure helps to read and spell a word.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    R3. Expand background knowledge and build vocabulary through discussion, reading, and writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R3.
    • Background knowledge
    • Vocabulary
    • Discussion
    Knowledge:
    R3. Students know:
    • Relating experiences through discussions, writing, and reading will help build background knowledge and improve vocabulary.
    Skills:
    R3. Students are able to:
    • Connect new concepts to prior experiences to increase background knowledge through discussions, reading, and writing.
    • Construct the meaning of words through discussions, reading, and writing.
    Understanding:
    R3. Students understand that:
    • Background knowledge can increase by relating experiences to new ideas, topics, and words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
    • Vocabulary will increase by constructing the meaning of words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 3
    Learning Activities: 2
    Lesson Plans: 1
    R4. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically for research and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R4.
    • Digital tools
    • Electronic tools
    • Appropriately
    • Safely
    • Ethically
    • Research
    • Individually
    • Collaboratively
    Knowledge:
    R4. Students know:
    • Digital and electronic tools must be used appropriately, safely, and ethically.
    • Digital and electronic tools can be used for research or for writing tasks.
    • Digital and electronic tools can be independently or with others.
    Skills:
    R4. Students are able to:
    • Engage in safe and ethical behavior when using digital and electronic tools individually and collaboratively.
    Understanding:
    R4. Students understand that:
    • Safe behaviors, interactions that keep you out of harm's way, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
    • Ethical behavior, interactions that align to one's moral code, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 14
    Learning Activities: 3
    Lesson Plans: 4
    Classroom Resources: 7
    R5. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R5.
    • Writing process
    • Plan
    • Draft
    • Revise
    • Edit
    • Publish
    • Genres
    Knowledge:
    R5. Students know:
    • The writing process steps are to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish.
    • Various genres of writing.
    Skills:
    R5. Students are able to:
    • Plan writings in various genres.
    • Draft writings in various genres.
    • Revise writings in various genres.
    • Edit writings in various genres.
    • Publish writings in various genres.
    Understanding:
    R5. Students understand that:
    • The writing process is a set of steps that make writing easier.
    • There are different categories, or genres, of writing that can be used for different purposes.
    Literacy Foundations
    Oral Language
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    1. Engage in collaborative discussions about topics and texts with peers and adults in small and large groups, utilizing agreed-upon rules.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    1.
    • Engage
    • Collaborative discussions
    • Rules
    Knowledge:
    1. Students know:
    • The purpose of collaborative discussions about topics and texts.
    • Agreed-upon rules for discussions.
    Skills:
    1. Students are able to:
    • Listen attentively to conversations about grade-appropriate topics and texts.
    • Add to conversations about grade-appropriate topics and texts.
    • Take turns speaking.
    • Respond to the comments of others.
    • Extend conversations.
    • Converse with peers and adults.
    • Converse in small and large groups.
    • Ask clarifying questions.
    Understanding:
    1. Students understand that:
    • Collaborative discussions occur when participants actively listen, build on others' ideas, and ask clarifying questions.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    2. Actively participate in shared reading experiences and collaborative discussions to build background knowledge and learn how oral reading should sound.

    Examples: read-alouds, oral dramatic activities
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    2.
    • Participate
    • Shared reading
    • Background knowledge
    • Oral reading
    Knowledge:
    2. Students know:
    • The process of shared reading experiences and collaborative discussions.
    • Shared reading and collaborative discussions can increase their background knowledge.
    • How fluent oral reading sounds.
    Skills:
    2. Students are able to:
    • Participate in shared reading and discussions to build background knowledge and learn new information.
    • Describe how oral reading should sound.
    Understanding:
    2. Students understand that:
    • Actively participating in shared reading experiences and collaborative discussions can build their background knowledge.
    • Listening to others read aloud can help improve their oral reading skills.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 4
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 1
    3. Ask and answer questions to seek help, get information, or clarify information to confirm understanding in response to information presented in audible, text, or digital format.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    3.
    • Information
    • Clarify
    • Audible
    • Digital format
    Knowledge:
    3. Students know:
    • Questions to seek help.
    • Questions to get information.
    • Questions to clarify information.
    Skills:
    3. Students are able to:
    • Ask and answer questions to seek help, get information, or clarify information to confirm understanding in response to information presented in audible, text, or digital format.
    Understanding:
    3. Students understand that:
    • They can get help, learn new information, or express information they know or have learned by asking and answering questions, depending on the task at hand.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 8
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 6
    Classroom Resources: 1
    4. Present information orally using complete sentences and appropriate volume.

    a. Orally describe people, places, things, and events, expressing ideas with relevant details.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    4.
    • Present
    • Complete sentences
    • Appropriate volume
    4a.
    • Describe
    • Express ideas
    • Relevant details
    Knowledge:
    4. Students know:
    • How to orally present information using appropriate communication skills.
    4a.
    • How to orally present relevant details to express descriptions of people, places, things, or events.
    Skills:
    4. Students are able to:
    • Speak in complete sentences and use appropriate volume to present information orally.
    4a.
    • Clearly describe people, places, things, and events.
    • Use relevant details in descriptions.
    • Express ideas clearly.
    Understanding:
    4. Students understand that:
    • To communicate clearly, a speaker should use complete sentences and a voice volume that can be heard by the audience.
    4a.
    • Relevant details and clearly expressed ideas enhances oral descriptions of people, places, things, and events.
    Concepts of Print
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    5. Locate a book's title, table of contents, glossary, and the names of author(s) and illustrator(s).

    a. Explain the roles of author(s) and illustrator(s).
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Concepts of Print
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    5.
    • Title
    • Table of contents
    • Glossary
    • Author
    • Illustrator
    5a.
    • Roles of author
    • Roles of illustrator
    Knowledge:
    5. Students know:
    • Text features, such as title, table of contents, glossary, and the names of author(s) and Illustrator(s).
    5a.
    • The role of the author of a text.
    • The role of the illustrator of a text.
    Skills:
    5. Students are able to:
    • Locate a book's title, table of contents, glossary, and the names of author(s) and illustrator(s).
    5a.
    • Explain the role of an author.
    • Explain the role of an illustrator.
    Understanding:
    5. Students understand that:
    • Text has predictable features that help readers locate information.
    5a.
    • The words of a text communicate an author's intended message.
    • The illustrations in a text communicate the illustrator's intended message.
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 11
    Classroom Resources: 11
    6. Demonstrate basic to advanced phonological and phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.

    a. Count, blend, segment, and delete syllables in spoken words, including polysyllabic words.

    Examples: par-ti-cu-lar, cer-ti-fi-cate

    b. Recognize and produce groups of rhyming words and distinguish them from non-rhyming groups of spoken words.

    c. Produce alliterative words.

    d. Blend and segment phonemes in single-syllable spoken words made up of three to five phonemes, including words with consonant blends.

    e. Add, delete, and substitute phonemes at the beginning or end of spoken words made up of three to five phonemes, and produce the resulting word.

    Examples: pan to pant; flight to light; cat to cap

    f. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken, single-syllable words.

    g. Distinguish between commonly-confused vowel sounds and commonly-confused cognate consonant sounds, using knowledge of mouth position, voiced and unvoiced sounds, and manner of articulation.

    Examples: /f/ and /v/, /p/ and /b/, /t/ and /d/, /k/ and /g/, /m/ and /n/, /ng/ and /n/, /s/ and /z/, unvoiced /th/ and voiced /th/, /ch/ and /sh/, /ĕ/ and /ā/, /ĕ/ and /ă/

    Note: This is extremely important as a foundational phonemic awareness skill for all learners.

    h. Identify the sound substitution in words with five to six phonemes.

    Example: strips/straps, square/squire
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    6.
    • Demonstrate
    • Phonological awareness skills
    • Phonemic awareness skills
    • Spoken words
    6a.
    • Count
    • Blend
    • Segment
    • Delete
    • Syllables
    • Spoken words
    • Polysyllabic words
    6b.
    • Recognize
    • Produce
    • Rhyming words
    • Distinguish
    • Non-rhyming
    6c.
    • Alliterative
    6d.
    • Blend
    • Segment
    • Phonemes
    • Single-syllable spoken words
    • Consonant blends
    6e.
    • Add
    • Delete
    • Substitute
    • Phonemes
    6f.
    • Vowel
    • Long Vowel Sound
    • Short Vowel Sound
    • Single-syllable spoken words
    6g.
    • Distinguish
    • Vowel sounds
    • Cognate consonant sounds
    • Mouth position
    • Voiced sounds
    • Unvoiced sounds
    • Articulation
    6h.
    • Substitution
    • Phonemes
    Knowledge:
    6. Students know:
    • Basic to advanced phonological and phonemic awareness skills.
    6a.
    • Syllables in spoken words.
    • Polysyllabic words.
    6b.
    • The features of rhyming words.
    • The features of non-rhyming words.
    6c.
    • The features of alliterative words.
    6d.
    • Phonemes in single-syllable spoken words.
    • Consonant blends.
    6e.
    • Phonemes in single-syllable spoken words.
    • Phonemes in spoken words can be manipulated.
    6f.
    • Long vowel sounds.
    • Short vowel sounds.
    6g.
    • Vowel sounds.
    • Cognate consonant sounds.
    • The mouth position, voicing, and manner of articulation of speech sounds.
    6h.
    • Sound substitution.
    Skills:
    6. Students are able to:
    • Demonstrate basic to advanced phonological and phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.
    6a.
    • Count syllables in spoken words, including polysyllabic words.
    • Blend syllables in spoken words, including polysyllabic words.
    • Segment syllables in spoken words, including polysyllabic words.
    • Delete syllables in spoken words, including polysyllabic words.
    6b.
    • Recognize groups of rhyming words.
    • Produce groups of rhyming words.
    • Distinguish groups of non-rhyming words from groups of rhyming words.
    6c.
    • Produce alliterative words.
    6d.
    • Blend phonemes in single-syllable spoken words made up of three to five phonemes, including words with consonant blends.
    • Segment phonemes in single-syllable spoken words made up of three to five phonemes, including words with consonant blends.
    6e. Using spoken words made up of three to five phonemes,
    • Add phonemes at the beginning or end of a word and produce the resulting word, such as changing pan to pant.
    • Delete phonemes at the beginning or end of a word to produce the resulting word, such as changing flight to light.
    • Substitute phonemes at the beginning or end to produce the resulting word, such as changing cat to cap.
    6f.
    • Identify long vowel sounds.
    • Identify short vowel sounds.
    • Distinguish between long and short vowel sounds in spoken words.
    6g.
    • Using knowledge of mouth position, voiced and unvoiced sounds, and manner of articulation, distinguish between commonly-confused vowel sounds and cognate consonant sounds.
    6h.
    • In words with five to six phonemes, identify sound substitutions, such as identifying the vowel sound changed in the word pair strips/straps.
    Understanding:
    6. Students understand that:
    • Being able to identify and manipulate the sounds in spoken words will help improve their reading, spelling, and writing abilities.
    6a.
    • Being able to to identify and manipulate syllables in spoken words will help improve their reading, spelling, and writing abilities.
    6b.
    • Words that rhyme have the same vowel and ending sound.
    6c.
    • Alliterative words begin with the same sound.
    6d.
    • Blending is the ability to hear the individual sounds in a spoken word, join the sounds together, and produce the word.
    • Segmenting is the ability to break words down into their individual sounds.
    6e.
    • Adding, deleting, and substituting phonemes at the beginning or end of spoken words changes the resulting word.
    6f.
    • One letter can make different sounds depending on its context.
    • When a letter makes the sound of its letter name, it is considered a long vowel.
    • When a letter makes a sound other than its name, it is considered a short vowel.
    6g.
    • The knowledge of mouth position, voiced and unvoiced sounds, and manner of articulation is required for the proper pronunciation of words.
    • The ability to distinguish commonly-confused sounds will help them become better readers, spellers, and writers.
    6h.
    • A word's meaning and pronunciation will be altered if one sound is changed.
    Phonics
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 9
    Learning Activities: 3
    Classroom Resources: 6
    7. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately both in isolation and within decodable, grade-appropriate texts.

    a. Produce the most frequent sound(s) for each letter of the alphabet, including x, q, and the long and short sounds of the vowels.

    Examples: x= /ks/; q=/kw/; a=/ă/ and /ā/, s= /s/ and /z/

    b. Decode and encode regularly-spelled, one-syllable words with closed syllables, open syllables, and vowel-consonant-e syllables, including words with blends in initial and final position.

    Note: Consonant blends should include st-, sm-, sn-, -st, -ft, -lp, sl, cr, cl, tr, dr, nt, nd, mp, and nk, at a minimum.

    c. Decode words with digraphs, trigraphs, and combinations, including digraphs ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ph, ng, trigraphs tch and dge, and combination qu.

    Note: Some programs/experts call wh a combination, others call it a digraph. Use common language across the school/district.

    d. Decode words with a after w read /ä/ and a before l read /â/.

    Examples: wash, water, wasp; tall, all, talk, small, fall

    e. With prompting and support, decode words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.

    Examples: c=/k/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and c= /s/ before i, e, or y; g=/g/before a, o, u, or any consonant and g=/j/ before i, e, or y

    f. Decode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words, distinguishing the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words, and words with vowel y in medial position, producing the short /ĭ/ sound for these words.

    Examples: fly, my; baby, happy; myth, gym

    g. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words with vowel-r syllables, including ar, er, ir, or, and ur.

    h. With prompting and support, decode words with common vowel team syllables, including ai, ay, ee, ea, igh, ie, oa, ou, ow, au, aw, oe, oo, ew, oi, oy, and ue.

    i. With prompting and support, decode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.

    Examples: mild, host, fold, jolt, kind

    j. With prompting and support, decode two-syllable words using knowledge of closed syllables, open syllables, vowel-consonant-e syllables, vowel-r syllables, common vowel team syllables, and consonant-le syllables, including compound words that fit multiple syllable types.

    k. With prompting and support, decode words with silent letter combinations.

    Examples: kn, wr, mb, gh, gn

    l. With prompting and support, decode words with common prefixes including un-, dis-, in-, re-, pre-, mis-, non-, and ex-.

    m. With prompting and support, decode words with common suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.

    Examples: -s, -ed, -ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly

    n. Decode contractions with am, is, has, and not.

    Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't

    o. Decode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

    Examples: saw, all, made, can, his, walk, let, open, time
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonics
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    7.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Word-analysis skills
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Isolation
    • Decodable, grade-appropriate texts
    7a.
    • Frequent sounds
    • Long vowel sounds
    • Short vowel sounds
    7b.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Regularly-spelled
    • One-syllable words
    • Closed syllables
    • Open syllables
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllables
    • Blends
    • Initial position
    • Final position
    7c.
    • Decode
    • Digraphs
    • Trigraphs
    • Combinations
    7d.
    • Decode
    7e.
    • Decode
    • Hard sounds
    • Soft sounds
    • Prompting
    • Support
    7f.
    • Decode
    • Vowel y
    • Medial position
    • Final position
    • One-syllable words
    • Two-syllable words
    • Long /ī/ sound
    • Long /ē/ sound
    • Short /ĭ/ sound
    7g.
    • Decode
    • One-syllable words
    • vowel-r syllables
    7h.
    • Decode
    • Common vowel team syllables
    • Prompting
    • Support
    7i.
    • Decode
    • Patterns
    • Prompting
    • Support
    7j.
    • Two-syllable words
    • Closed syllable
    • Open syllables
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllables
    • vowel-r syllables
    • Common vowel team syllables
    • Consonant-le syllables
    • Compound words
    • Prompting
    • Support
    7k.
    • Decode
    • Silent letter combinations
    • Prompting
    • Support
    7l.
    • Decode
    • Common prefixes
    • Prompting
    • Support
    7m.
    • Decode
    • Common suffixes
    • Suffix addition
    • Prompting
    • Support
    7n.
    • Decode
    • Contractions
    7o.
    • Decode
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
    • Predictable
    • Decodable
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    Knowledge:
    7. Students know:
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Word-analysis skills.
    7a.
    • Letter sounds.
    • Long and short vowel sounds.
    7b.
    • Regularly-spelled, one-syllable words.
    • Letter patterns for closed syllables, open syllables, and vowel-consonant-e syllables.
    • Words with blends in the initial and/or final position.
    7c.
    • Digraphs, including ck, sh, th, ch, wh, ph, and ng.
    • Trigraphs, including tch and dge.
    • Combination qu.
    7d.
    • The sound a makes when it occurs after w.
    • The sound a makes when it occurs before l.
    7e.
    • The hard sound of c is /k/.
    • The soft sound of c is /s/.
    • The hard sound of g is /g/.
    • The soft sound of g is /j/.
    7f.
    • The letter y can make three vowel sounds depending on the number of syllables in the words and its position in a word.
    7g.
    • Regularly spelled one-syllable words with vowel-r syllables.
    7h.
    • Common vowel team syllables.
    7i.
    • Words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.
    7j.
    • Two-syllable words, including compound words.
    • The features of a closed syllable.
    • The features of an open syllable.
    • The features of a vowel-consonant-e syllable.
    • The features of a vowel-r syllable.
    • The features of common vowel team syllables.
    • The features of a consonant-le syllable.
    7k.
    • Silent letter combinations, such as kn, wr, mb, gh, gn.
    7l.
    • Common prefixes.
    7m.
  • Common suffixes, such as -s, -ed, -ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly.
  • Suffix addition patterns.
  • 7n.
    • Contractions with am, is, has, and not, such as I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't.
    7o.
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, such as saw, all, made, can, his, walk, let, open, time.
    Skills:
    7. Students are able to:
    In isolation and within decodable, grade-appropriate texts,
    • Decode and encode words by applying phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Decode and encode words using word-analysis skills.
    7a.
    • Produce the most frequent sounds for each letter of the alphabet, including x and q.
    • Produce long and short vowel sounds.
    7b. Using regularly-spelled, one-syllable words,
    • Decode and encode closed syllable words.
    • Decode and encode open syllable words.
    • Decode and encode vowel-consonant-e syllable words.
    • Decode and encode words with blends in the initial and/or final position.
    7c.
    • Decode words with digraphs.
    • Decode words with trigraphs.
    • Decode words with combination qu.
    7d.
    • Decode words with a after w, such as wash, water, wasp.
    • Decode words with a before l, such as tall, all, talk, small, fall.
    7e. With prompting and support,
    • Decode (read) words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.
    7f.
    • Decode (read) words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words.
    • Distinguish the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words (like fly and my) and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words (like baby and happy).
    • Decode (read) words with vowel y in medial position, such as myth and gym.
    7g.
    • Decode (read) regularly spelled one-syllable words with vowel-r syllables.
    7h.
    • With prompting and support, decode (read) words with common vowel team syllables, including ai, ay, ee, ea, igh, ie, oa, ou, ow, au, aw, oe, oo, ew, oi, oy, and ue.
    7i.
    • With prompting and support, decode (read) words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns, such as mild, host, fold, jolt, kind.
    7j. With prompting and support,
    • Decode (read) two-syllable words by breaking the words into syllables and using their knowledge of syllable types.
    • Decode compound words that fit multiple syllable types by breaking the word into syllables and using their knowledge of syllable types.
    7k.
    • With prompting and support, decode (read) words with silent letter combinations.
    7l.
    • With prompting and support, decode (read) words with common prefixes including un-, dis-, in-, re-, pre-, mis-, non-, and ex-.
    7m.
    • With prompting and support, decode (read) words with common suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.
    7n.
    • Decode (read) contractions with am, is, has, and not.
    7o.
    • Decode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    Understanding:
    7. Students understand that:
    • Graphemes (letter symbols) represent specific phonemes (sounds) they can use to decode (read) words.
    • Phonemes (speech sounds) can be represented by graphemes (letter symbols) to encode (spell) words.
    • Word-analysis skills are used to determine how to decode or encode based on position, adjacent letters, etc.
    7a.
    • Each letter of the alphabet makes at least one speech sound.
    • x and q make two speech sounds (x=/ks/ and q=/kw/).
    • Vowels can make a long or short speech sounds.
    7b.
    • Knowing letter patterns within each syllable type will help them decode and encode words quickly and accurately.
    7c.
    • A digraph is a two-letter combination that represents a single phoneme in which neither letter makes its usual sound.
    • A trigraph is a three-letter combination that represents one phoneme.
    • In English words, q and u always occur together, and combination qu represents two sounds /k/ and /w/.
    7d.
    • Adjacent letters and letter position within a word can change the sound a letter produces.
    7e.
    • The letter that follows a c or g determines the sound that c or g will make in a word.
    • C makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    • G makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    7f.
    • Y can make three vowel sounds: long /ī/, long /ē/, and short /ĭ/.
    • The position of the vowel y in the word determines how the y is pronounced.
    7g.
    • In words that contain the vowel-r syllable type, the sound of the vowel usually changes.
    7h.
    • A vowel team is a combination of two, three, or four letters that make a vowel sound.
    • A vowel team syllable always begins with a vowel, and it could be followed by another vowel(s) or consonant(s).
    7i.
    • Long-vowel sounds will be produced in words that have the patterns of -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind.
    7j.
    • They can decode two-syllable words, including compound words, by dividing a word into syllables and using their knowledge of the syllable types.
    7k.
    • Some words they read will have silent letter combinations in which one or more letters are silent (doesn't represent a phoneme) but another letter in the combination does represent the phoneme.
    7l.
    • Identifying common prefixes in words can help them read polysyllabic words quickly and accurately.
    7m.
    • They can read words with common suffixes, including words with suffixes that are spelled by dropping the e and changing the y-to-i for suffix addition, by recognizing common letter patterns.
    7n.
    • Contractions are made up of two words that are shortened by combining the two words and replacing the omitted letters with an apostrophe.
    7o.
    • High frequency words are words that appear in text often, so it is important to be able to read them accurately and automatically.
    • Words can be decoded using their knowledge of letter-sound relationships.
    Fluency
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 10
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 9
    8. Apply previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences to decodable words with accuracy and automaticity, in and out of context.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    8.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Decodable words
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    • In context
    • Out of context
    Knowledge:
    8.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences in decodable words.
    • Accuracy is getting something correct, and automaticity is reading the word quickly without having to sound it out.
    Skills:
    8. Students are able to:
    • Accurately and automatically decode words by applying previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences, in and out of context.
    Understanding:
    8. Students understand that:
    • Fluent readers use known phoneme-grapheme correspondences to decode words correctly and quickly.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 3
    Learning Activities: 1
    Classroom Resources: 2
    9. Read grade-appropriate texts with accuracy and fluency.

    a. Read and reread grade-appropriate decodable text orally with accuracy and expression at an appropriate rate to support comprehension.

    b. Recognize and self-correct decoding and other errors in word recognition and reread for clarification.

    c. Participate in poetry reading, noticing phrasing, rhythm, and rhyme.

    Example: Pause between stanzas and between lines where punctuation indicates.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    9.
    • Grade-appropriate texts
    • Accuracy
    • Fluency
    9a.
    • Reread
    • Grade-appropriate decodable text
    • Accuracy
    • Expression
    • Appropriate rate
    • Comprehension
    9b.
    • Recognize
    • Self-correct
    • Decoding errors
    • Word recognition
    • Clarification
    9c.
    • Participate
    • Poetry
    • Phrasing
    • Rhythm
    • Rhyme
    Knowledge:
    9. Students know:
    • Accurate reading is correctly decoding words.
    • Fluent reading is reading at a rate that supports their overall understanding of the text.
    9a.
    • Reading accurately, with expression, and at an appropriate rate will support comprehension.
    9b.
    • Decoding errors.
    • Word recognition errors.
    9c.
    • The features of poetry, including phrasing, rhythm, and rhyme.
    Skills:
    9. Students are able to:
    • Read grade-appropriate texts accurately and fluently.
    9a.
    • Read orally with accuracy.
    • Read orally with expression.
    • Read orally at an appropriate rate.
    • Comprehend text that is read orally.
    9b.
    • Recognize decoding and word recognition errors.
    • Recognize when their understanding of the text breaks down.
    • Reread for clarification.
    • Self-correct decoding and word recognition errors.
    9c.
    • Read poetry.
    • Identify phrasing, rhythm, and rhyme in poetry readings.
    Understanding:
    9. Students understand that:
    • To make meaning of text, they must accurately decode words and read at a rate that supports their comprehension.
    9a.
    • Fluent readers accurately decode words in text, read text with expression, and read at an appropriate rate in order to comprehend the text.
    9b.
    • Fluent readers recognize when their understanding of the text breaks down and take action to understand the text by rereading for clarification.
    9c.
    • Poetry is a genre of text that uses distinctive style and rhythm to aid in the expression of feelings.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    10. Read high-frequency words commonly found in grade-appropriate text.

    Note: High-frequency words should be taught with the main emphasis of the lesson being on regular correspondences and patterns within the word. The student should be able to read the word accurately and independently three times in a row on different days to be considered accurate enough to add to a personal word box, word ring, or fluency folder for fluency practice. Avoid teaching high-frequency words as "sight words" that need to be memorized as a whole word, unless there are no regular correspondences in the word. "Of" is an example of a word with no regular correspondences.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    10.
    • High-frequency words
    • Grade-appropriate text
    Knowledge:
    10. Students know:
    • High frequency words that are common found in first-grade level text.
    Skills:
    10. Students are able to:
    • Read high-frequency words in first grade-level text accurately and independently three times in a row on different days.
    Understanding:
    10. Students understand that:
    • High-frequency words are words that are found regularly in grade-appropriate text, so it is important to learn to read them automatically, accurately, and independently.
    Vocabulary
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    11. Utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary, make connections to previously learned words, and relate new words to background knowledge.

    a. Make connections to a word's structure using knowledge of phonology, morphology, and orthography of the word to aid learning.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    11.
    • Utilize
    • Academic vocabulary
    • Content-specific vocabulary
    • Grade-level vocabulary
    • Connections
    • Relate
    • Background knowledge
    11a.
    • Word's structure
    • Phonology
    • Morphology
    • Orthography
    Knowledge:
    11. Students know:
    • Academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary words.
    • Content-specific vocabulary refers to words used in different subjects learned in school such as reading, math, social studies, science.
    • New vocabulary words can be learned by relating them to previously learned words and background knowledge.
    11a.
    • Phonology (speech sounds within words).
    • Morphology (meaningful units of words).
    • Orthography (the written representation of language).
    Skills:
    11. Students are able to:
    • Utilize grade-appropriate vocabulary.
    • Make connections to previous learned vocabulary words.
    • Relate new vocabulary words to background knowledge.
    11a.
    • Make connections to a word's structure using speech sounds, meaningful word parts, and spelling of the word to aid learning.
    Understanding:
    11. Students understand that:
    • Their current vocabulary and background knowledge can help them determine the meaning of new vocabulary words.
    11a.
    • Identifying a word's phonological, morphological, and orthographic structure can help them determine the meaning of a word, as well as the word's origin.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 20
    Lesson Plans: 6
    Classroom Resources: 14
    12. Ask and answer questions about unfamiliar words and phrases in discussions and/or text.

    a. Identify possessives and plurals and use them as clues to the meaning of text.

    Example: Jack's coat, mom's car; pigs, pig's, pigs'

    b. Identify meaningful parts of words (morphemes) and use them as clues to the meaning of unknown words, including frequently occurring affixes and inflections -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est.

    Examples: Explain that adding suffix -s changes a singular noun to a plural noun and adding suffix -ed changes a verb to past tense.

    c. Describe word relationships and nuances in word meanings, including relating them to their opposites and distinguishing shades of meaning in similar or related words.

    Examples: look, peek, glance, stare, glare; big, large, gigantic, monstrous
    Act out tiptoe, creep, and march to distinguish shades of meaning in words related to walk.
    Discuss synonyms and antonyms.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    12.
    • Unfamiliar words
    • Unfamiliar phrases
    • Discussions
    • Text
    12a.
    • Identify
    • Possessives
    • Plurals
    • Meaning of text
    12b.
    • Meaningful word parts
    • Morphemes
    • Unknown words
    • Affixes
    • Inflections
    12c.
    • Word relationships
    • Nuances in word meanings
    • Opposites
    • Shades of meaning
    • Similar or related words
    Knowledge:
    12. Students know:
    • Strategies for identifying unfamiliar words and phrases in discussions and/or text.
    • Several question stems related to unfamiliar words or phrases in discussions and/or text.
    • Techniques for clarifying unfamiliar words and phrases in discussions and/or text.
    12a.
    • The features of possessive nouns.
    • The features of plural nouns.
    12b.
    • Words are made of meaningful word parts called morphemes.
    • Morphemes can provide clues about the meaning of a word.
    12c.
    • Word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    Skills:
    12. Students are able to:
    • Identify unfamiliar words and phrases.
    • Ask questions about unfamiliar words and phrases.
    • Answer questions about unfamiliar words and phrases.
    • Clarify meaning of words and phrases through questions.
    12a.
    • Identify possessives and plurals of words, such as pigs, pig's, pigs'.
    • Use the possessives and plurals of a word to determine the meaning of a text, like Jack's coat, mom's car.
    12b.
    • Recognize meaningful parts of words (morphemes).
    • Utilize morphemes as clues to identify the meaning of unknown words.
    • Use affixes as clues to the meaning of unknown words.
    • Identify frequently occurring root words and their inflectional forms.
    12c.
    • Describe word relationships and slight variations in meaning, such as look, peek, glance, stare, glare; big, large, gigantic, monstrous.
    • Describe word relationships by relating words of opposite meanings (antonyms) and similar meanings (synonyms).
    • Distinguish shades of meaning in related words, like acting out tiptoe, creep, and march to distinguish nuances in words related to walk.
    Understanding:
    12. Students understand that:
    • It is important to ask questions about unfamiliar words and phrases to clarify the meaning of new vocabulary words.
    12a.
    • Making a word possessive or plural changes the meaning of a text.
    12b.
    • Identifying root words and affixes provide clues to the meaning of unknown words and phrases.
    12c.
    • Writers and speakers should carefully select words to convey specific meanings, ideas, and relationships.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    13. Use information found within the text to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar or multiple-meaning word or phrase.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    13.
    • Unfamiliar
    • Multiple-meaning
    • Word
    • Phrase
    Knowledge:
    13. Students know:
    • Information within a text can help them determine the meaning of an unfamiliar or multiple-meaning word or phrase.
    Skills:
    13. Students are able to:
    • Use information found in text to determine the meaning of words or phrases that are unknown or that have multiple meanings.
    Understanding:
    13. Students understand that:
    • They should use information found in a text to determine the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple-meaning words or phrases.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    14. Sort and categorize groups of words or pictures based on meaning, and label each category.

    Examples: colors, clothes, animals with wings
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    14.
    • Sort
    • Categorize
    • Groups of words
    • Pictures
    • Meaning
    • Label
    • Category
    Knowledge:
    14. Students know:
    • Words can be categorized based on their meaning.
    • Categories can be labeled by topic or concept.
    Skills:
    14. Students are able to:
    • Sort groups of words or pictures into categories based on meaning.
    • Label category based on meaning, such as colors, clothes, animals with wings.
    Understanding:
    14. Students understand that:
    • Words or concepts can be sorted into particular categories based on their meaning and their relationships to other words or concepts.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    15. Identify and explain adjectives as descriptive words and phrases in all forms of texts, including poems.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    15.
    • Identify
    • Explain
    • Adjectives
    • Descriptive words
    • Descriptive phrases
    • Poems
    Knowledge:
    15. Students know:
    • Adjectives are descriptive words or phrases that occur in all genres of text.
    Skills:
    15. Students are able to:
    • Identify adjectives in all forms of texts, including poems.
    • Explain the meaning of adjectives as descriptive words and phrases in all forms of text, including poems.
    Understanding:
    15. Students understand that:
    • Adjectives are a type of word that are used to describe nouns in all forms of text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 8
    Lesson Plans: 5
    Classroom Resources: 3
    16. Use grade-appropriate academic vocabulary in speaking and writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    16.
    • Grade-appropriate academic vocabulary
    • Speaking
    • Writing
    Knowledge:
    16. Students know:
    • Grade-appropriate academic vocabulary in spoken and written forms.
    Skills:
    16. Students are able to:
    • Identify grade-appropriate academic vocabulary.
    • Use grade-appropriate academic vocabulary in speaking and writing.
    Understanding:
    16. Students understand that:
    • Using grade-appropriate academic vocabulary expands their knowledge.
    • Academic vocabulary is more formal than their spoken, conversational language.
    • Building our vocabulary helps us to clearly express our ideas and share information with others.
    Comprehension
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 4
    Lesson Plans: 4
    17. Use content knowledge built during read-alouds of informational and literary texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through drawing and writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    17.
    • Content knowledge
    • Read-alouds
    • Informational text
    • Literary text
    • Participating
    • Content-specific discussions
    • Peers
    • Drawing
    • Writing
    Knowledge:
    17. Students know:
    • Content knowledge can be learned from read-alouds of informational and literary texts.
    • Content knowledge can be shared with others through discussions, drawing, or writing.
    Skills:
    17. Students are able to:
    • Gain new content knowledge by engaging in read-alouds of informational and literary texts.
    • Participate in discussions with their peers demonstrating their knowledge of content-specific topics.
    • Produce drawings or writing that displays content knowledge learned through read-alouds.
    Understanding:
    17. Students understand that:
    • They can learn new information by engaging in read-alouds of informational and literary texts.
    • They can demonstrate their understanding of content-specific knowledge through discussions, drawing, or writing.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    18. Manipulate words and/or phrases to create simple sentences, including declarative and interrogative, to help build syntactic awareness and comprehension at the sentence level.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    18.
    • Manipulate
    • Words
    • Phrases
    • Simple sentences
    • Declarative
    • Interrogative
    • Syntactic awareness
    • Comprehension
    • Sentence level
    Knowledge:
    18. Students know:
    • The components of simple sentences.
    • Features of declarative and interrogative sentences.
    Skills:
    18. Students are able to:
    • Manipulate words/or phrases to create simple sentences, including declarative and interrogative.
    • Demonstrate syntactic awareness.
    • Demonstrate comprehension at the sentence level.
    Understanding:
    18. Students understand that:
    • Our language system has rules about correct word order in sentences, which is called syntax.
    • They can change the meaning of a sentence by changing the order of words in the sentence.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    19. Identify common types of texts and their features, including literary, informational, fairy tale, and poetry.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    19.
    • Texts
    • Features
    • Literary text
    • Informational text
    • Fairy tale
    • Poetry
    Knowledge:
    19. Students know:
    • The features of common types of texts.
    Skills:
    19. Students are able to:
    • Identify common types of texts and their features, including literary, informational, fairy tale, and poetry.
    Understanding:
    19. Students understand that:
    • Texts can be categorized based on predictable features.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 3
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    20. Use text features to locate key facts or information in printed or digital text.

    Examples: headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons, bold words, captions, illustrations
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    20.
    • Text features
    • Key facts
    • Information
    • Printed text
    • Digital text
    Knowledge:
    20. Students know:
    • Text features that help locate key facts or information include headings, table of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons, bold words, captions, and illustrations.
    • Text features can be present in printed text or digital text.
    Skills:
    20. Students are able to:
    • Use text features to locate key facts or information in printed or digital text.
    Understanding:
    20. Students understand that:
    • Text contains predictable features that can be used to locate key information in text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 8
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 7
    21. Identify the main topic and key details of literary and informational texts.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    21.
    • Identify
    • Main topic
    • Key details
    • Literary texts
    • Informational texts
    Knowledge:
    21. Students know:
    • Main topic of literary and informational texts.
    • Key details of literary and informational texts.
    Skills:
    21. Students are able to:
    • Identify the main topic of literary and informational texts.
    • Identify key details of literary and informational texts.
    Understanding:
    21. Students understand that:
    • Literary and informational texts have a main idea and supporting details.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 10
    Classroom Resources: 10
    22. Ask and answer questions about key details in literary and informational texts.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    22.
    • Ask
    • Answer
    • Questions
    • Key details
    • Literary texts
    • Informational texts
    Knowledge:
    22. Students know:
    • Key details are present in literary and informational text.
    Skills:
    22. Students are able to:
    • Ask questions about key details in a literary and informational text.
    • Answer questions about key details in a literary and informational text.
    Understanding:
    22. Students understand that:
    • Literary and informational text include key details that must be understood to comprehend the text.
    • After reading a text, knowledge and understanding can be expanded by asking and answering questions.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 9
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 7
    23. Identify and describe the main story elements in a literary text.

    a. Describe the characters and settings, using illustrations and textual evidence from a story.

    b. Retell the plot or sequence of major events in chronological order.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    23.
    • Identify
    • Describe
    • Story elements
    • Literary text
    23a.
    • Describe
    • Characters
    • Settings
    • Illustrations
    • Textual evidence
    • Story
    23b.
    • Retell
    • Plot
    • Sequence
    • Major events
    • Chronological order
    Knowledge:
    23. Students know:
    • Main story elements in a literary text.
    23a.
    • Characters in a story.
    • Settings in a story.
    • Characters and settings in a story can be identified using information from the text or illustrations.
    23b.
    • Chronological order.
    • Techniques for retelling a literary text orally using key details./li>
    Skills:
    23. Students are able to:
    • Identify the main story elements in a text.
    • Describe the main story elements in a text.
    23a.
    • Identify characters in a story.
    • Identify the setting of a story.
    • Describe the characters of a story using illustrations and textual evidence.
    • Describe the setting of a story using illustrations and textual evidence.
    23b.
    • Identify major events in a story.
    • Retell the plot of a story in chronological order.
    Understanding:
    23. Students understand that:
    • Literary texts include predictable story elements, such as plot, characters, setting, conflict, and resolution, to help the reader to better comprehend the text.
    23a.
    • A story tells about a character's experience, and they can use information from the text or illustrations to identify and describe characters in a story.
    • The setting is the time and place that a story takes place, and they can identify and describe the setting by using information from the text or illustrations.
    23b.
    • The major events that occur in a story is called the plot of the story.
    • Chronological order means that a story has a timeline of events that occur in sequence from beginning to end.
    • They can demonstrate their comprehension of a story by describing its main events in chronological order.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    24. Identify who is telling the story, using evidence from the text.

    a. Use the term narrator to refer to the speaker who is telling the story.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    24.
    • Identify
    • Evidence
    • Text
    24a.
    • Term
    • Narrator
    • Refer
    • Speaker
    Knowledge:
    24. Students know:
    • Who is telling a story can be identified from information in the text.
    24a.
    • A narrator is the speaker who is telling the story.
    Skills:
    24. Students are able to:
    • Identify who is telling a story by using text evidence.
    24a.
    • Use the term narrator to refer to the speaker who is telling the story.
    Understanding:
    24. Students understand that:
    • Text evidence from a story can help them identify who is telling the story.
    24a.
    • The speaker telling the story is called the narrator.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    25. Describe connections between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information, including cause and effect, sequence, and problem and solution, in a literary text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    25.
    • Describe
    • Connections
    • Individuals
    • Events
    • Ideas
    • Pieces of information
    • Cause and effect
    • Sequence
    • Problem and solution
    • Literary text
    Knowledge:
    25. Students know:
    • There are connections between individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in literary text.
    • Literary text can have structure, such as cause and effect, sequence, and problem and solution.
    Skills:
    25. Students are able to:
    • Identify and describe connections between individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in literary text.
    • Identify the cause and effect of an event in a literary text.
    • Identify the problem and the given solution in a literary text.
    • Summarize a story in sequence.
    Understanding:
    25. Students understand that:
    • Relations can be made between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a literary text.
    • Literary text can be structured in a variety of ways, including describing the cause and effect of a particular event, sequence (chronological order), or identifying a problem and potential solution.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    26. With prompting and support, use textual evidence to explain the central message or moral of a literary text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    26.
    • Textual evidence
    • Explain
    • Central message
    • Moral
    • Literary text
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    26. Students know:
    • The central message or moral of a literary text can be identified using evidence from the text.
    Skills:
    26. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Explain the central message or moral of a literary text using evidence from the text.
    Understanding:
    26. Students understand that:
    • A moral or central message is a lesson taught through the story, and they can identify the moral by using evidence from the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    27. Make predictions using information found within a literary text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    27.
    • Predictions
    • Information
    • Literary text
    Knowledge:
    27. Students know:
    • Predictions can be made using information from a text.
    Skills:
    27. Students are able to:
    • Made predictions about what will happen next based on information in a literary text.
    Understanding:
    27. Students understand that:
    • A prediction is an educated guess for what will happen next in a story, and they can use information in the story to create predictions.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    28. Self-monitor comprehension of text by pausing to summarize or rereading for clarification when comprehension is lacking.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    28.
    • Self-monitor
    • Comprehension
    • Text
    • Summarize
    • Rereading
    • Clarification
    • Comprehension
    Knowledge:
    28. Students know:
    • Comprehension is the understanding of what is read.
    • Techniques to self-monitor comprehension.
    • Strategies to improve comprehension.
    Skills:
    28. Students are able to:
    • Self-monitor comprehension of text.
    • Pause their reading to summarize text to improve comprehension.
    • Reread for clarity to improve comprehension.
    Understanding:
    28. Students understand that:
    • Comprehension is understanding what is read.
    • They should monitor their comprehension as they read, and take action if their comprehension is lacking by pausing to summarize the text or rereading for clarification.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    29. Compare and contrast texts.

    a. Compare and contrast characters, settings, and major events in literary texts.

    b. Describe the connections between individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in an informational text.

    c. Point out similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    29.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Texts
    29a.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Characters
    • Settings
    • Major events
    • Literary texts
    29b.
    • Describe
    • Connections
    • Individuals
    • Events
    • Ideas
    • Pieces of information
    • Informational text
    29c.
    • Similarities
    • Differences
    • Topic
    Knowledge:
    29. Students know:
    • Techniques to compare (similarities) and contrast (differences) two texts.
    29a.
    • Characters.
    • Settings.
    • Major events.
    • Literary texts.
    • Techniques to compare and contrast story elements in literary texts.
    29b.
    • There are often connections between individuals, events, ideas, or information in an informational text.
    29c.
    • Techniques to compare and contrast features of two texts.
    Skills:
    29. Students are able to:
    • Identify the similarities and differences in the text.
    29a.
    • Identify characters, settings, and major events in a literary text.
    • Compare (similarities) and contrast (differences) characters, settings, and major events in a literary text.
    29b.
    • Identify and describe connections between individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in an informational text.
    29c.
    • Identify the similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic.
    Understanding:
    29. Students understand that:
    • They can improve their comprehension of texts by identifying similarities and differences between two texts.
    29a.
    • Comparing and contrasting characters, settings, and major events in a text helps them to better understand the meaning of the literary text.
    29b.
    • Connections can be made between individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in informational text.
    • Connections describe how individuals, events, ideas, or information in informational text are similar or different.
    29c.
    • They can improve their comprehension of a topic by comparing and contrasting two texts on the topic.
    Writing
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 12
    Learning Activities: 2
    Lesson Plans: 7
    Classroom Resources: 3
    30. Write legibly, using proper pencil grip.

    a. Print upper and lowercase letters fluently, using proper approach strokes, letter formation, and line placement.

    b. Print first and last names using proper letter formation, capitalization, and punctuation.

    Examples: De'Andre McGill, Kim Mi-Sun, Juan de Jesus, Janie Parker

    c. Use lower case letters in the majority of written work, using capitals only when appropriate.

    d. Write letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order from memory.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    30.
    • Legibly
    • Proper pencil grip
    30a.
    • Uppercase letters
    • Lowercase letters
    • Fluently
    • Proper approach strokes
    • Proper letter formation
    • Proper line placement
    30b.
    • Print
    • First names
    • Last names
    • Proper letter formation
    • Capitalization
    • Punctuation
    30c.
    • Lowercase letters
    • Majority
    • Written work
    • Capitals
    • Appropriate
    30d.
    • Letters
    • English alphabet
    • Alphabetical order
    • Memory
    Knowledge:
    30. Students know:
    • Proper pencil grip.
    • Legible letter formation.
    30a.
    • Approach strokes for upper- and lowercase letters.
    • Proper upper- and lowercase letter formation.
    • Line placement for upper- and lowercase letters.
    30b.
    • First and last names are capitalized.
    • Some first and last names have punctuation marks.
    30c.
    • Capitalization rules.
    30d.
      Letters of the Alphabet.
    • How to write each letter of the English alphabet.
    • Alphabetical order.
    Skills:
    30. Students are able to:
    • Write legibly.
    • Use proper pencil grip.
    30a.
    • Print upper- and lowercase letters fluently.
    • Use correct approach strokes to form upper- and lowercase letters.
    • Place upper- and lowercase letters correctly on a line.
    30b.
    • Identify first and last names.
    • Write first and last names using proper letter formation.
    • Capitalize appropriate letters in first and last names, such as Juan de Jesus or Janie Parker.
    • Punctuate first and last names when appropriate, such as De'Andre McGill or Kim Mi-Sun.
    30c.
    • Use capital and lowercase letters correctly when writing.
    30d.
    • Write letters of the alphabet in alphabetical order from memory.
    Understanding:
    30. Students understand that:
    • Proper pencil grip aids in writing legibly.
    • Writing legibly is required for clear written communication.
    30a.
    • Legible handwriting requires an approach stroke on the correct line and proper letter formation.
    30b.
    • Each person has a first and last name.
    • All names are proper nouns and should begin with a capital letter.
    • Some names use punctuation marks.
    30c.
    • Lowercase letters are used the majority of the time in written work, and there are specific capitalization rules to follow.
    30d.
    • The English alphabet has a particular order.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 6
    Learning Activities: 2
    Classroom Resources: 4
    31. Apply knowledge of grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences and spelling rules (or generalizations) to encode words accurately.

    a. Encode vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words, while using some knowledge of basic position-based rules for spelling English words in closed syllables.

    Examples: /k/=k before i, e, or y as in kit; /k/= c before a, o, u, or any consonant as in cup, cat, cop; /k/= -ck after an accented short vowel as in duck, back, rock, pick, deck

    b. Encode consonant-vowel (CV) words using knowledge of open syllable patterns.

    Examples: he, me, she, go, no

    c. Encode words with two-consonant blends in beginning position, including blends that are commonly confused with other spellings, by distinguishing the placement and action of the lips, teeth, and tongue during articulation.

    Examples: cl, bl, sl, tr, cr, sk, st, sl, sm, sn, sp, sw, dr, br, bl

    Note: Many students spell the tr blend with digraph ch because of the confusion of the coarticulation of the /t/ and /r/ sounds. Many students spell the dr blend with the letter j because of the confusion of the coarticulation of the /d/ and /r/ sounds.

    d. Encode words with consonant digraphs using knowledge that one sound may be spelled with two letters.

    Examples: sh, th, ch, wh, ng, ck

    e. Encode words with vowel-consonant-e syllable patterns.

    Examples: hike, spike, joke, dime, make

    f. With prompting and support, encode words with the common vowel teams and diphthongs.

    Examples: ee, ea, oa, ai, a, au, aw, oi, oy, ou, ow, oo, igh

    g. With prompting and support, encode words with vowel-r combinations ar, or, er, ir, and ur.

    h. With prompting and support, encode words with final /ch/ sound spelled -ch and -tch.

    Examples: /ch/= ch after a consonant, vowel-r, or vowel team as in munch, bunch, porch, smooch
    /ch/= tch after a short vowel sound as in hatch, crutch, ditch

    i. With prompting and support, encode words with final /f/, /l/, and /s/ sounds in one-syllable base words by doubling the final consonant when it follows a short vowel sound.
    Examples: cliff, hill, pass

    j. Encode words with final /v/ sound, using knowledge that no English word ends with a v.

    Examples: have, give, save

    k. Encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.

    Examples: am, at, can, he, we, be, in, it, came, like

    l. Encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences and patterns in all but one position, pointing out the part of the word that does not follow the regular pattern.

    Examples: said, are, to

    m. Encode words with suffixes -s, -es, -ing, -ed, -er, and -est.

    Examples: dogs, wishes, jumping, jumped, faster, fastest

    n. With prompting and support, encode words with common prefixes re-, un-, and mis-.

    o. With prompting and support, encode frequently confused homophones, using knowledge of English and meaning to facilitate learning.

    Examples: hear/here; for/four; to/too/two.

    Note: To is a preposition which begins a prepositional phrase or an infinitive. Too is an adverb meaning "excessively" or "also." Two is a number. Many other words in English which reflect the number two are spelled with tw: twin, twice, between, tweezers.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    31.
    • Knowledge
    • Grade-appropriate
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Spelling rules
    • Encode
    • Accurately
    31a.
    • Encode
    • Vowel-consonant (VC) words
    • Consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words
    • Knowledge
    • Basic position-based rules
    • Closed syllables
    31b.
    • Encode
    • Consonant-vowel (CV) words
    • Knowledge
    • Open syllable patterns
    31c.
    • Encode
    • Two-consonant blends
    • Beginning position
    • Commonly confused blends
    • Distinguishing
    • Placement
    • Action
    • Lips, teeth, tongue placement and action
    • Articulation
    31d.
    • Encode
    • Consonant digraphs
    31e.
    • Encode
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllable pattern
    31f.
    • Encode
    • Common vowel teams
    • Common diphthongs
    • Prompting
    • Support
    31g.
    • Encode
    • vowel-r combinations
    • Prompting
    • Support
    31h.
    • Encode
    • Final /ch/ sound
    • Prompting
    • Support
    31i.
    • Encode
    • Final /f/, /l/, and /s/ sounds
    • One-syllable base words
    • Doubling
    • Final consonant
    • Short vowel sound
    • Prompting
    • Support
    31j.
    • Encode
    • Final /v/ sound
    31k.
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
    • Regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    31l.
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
    • Regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences and patterns
    • Position
    • Irregular pattern
    31m.
    • Encode
    • Suffixes
    31n.
    • Encode
    • Common prefixes
    • Prompting
    • Support
    31o.
    • Encode
    • Frequently confused homophones
    • Knowledge of English
    • Meaning
    • Facilitate
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    31. Students know:
    • Grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Spelling rules (or generalizations).
    31a.
    • Vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words.
    • Closed syllables follow a VC or CVC pattern.
    31b.
    • Consonant-vowel (CV) words.
    • Open syllable patterns.
    31c.
    • Words with two-consonant blends in beginning position.
    • Blends that are commonly confused, such as the tr blend and digraph ch and the dr blend and letter j.
    • The placement and action of the lips, teeth, and tongue during articulation.
    31d.
    • Consonant digraphs, such as sh, th, ch, wh, ng, ck.
    • One sound (phoneme) may be spelled with two letters (graphemes).
    31e.
    • The vowel-consonant-e syllable pattern.
    31f.
    • Common vowel teams and diphthongs, such as ee, ea, oa, ai, a, au, aw, oi, oy, ou, ow, oo, igh.
    31g.
    • The vowel-r combinations of ar, or, er, ir, and ur.
    31h.
    • Words with a /ch/ sound in the final position can be spelled with a -ch or -tch, depending on the previous letters.
    31i.
    • One-syllable words with a short vowel sound that end with a /f/, /l/, or /s/ sound should be spelled by doubling the final consonant.
    31j.
    • Words with final /v/ sound.
    • No English word ends with a v.
    31k.
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words.
    • Regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    31l.
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences and patterns in all but one position.
    • The part of a word that does not follow the regular phoneme-grapheme correspondence.
    31m.
    • The suffixes -s, -es, -ing, -ed, -er, and -est. can be added to the end of base words.
    31n.
    • The common prefixes re-, un-, and mis- can be added to the beginning of base words.
    31o.
    • Frequently confused homophones, such as hear/here; for/four; to/too/two.
    Skills:
    31. Students are able to:
    • Encode (spell) words accurately by applying knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and spelling rules.
    31a.
    • Encode (spell) vowel-consonant and consonant-vowel-consonant words, using knowledge of basic position-based spelling rules, such as the C-K Spelling Rule.
    31b.
    • Encode consonant-vowel words, using knowledge of open syllable patterns.
    31c.
    • Distinguish the placement and action of the lips, teeth, and tongue during articulation of words with two-consonant blends in beginning position.
    • Encode words with two-consonant blends in beginning position.
    31d.
    • Encode (write/spell) words with consonant digraphs.
    31e.
    • Encode (write/spell) words with the vowel-consonant-e syllable patterns, such as hike, spike, joke, dime, make.
    31f.
    • With prompting and support, encode (write/spell) words with common vowel teams and diphthongs.
    31g.
    • With prompting and support, encode (write/spell) words with vowel-r combinations.
    31h. With prompting and support,
    • Choose -ch or -tch to correctly spell words with the final /ch/ sound.
    • Accurately encode (write/spell) words with final /ch/ sound spelled -ch and -tch.
    31i. With prompting and support,
    • Encode (write/spell) one-syllable words with final /f/, /l/, and /s/ sounds by doubling the final consonant when it follows a short vowel sound, such as in cliff, hill, pass.
    31j.
    • Encode (write/spell) words with final /v/ sound by adding an e at the end of the word, such as in have, give, save.
    31k.
    • Encode (write/spell) grade-appropriate high frequency words, such as am, at, can, he, we, be in, it, came, like.
    31l.
    • Encode (write/spell) grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences and patterns in all but one position, such as said, are, to.
    31m.
    • Encode (write/spell) words with suffixes, such as dogs, wishes, jumping, jumped, faster, fastest.
    31n.
    • With prompting and support, encode (write/spell) words with common prefixes re-, un-, and mis-.
    31o.
    • With prompting and support, encode (write/spell) homophones using knowledge of the English language and word meaning.
    Understanding:
    31. Students understand that:
    • They can use spelling generalizations/rules, syllable division principles, and their knowledge of letter-sound correspondences to spell and write words accurately.
    31a.
    • There are rules to help accurately encode vowel-consonant and consonant-vowel-consonant words.
    31b.
    • Open syllable patterns are syllables that end with a vowel that makes a long vowel sound.
    31c.
    • Knowing the placement and action of the lips, teeth, and tongue during articulation will help them accurately encode (spell/write) words with two-consonant blends in the beginning position.
    • Being aware of commonly confused blends will improve their encoding abilities.
    31d.
    • A consonant digraph is when one sound is spelled with more than one consonant.
    31e.
    • They should use syllable pattern rules to accurately spell vowel-consonant-e words.
    31f.
    • Vowel teams are a combination of two, three, or four letters that represent one vowel sound.
    • Diphthongs are a combination of vowels that glide in the middle due to a shifting mouth position.
    31g.
    • That vowel-r combinations are a single vowel letter followed by the letter r that represent a unique vowel sound.
    31h.
    • The final /ch/ sound can be spelled with -ch or -tch.
    • They should decide which spelling to use based on the previous letters in the word.
    31i.
    • They should double the final consonant after a short vowel sound in one-syllable words that end in -f, -l, and -s.
    31j.
    • There are no words in the English language that end with a letter v, so they must add an e to the end of the word to spell and write it accurately.
    31k.
    • High frequency words are words they will use often in their writing, so it is important to learn to encode them quickly and accurately.
    • Known phoneme-grapheme correspondences can be used to accurately encode words.
    31l.
    • Some high frequency words have irregular spelling patterns that they must learn to be able to spell and write the words accurately.
    31m.
    • Suffixes are added to the end of a base word and some have predictable spelling patterns.
    31n.
    • Prefixes are added to the beginning of a base word and some have predictable spelling patterns.
    31o.
    • Homophones are words that are pronounced the same but have different spellings and meanings.
    • It is important to spell homophones accurately to convey their intended message.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 19
    Learning Activities: 4
    Lesson Plans: 4
    Classroom Resources: 11
    32. Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.

    a. Identify the required features of a sentence, including capitalization of the first word and end punctuation.

    b. Transcribe spoken words to demonstrate that print represents oral language.

    c. Compose a simple sentence, including a subject and a predicate, that expresses a complete thought.

    d. With prompting and support, identify the role or purpose of a noun, verb, and adjective within a sentence and describe the type of the information it conveys.

    e. Write the correct number of words, with proper spacing, for a spoken phrase or sentence.

    f. Begin each sentence with a capital letter.

    g. Capitalize the pronoun I and names of individuals.

    h. Use commas in dates and words in a series.

    i. With prompting and support, recognize, name, and correctly use end punctuation, utilizing appropriate academic vocabulary.

    Example: period for declarative sentences, question mark for interrogative sentences, exclamation mark for exclamatory sentences
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    32.
    • Rules of standard English grammar
    • Punctuation rules
    • Capitalization rules
    • Spelling rules
    32a.
    • Identify
    • Required features of a sentence
    • Capitalization
    • End punctuation
    32b.
    • Transcribe
    • Spoken words
    • Demonstrate
    • Print
    • Oral language
    32c.
    • Simple sentence
    • Subject
    • Predicate
    • Complete thought
    32d.
    • Identify
    • Role
    • Purpose
    • Noun
    • Verb
    • Adjective
    • Sentence
    • Describe
    • Information
    32e.
    • Correct number of words
    • Proper spacing
    • Spoken phrase
    • Sentence
    32f.
    • Begin
    • Sentence
    • Capital letter
    32g.
    • Capitalize
    • Pronoun I
    • Names of individuals
    32h.
    • Commas
    • Dates
    • Words in a series
    32i.
    • Recognize
    • Name
    • End punctuation
    • Appropriate academic vocabulary
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    32. Students know:
    • The rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to the first grade level.
    32a.
    • The required features of a sentence.
    32b.
    • Words that are spoken orally can be written using printed letters.
    32c.
    • The features of a simple sentence.
    • The purpose of a subject and a predicate in a complete sentence.
    32d.
    • Role or purpose of a noun, verb, and adjective within a sentence.
    • The type of information nouns, verbs, and adjectives convey.
    32e.
    • Spoken phrases or sentences are composed of words that must be spaced properly when writing.
    32f.
    • Sentences begin with a capital letter.
    32g.
    • The pronoun I and names of individuals are capitalized.
    32h.
    • Commas should be used in dates and in a series of words.
    32i.
    • Types of end punctuation.
    • When to use end punctuation.
    • Academic vocabulary to describe the correct use of end punctuation.
    Skills:
    32. Students are able to:
    • Use proper grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling by following the rules of standard English.
    32a.
    • Identify the features of a sentence including, capitalization of the first word and end punctuation.
    32b.
    • Write spoken words.
    32c.
    • Combine a subject and predicate to compose a simple sentence that expresses a complete thought.
    32d.
    • Identify the role or purpose of a noun, verb, and adjective in a sentence.
    • Describe the type of information a noun, verb, and adjective provide in a sentence.
    32e.
    • Count the number of spoken words in a spoken phrase or sentence.
    • Write the correct number of words for a spoken phrase or sentence with proper spacing between each word.
    32f.
    • Use a capital letter to begin each sentence.
    32g.
    • Capitalize the pronoun I and names of individuals when writing.
    32h.
    • Identify a list of three or more items.
    • Identify dates.
    • Correctly use commas in dates and in a series (list) of three or more words.
    32i. With prompting and support,
    • Recognize, name, and correctly use end punctuation.
    • Utilize appropriate academic vocabulary when using end punctuation, such as period for declarative sentences, question mark for interrogative sentences, exclamation mark for exclamatory sentences.
    Understanding:
    32. Students understand that:
    • Using standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling in their writing will help them clearly communicate with a variety of audiences.
    32a.
    • A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with punctuation while expressing a complete thought.
    32b.
    • Print represents oral language.
    32c.
    • To express a complete thought, a simple sentence must contain a subject and a predicate.
    32d.
    • Nouns, verbs, and adjectives are parts of speech.
    • Nouns identify people, places, things, or ideas in a sentence.
    • Verbs are action words that tell what a noun does in the sentence.
    • Adjectives are words that describe attributes of a noun in the sentence.
    32e.
    • A spoken phrase or sentence is composed of individual words, and they should show where one word ends and the next begins by including proper spacing in their writing.
    32f.
    • All sentences should begin with a capital letter.
    32g.
    • Names of individuals and the pronoun I should be capitalized in their writing.
    32h.
    • Commas are used to separate words in a series.
    • Commas are used to separate numbers in dates.
    32i.
    • There are three types of ending punctuation.
    • Question marks are used for questions.
    • Periods are used for statements.
    • Exclamation marks are used for exclamatory statements.
    • Sentences have different end punctuation based on the meaning of the sentence.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    33. Actively participate in shared writing experiences to compose and develop a well-organized paragraph with a topic sentence, details to support, and a concluding sentence.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    33.
    • Participate
    • Shared writing
    • Compose
    • Develop
    • Well-organized paragraph
    • Topic sentence
    • Supporting details
    • Concluding sentence
    Knowledge:
    33. Students know:
    • A well-organized paragraph includes a topic sentence, sentences with supporting details, and a concluding sentence.
    Skills:
    33. Students are able to:
    • Actively participate in shared writing experiences and compose and develop a paragraph with a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence.
    Understanding:
    33. Students understand that:
    • A paragraph is composed of multiple sentences.
    • A well-organized paragraph includes a topic sentence, details that support the topic, and a concluding sentence.
    • Shared writing is a collaborative project.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    34. With prompting and support, write a narrative that recounts two or more appropriately sequenced events using transitions, incorporating relevant details, and providing a sense of closure.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    34.
    • Narrative
    • Appropriately sequenced events
    • Transitions
    • Relevant details
    • Sense of closure
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    34. Students know:
    • Narrative text describes a story in a series of events.
    • Events in a narrative are sequenced using transition words.
    • Narrative writing should include relevant details.
    • Narrative writing should end with a sense of closure.
    Skills:
    34. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Write a narrative that recounts two or more appropriately sequenced events.
    • Use transition words in a narrative story.
    • Incorporate relevant details in a narrative story.
    • Provide a sense of closure when ending a narrative story.
    Understanding:
    34. Students understand that:
    • A narrative writing describes a sequence of events, uses transition words to show the chronological order of events, incorporates relevant details that are important to understand the story, and ends by providing the reader with a sense of closure.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    35. With prompting and support, write an informative or explanatory text about a topic, using facts from a source and providing a sense of closure.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    35.
    • Informative
    • Explanatory
    • Topic
    • Facts
    • Source
    • Sense of closure
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    35. Students know:
    • Informative or explanatory texts provide facts about a topic that were gathered from a research source.
    • Informative or explanatory writing should end with a sense of closure.
    Skills:
    35. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Write an informative or explanatory text about a topic.
    • Use sources to find facts.
    • End the text by providing a sense of closure.
    Understanding:
    35. Students understand that:
    • Informative or explanatory texts require research, provide facts or details about a topic, and end with a sense of closure.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    36. With prompting and support, write an opinion piece about a topic, including at least one supporting reason from a source and providing a sense of closure.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    36.
    • Opinion
    • Topic
    • Supporting reason
    • Source
    • Sense of closure
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    36. Students know:
    • An opinion piece is focused on a topic and provides a reason for the opinion that was gathered from a source.
    • An opinion piece should end with a sense of closure.
    Skills:
    36. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Write an opinion piece with at least one supporting reason.
    • Use sources to find a support reason for an opinion.
    • End the writing piece by providing a sense of closure.
    Understanding:
    36. Students understand that:
    • Opinion writing requires research, provides reasons for the stated opinion, and ends with a sense of closure.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    37. With prompting and support, write simple poems about a chosen subject.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    37.
    • Simple poems
    • Subject
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    37. Students know:
    • The components of a simple poem.
    Skills:
    37. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Choose a subject for a poem.
    • Write a simple poem.
    Understanding:
    37. Students understand that:
    • Poetry is a genre of writing that includes certain features and usually focuses on particular subjects.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    38. Develop and edit first drafts using appropriate spacing between letters, words, and sentences and left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    38.
    • Develop
    • Edit
    • First drafts
    • Appropriate spacing
    • Left-to-right progression
    • Top-to-bottom progression
    Knowledge:
    38. Students know:
    • A first draft should be reviewed and edited for appropriate spacing and page progression.
    Skills:
    38. Students are able to:
    • Develop and edit first drafts.
    • Use appropriate spacing between letters, words, and sentences in a draft writing.
    • Write from left-to-right and top-to-bottom in a draft.
    Understanding:
    38. Students understand that:
    • There is a writing process involved in creating a writing project, and first drafts should be reviewed and edited to ensure they follow the basic concepts of printed text.
    • There are rules of writing that should be followed to create a text that can be shared with others.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    39. Improve writing, as needed, by planning, revising, and editing with guidance from peer editors, responding to their questions and suggestions.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    39.
    • Improve
    • Writing
    • Planning
    • Revising
    • Editing
    • Peer editors
    • Questions
    • Suggestions
    Knowledge:
    39. Students know:
    • The writing process includes planning, revising, and editing, incorporating guidance and suggestions from others.
    • The process for peer editing and review.
    Skills:
    39. Students are able to:
    • Plan, revise, edit, and use suggestions from peers to improve writing.
    Understanding:
    39. Students understand that:
    • To improve writing they need to follow all of the steps of the writing process.
    • Responding to peers' questions and suggestions during the peer editing process will help improve their writing.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    40. Describe ideas, thoughts, and feelings, using adjectives, drawings, or other visual displays to clarify.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    40.
    • Describe
    • Ideas
    • Thoughts
    • Feelings
    • Adjectives
    • Drawings
    • Visual displays
    • Clarify
    Knowledge:
    40. Students know:
    • How to describe ideas, thoughts, and feelings using adjectives or drawings.
    • Adjectives are words that describe attributes of nouns.
    Skills:
    40. Students are able to:
    • Use adjectives to describe ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
    • Add illustrations or other visual displays to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
    Understanding:
    40. Students understand that:
    • Adjectives may be used to describe thoughts, ideas, or feelings.
    • Adding drawings or other visuals to descriptions help to express thoughts, clarify ideas, and share feelings.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    41. Organize a list of words into alphabetical order according to the first and (when necessary) second letters of the words.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    41.
    • Organize
    • List
    • Alphabetical order
    • First letter
    • Second letter
    Knowledge:
    41. Students know:
    • Alphabetical order to the first and second letter (when necessary).
    Skills:
    41. Students are able to:
    • Organize a list of words in alphabetical order according to the first letter, looking to the second letter if necessary.
    Understanding:
    41. Students understand that:
    • The alphabet has an exact order which can be used to organize a list of words.
    • They must use the second letter of the word when the first letters are the same.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 3
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 2
    42. Participate in shared research and writing projects to answer a question or describe a topic.

    a. Recall information from experiences to contribute to shared research and writing projects.

    b. Gather information from provided sources.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    42.
    • Participate
    • Shared research projects
    • Shared writing projects
    • Question
    • Describe
    • Topic
    42a.
    • Recall information
    • Experiences
    • Contribute
    • Shared research projects
    • Shared writing projects
    42b.
    • Information
    • Sources
    Knowledge:
    42. Students know:
    • Research and writing projects can answer a question or describe a topic.
    42a.
    • Information recalled from personal experiences can be used in research and writing projects.
    42b.
    • Information can be gathered from a variety of sources.
    Skills:
    42. Students are able to:
    • Participate in shared research and writing projects.
    • Answer questions about a topic in writing.
    • Describe a topic in writing.
    42a.
    • Recall information from previous experiences.
    • Contribute this information to shared research and writing projects.
    42b.
    • Use strategies to gather information from provided sources to write about a topic.
    Understanding:
    42. Students understand that:
    • Shared research and writing projects can help answer questions or describe a topic.
    42a.
    • Information gathered from personal experiences can be contributed to research and writing projects.
    42b.
    • Information gathered from other sources can be contributed to research and writing projects.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 1
    All Resources: 0
    43. Use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing with guidance and support from adults, working both individually and in collaboration with peers.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    43.
    • Digital tools
    • Produce writing
    • Publish writing
    • Individually
    • Collaboration with peers
    • Guidance
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    43. Students know:
    • Digital tools can be used to produce and publish writing.
    • Writing can be created and published individually or collaboratively.
    Skills:
    43. Students are able to:
    • Use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing.
    • Produce and publish writing individually.
    • Collaborate with peers to produce and publish writing.
    Understanding:
    43. Students understand that:
    • Digital tools are available to produce and publish writing.
    • They can produce and publish writing alone or in collaboration with others.
    Recurring Standards
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 17
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 5
    Classroom Resources: 11
    R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R1.
    • Active Listening
    • Discussion
    • Conversation
    • Rules
    • Participation
    Knowledge:
    R1. Students know:
    • Active listening skills.
    • Agreed-upon rules for participation for discussions and conversations in a variety of settings.
    Skills:
    R1. Students are able to:
    • Demonstrate active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings.
    • Converse in pairs, small groups, and large groups.
    • Practice the agreed-upon rules for participation.
    Understanding:
    R1. Students understand that:
    • Conversations and discussions follow agreed-upon rules to help us actively listen and gain understanding.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 5
    Learning Activities: 2
    Classroom Resources: 3
    R2. Use knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R2.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Word-analysis skills
    Knowledge:
    R2. Students know:
    • Phoneme (sound) to grapheme (letter or letters) correspondences to encode (spell) words accurately.
    • Grapheme (letter or letters) to phoneme (sound) correspondences to decode (read) words accurately.
    • Word-analysis skills.
    Skills:
    R2. Students are able to:
    • Accurately encode and decode words using knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Accurately encode and decode words using word analysis skills.
    Understanding:
    R2. Students understand that:
    • Mapping graphemes to phonemes is essential for learning to read or decode words efficiently.
    • Mapping phonemes to graphemes is essential for learning to spell or encode words efficiently.
    • Analyzing a word's structure helps to read and spell a word.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    R3. Expand background knowledge and build vocabulary through discussion, reading, and writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R3.
    • Background knowledge
    • Vocabulary
    • Discussion
    Knowledge:
    R3. Students know:
    • Relating experiences through discussions, writing, and reading will help build background knowledge and improve vocabulary.
    Skills:
    R3. Students are able to:
    • Connect new concepts to prior experiences to increase background knowledge through discussions, reading, and writing.
    • Construct the meaning of words through discussions, reading, and writing.
    Understanding:
    R3. Students understand that:
    • Background knowledge can increase by relating experiences to new ideas, topics, and words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
    • Vocabulary will increase by constructing the meaning of words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 3
    Learning Activities: 1
    Classroom Resources: 2
    R4. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically for research and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R4.
    • Digital tools
    • Electronic tools
    • Appropriately
    • Safely
    • Ethically
    • Research
    • Individually
    • Collaboratively
    Knowledge:
    R4. Students know:
    • Digital and electronic tools must be used appropriately, safely, and ethically.
    • Digital and electronic tools can be used for research or for writing tasks.
    • Digital and electronic tools can be independently or with others.
    Skills:
    R4. Students are able to:
    • Engage in safe and ethical behavior when using digital and electronic tools individually and collaboratively.
    Understanding:
    R4. Students understand that:
    • Safe behaviors, interactions that keep you out of harm's way, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
    • Ethical behavior, interactions that align to one's moral code, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 8
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 7
    R5. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R5.
    • Writing process
    • Plan
    • Draft
    • Revise
    • Edit
    • Publish
    • Genres
    Knowledge:
    R5. Students know:
    • The writing process steps are to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish.
    • Various genres of writing.
    Skills:
    R5. Students are able to:
    • Plan writings in various genres.
    • Draft writings in various genres.
    • Revise writings in various genres.
    • Edit writings in various genres.
    • Publish writings in various genres.
    Understanding:
    R5. Students understand that:
    • The writing process is a set of steps that make writing easier.
    • There are different categories, or genres, of writing that can be used for different purposes.
    Literacy Foundations
    Oral Language
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    1. Participate in conversations and discussions with groups and peers utilizing agreed-upon rules.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    1.
    • Conversations
    • Discussions
    • Groups
    • Peers
    • Agreed-upon rules
    Knowledge:
    1. Students know:
    • Speaking and listening skills for discussions and conversations with groups and peers.
    • Agreed-upon rules for discussions.
    Skills:
    1. Students are able to:
    • Listen attentively.
    • Add to conversations.
    • Take turns speaking.
    • Respond to the comments of others.
    • Extend conversations.
    • Converse with peers and adults.
    • Converse in small and large groups.
    • Ask clarifying questions.
    Understanding:
    1. Students understand that:
    • Good conversations occur when participants actively listen, build on others' ideas, and ask clarifying questions.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 5
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 4
    2. Present information orally using complete sentences, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation.

    a. Use oral language for different purposes: to inform, to entertain, to persuade, to clarify, and to respond.

    b. Use complex sentence structures when speaking.

    c. Ask and answer questions to seek help, clarify meaning, or get information.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    2.
    • Present
    • Orally
    • Complete sentences
    • Appropriate volume
    • Clear pronunciation
    2a.
    • Oral language
    • Purposes
    • Inform
    • Entertain
    • Persuade
    • Clarify
    • Respond
    2b.
    • Complex sentence structures
    2c.
    • Ask
    • Answer
    • Seek
    • Clarify
    Knowledge:
    2. Students know:
    • Speaking skills for oral presentations.
    2a.
    • Oral language skills for different purposes of communication.
    2b.
    • The structure of a complex sentence.
    2c.
      Questions to seek help.
    • Questions to clarify information.
    • Questions to get information.
    • Responses to questions with appropriate information.
    Skills:
    2. Students are able to:
    • Form complete sentences, use appropriate volume based on the situation or environment, and use clear pronunciation when sharing information orally.
    2a.
    • Use listening and speaking skills to inform, entertain, persuade, clarify, and respond.
    2b.
    • Use complex sentences when sharing information orally.
    2c.
    • Ask and answer questions to seek help, clarify meaning or get information.
    Understanding:
    2. Students understand that:
    • To communicate clearly, a speaker should use complete sentences, a voice volume that can be heard by the audience, and clearly pronounced words.
    2a.
    • They can use their oral language should vary depending on its purpose.
    2b.
    • Using complex sentence structures when speaking helps to provide details and combine ideas in an interesting way.
    2c. Students understand that:
    • They can get help, learn new information, or express information they know or have learned by asking and answering questions, depending on the task at hand.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 2
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 1
    3. Demonstrate oral literacy skills by participating in a variety of oral language activities.

    Examples: creating oral stories, participating in oral dramatic activities, reciting poems and stories
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    3.
    • Oral literacy skills
    • Oral language activities
    Knowledge:
    3. Students know:
    • Oral literacy skills include speaking, listening, and comprehending.
    Skills:
    3. Students are able to:
    • Demonstrate oral literacy skills in a variety of oral language activities, such as creating oral stories, participating in oral dramatic activities, reciting poems and stories.
    Understanding:
    3. Students understand that:
    • Practicing their oral literacy skills through a variety of activities will help improve their speaking, listening, and comprehension abilities.
    Speaking
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 40
    Lesson Plans: 6
    Classroom Resources: 34
    4. Orally answer who, what, when, where, why, and how questions about a text or conversation, using complete sentences to provide key ideas and details.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    4.
    • Orally
    • Who, what, when where, why, and how questions
    • Complete sentences
    • Key ideas
    • Key details
    Knowledge:
    4. Students know:
    • Key ideas and details should be included when answering questions.
    • Complete sentences, which contain a subject and a predicate, should be used when answering questions.
    • Who, when, and where questions will have a concrete, objective answer.
    • What, why, and how questions may have a more abstract, subjective answer.
    Skills:
    4. Students are able to:
    • Orally answer questions about a text or conversation using complete sentences that provide information about key ideas and details.
    • Orally answer who, what, when, where, why, and how questions about a text or conversation with appropriate key ideas and details.
    Understanding:
    4. Students understand that:
    • When answering who, what, when, where, why, and how questions they should provide key ideas and details from a text or conversation to demonstrate their comprehension.
    • Speaking in complete sentences helps them clearly communicate their message and their understanding.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    5. Create recordings of stories or poems.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    5.
    • Create
    • Recordings
    • Stories
    • Poems
    Knowledge:
    5. Students know:
    • How to verbally create recordings of stories or poems.
    Skills:
    5. Students are able to:
    • Create recordings of stories and/or poems by reading aloud.
    Understanding:
    5. Students understand that:
    • Reading stories or poems aloud help them practice their oral reading fluency skills.
    • Listening to their recordings will help them improve their oral reading fluency skills.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    6. Use visual aids and technology in oral presentations to present key ideas and details about a text or conversation, and add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify thoughts, feelings, and ideas.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    6.
    • Visual aids
    • Technology
    • Key ideas
    • Key details
    • Visual displays
    • Recount of experiences
    • Clarify
    • Oral presentations
    Knowledge:
    6. Students know:
    • Visual aids or technology can help others better understand the key ideas and details of an oral presentation.
    • Drawings and visual displays can help clarify thoughts, feelings, and ideas when presenting orally.
    Skills:
    6. Students are able to:
    • Orally describe key ideas and details about a text, conversation, or personal experience.
    • Use visual aids and technology in oral presentations to present key ideas and details about a text or conversation.
    • Add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences to clarify thoughts, feelings, and ideas.
    Understanding:
    6. Students understand that:
    • Visual aids and technology can help others understand the key ideas and details of their oral presentations.
    • They can clarify their thoughts, feelings, and ideas by including drawings or other visual displays in their oral presentations.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 8
    Learning Activities: 3
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 4
    7. Demonstrate standard English usage when speaking.

    a. Use collective nouns.

    b. Form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns.

    c. Use reflexive pronouns.

    d. Form and use past tense forms of frequently-occurring irregular verbs.

    e. Use adjectives and adverbs.

    f. Produce and expand complete simple and compound sentences when speaking.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    7.
    • Standard English
    • Usage
    7a.
    • Collective nouns
    7b.
    • Form
    • Frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns
    7c.
    • Reflexive pronouns
    7d.
    • Form
    • Past tense
    • Frequently-occurring irregular verbs
    7e.
    • Adjectives
    • Adverbs
    7f.
    • Produce
    • Expand
    • Complete sentences
    • Simple sentences
    • Compound sentences
    Knowledge:
    7. Students know:
    • That standard English means the formal use of the English language.
    7a.
    • Collective nouns are words that identify a group of individuals (family, assembly, congregation, etc.).
    7b.
    • Irregular plural nouns are nouns that do not become plural by adding -s or -es.
    7c.
    • Reflexive pronouns are pronouns that end in "self" or "selves."
    7d.
    • Irregular verbs are verbs that are not made past tense by adding -d or -ed.
    7e.
    • An adjective describes a noun, and an adverb describes an adjective, verb, or other adverb.
    7f.
    • A complete simple sentence includes a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought.
    • A complete compound sentence includes two subjects and two predicates and expresses two complete thoughts.
    • A complete compound sentence must include a coordinating conjunction to link the two complete thoughts.
    Skills:
    7. Students are able to:
    • Use the standard English language when speaking.
    7a.
    • Accurately use collective in spoken language.
    7b.
    • Accurately form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns in spoken language.
    7c.
    • Accurately use reflexive pronouns in spoken language.
    7d.
    • Accurately form and use past tense forms of frequently-occurring irregular verbs in spoken language.
    7e.
    • Correctly use adjectives and adverbs in spoken language.
    7f.
    • Produce complete simple and compound sentences in spoken language.
    • Expand complete simple and compound sentences in spoken language.
    Understanding:
    7. Students understand that:
    • They should use the standard form of English when speaking.
    7a.
    • A collective noun is one word that stands for a group of people.
    • Collective nouns should be used correctly to clearly communicate with others.
    7b.
    • An irregular plural noun is a noun that is made plural in a way other than adding -s or -es, such as children, teeth, and feet.
    • Irregular plural nouns should be used correctly to clearly communicate with others.
    7c.
    • Reflexive pronouns are those pronouns that usually end in "self" or "selves," such as myself or themselves.
    • Reflexive pronouns should be used correctly to clearly communicate with others.
    7d.
    • An irregular verb is a verb that is made past tense in a way other than adding -d or -ed, such as kept or knew.
    • Past tense verbs should be used correctly to clearly communicate with others.
    7e.
    • An adjective is a word that describes the attributes of a noun.
    • An adverb is a word that describes an adjective, a verb, or even another adverb.
    • Using adjectives and adverbs can add specific details in speech.
    7f.
    • A speaker should use complete sentences to clearly express complete thoughts.
    • A simple sentence expresses one complete thought and has at least one subject and one predicate.
    • A compound sentence expresses two complete thoughts that are linked with one of the coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, or, nor, yet, so).
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    8. Apply knowledge of voiced and unvoiced sounds and manner of articulation to distinguish between commonly-confused vowel sounds and commonly-confused cognate consonant sounds.

    Examples: /f/ and /v/, /p/ and /b/, /k/ and /g/, /t/ and /d/, /ch/ and /sh/, /ĕ/ and /ĭ/, /ĕ/, and /ă/

    Note: This is extremely important as a foundational phonemic awareness skill for all learners.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    8.
    • Voiced sounds
    • Unvoiced sounds
    • Manner of articulation
    • Distinguish
    • Commonly-confused vowel sounds
    • Commonly-confused cognate consonant sounds
    Knowledge:
    8. Student know:
      • Distinguishing means identifying the difference between two or more things.
      • Voiced sounds are made with the voice box "turned on," or resonating, while unvoiced sounds are spoken with the voiced box "turned off," like a whisper.
      • All vowels are voiced, while some consonants are voiced and others are unvoiced.
      • Cognate consonants are phoneme or phoneme combinations that are produced almost the same although one is "voiced" and the other "unvoiced."
    Skills:
    8. Students are able to:
    • Tell the difference between commonly-confused cognate consonant and vowel sounds by applying their knowledge of voiced sounds, unvoiced sounds, and manner of articulation.
    Understanding:
    8. Students understand that:
    • Vowels and cognate consonants have sounds that are commonly confused.
    • Applying their knowledge of voiced sounds, unvoiced sounds, and manner of articulation will help distinguish between commonly-confused vowel and cognate consonant sounds.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 4
    Learning Activities: 3
    Classroom Resources: 1
    9. Demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.

    a. Add, delete, and substitute phonemes at the beginning, end, or middle of a spoken word made up of up to six phonemes and produce the resulting word.

    Examples:
    Addition - Say bell. Now say bell, but add /t/ to the end of bell. (belt)
    Addition - Say block. Now say block, but add /t/ to the end of block. (blocked)
    Deletion - Say fin. Now say fin, but don't say /f/. (in)
    Deletion - Say range. Now say range, but don't say /j/. (rain)
    Substitution - Say strap. Now say strap, but change /a/ to /i/. (strip)
    Substitution - Say bleed. Now say bleed, but change the /ē/ to /ā/. (blade)

    b. Delete the initial sound in an initial blend in a one-syllable base word.

    Example: Say prank. Now say prank, but don't say /p/ . (rank)

    c. With prompting and support, delete the medial and final sounds in blends in one syllable base words.

    Examples: Say snail. Now say snail, but don't say /n/. (sail)
    Say wind. Now say wind, but don't say /d/. (win)

    d. Apply phoneme chaining that changes only one sound at a time to show addition, deletion, substitution, and resequencing of sounds from one word to the next.

    Examples: bit, bet, bat; sat, sit; pit, pat

    e. With prompting and support, reverse sounds within a word by saying the last sound first and the first sound last.

    Examples: fine, knife; cat, tack; park, carp
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    9.
    • Demonstrate
    • Advanced phonemic awareness skills
    • Spoken words
    9a.
    • Add
    • Delete
    • Substitute
    • Phonemes
    • Produce
    9b.
    • Delete
    • Initial sound
    • Initial blend
    • One-syllable base word
    9c.
    • Prompting
    • Support
    • Delete
    • Medial sound
    • Final sound
    • Blends
    • One-syllable base word
    9d.
    • Phoneme chaining
    • Addition
    • Deletion
    • Substitution
    • Resequencing of sounds
    9e.
    • Prompting
    • Support
    • Reverse
    • Last
    • First
    • Sound
    Knowledge:
    9. Students know:
    • Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate the phonemes (sounds) in spoken words.
    9a.
    • The meaning of the words add, delete, and substitute.
    • Spoken words can be manipulated (changed) by adding, deleting, or substituting sounds to produce a new word.
    9b.
    • Initial means first or beginning sound.
    • A blend is made up of more than one sound.
    9c.
    • Medial means the middle sound and final means the last sound.
    • A blend is made up of two or more sounds (phonemes).
    9d.
    • Addition means add to, deletion means take away from, substitution means change, and resequencing means changes the order of.
    • Words can be manipulated by changing only one sound at a time.
    9e.
    • Reverse means to change the sequence of sounds to an opposite order.
    Skills:
    9. Students are able to:
    • Identify individual phonemes in words and manipulate those sounds.
    9a.
    • Produce new words by adding phonemes at the beginning, end, or middle of a spoken word made up of up to six phonemes.
    • For example, Say bell. Now say bell but add /t/ to end of bell. (belt)
    • Produce new words by deleting phonemes at the beginning, end, or middle of a spoken word made up of up to six phonemes.
    • For example, Say fin. Now say fin, but don't say /f/. (in)
    • Produce new words by substituting phonemes at the beginning, end, or middle of a spoken word made up of up to six phonemes.
    • For example, Say strap. Now say strap, but change /a/ to /i/. (strip)
    9b.
    • Delete the initial (first) sound in a one-syllable base word with an initial blend.
    • For example, Say prank. Now say prank, but don't say /p/. (rank)
    9c. With prompting and support,
    • Delete the medial (middle) sound in in a one syllable base word with a blend.
    • For example, Say snail. Now say snail, but don't say /n/. (sail).
    • Delete the final (last) sound in in a one syllable base word with a blend.
    • For example, Say wind. Now say wind, but don't say /d/. (win).
    9d.
    • Change one sound in a word at a time using phoneme addition, deletion, and substitution to resequence sounds in a phoneme chain; for example, bit, bet, bat; sat, sit; pit, pat.
    9e. With prompting and support,
    • Reverse sounds in word by saying the last sound first and the first sound last; for example, fine, knife; cat, tack; park, carp.
    Understanding:
    9. Students understand that:
    • Words are made up of one or more phonemes.
    • They can demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills by manipulating those phonemes through additions, deletions, reversals, and substitutions of phonemes.
    • Advanced phonemic awareness skills will help them improve their reading, spelling, and writing.
    9a.
    • They can create new spoken words by manipulating the sounds in the words they hear through addition, deletion, and substitution of phonemes.
    9b.
    • Blends are made of more than one sound, and they can delete the first sound to create a new word.
    9c.
    • Blends are made of more than one sound, and they can delete the middle or last sound of a blend to create a new word.
    9d.
    • They can demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills by changing one sound in a word to create a chain (or group of words).
    • Words can be manipulated by adding, deleting, substituting, and resequencing sounds.
    9e.
    • Spoken words can be manipulated by reversing the first and last sounds.
    Phonics
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 5
    Learning Activities: 2
    Classroom Resources: 3
    10. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles to decode and encode (spell) words accurately in isolation and in context.

    a. Decode multisyllabic words with common syllable patterns, including open/closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, and schwa syllables.

    b. Apply knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles to decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words.

    Examples: VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, CV/VC; rab-bit, o-pen, cab-in, li-on

    c. Decode and encode words with three-consonant blends and blends containing digraphs.

    d. Decode and encode words with consonant digraphs, trigraphs, and combinations.

    Examples: qu, sh, ch, th, ph, wh, tch, dge

    e. Decode and encode words with variable vowel teams and vowel diphthongs.

    Examples: oi, oy; ou, ow; au, aw; oo, ew, ue; ee, ea; igh, ie; ai, ay

    f. Decode and encode words with vowel-r combinations.

    Examples: ar, air, are, ear, eer, er, ere, eir, ir, or, oar, ore, our, ur

    g. Decode and encode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.

    Examples: wild, most, cold, colt, mind

    h. Decode and encode words with a after w read /ä/ and a before l read /â/.

    Examples: wash, water, wasp; tall, all, talk, small, fall

    i. Decode and encode words with or after w read /er/.

    Examples: world, word, worm, worst, work

    j. Decode and encode words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.

    Examples: c=/k/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and c= /s/ before i, e, or y
    g=/g/ before a, o, u, or any consonant and g=/j/ before i, e, or y

    k. Decode and encode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words, distinguishing the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words, and words with vowel y in medial position, producing the short /ĭ/ sound for these words.

    Examples: fly, my; baby, happy; myth, gym

    l. Decode words with silent letter combinations.

    Examples: kn, mb, gh

    m. Decode and encode words with prefixes and suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.

    Examples: pro-, trans-, non-, mid-; -ful, -less, -ness, -ed, ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly

    n. Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, including those that contain only one irregularity.

    Examples: decodable - number, way, my, than, word
    decodable except for one irregularity - other (o is schwa), from- (o is schwa)
    what - (a is schwa or short o depending on dialect)

    o. Decode and encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will.

    Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonics
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    10.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Isolation
    • In context
    10a.
    • Decode
    • Multisyllabic words
    • Common syllable patterns
    • Open syllable
    • Closed syllable
    • vowel-r syllable
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllable
    • Vowel team syllable
    • Consonant-le syllable
    • Schwa syllable
    10b.
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Decode
    • Grade-appropriate multisyllabic words
    10c.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Three-consonant blends
    • Digraphs
    10d.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Consonant digraphs
    • Trigraphs
    • Combinations
    10e.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Variable vowel teams
    • Vowel diphthongs
    10f.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • vowel-r combinations
    10g.
    • Encode
    • Decode
    • Letter patterns
    10h.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    10i.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    10j.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Hard sound
    • Soft sound
    • In context
    • In isolation
    10k.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Vowel y
    • Medial position
    • Final position
    • One-syllable words
    • Two-syllable words
    • Long /ī/ sound
    • Long /ē/ sound
    • Short /ĭ/ sound
    10l.
    • Decode
    • Silent letter combinations
    10m.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Prefixes
    • Suffixes
    • Suffix addition
    10n.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
    • Predictable
    • Decodable
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Irregularity
    10o.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Contractions
    Knowledge:
    10. Student know:
    • Spoken words can be represented in print by using letter symbols (graphemes) to represent sounds (phonemes).
    • Printed words can be read by saying the sound (phoneme) that is represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
    • Multisyllabic words contain more than one syllable, and multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining individual syllables.
    • Syllable division is breaking words apart by the syllables.
    • Decode means to read, and encode means to spell.
    • Decoding and encoding in isolation means reading or spelling a single word, while in context refers to these skills within a larger text.
    10a.
    • Accurately decoding multisyllabic words requires knowledge of common syllable types.
    • Syllable patterns are principles that help divide words into parts with one vowel sound that can be easily decoded.
    10b.
    • Multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining syllables.
    • Syllable division principles help divide words into parts with one vowel sound based on predictable patterns.
    10c.
    • Three-consonant blends are a combination of three consonants in which each represents a phoneme sound.
    • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
    10d.
    • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
    • Trigraphs are three letter combinations that represents a single phoneme sound.
    • Combinations are two letters that frequently appear together and have an associated phoneme.
    10e.
    • Vowel teams are a combination of two, three, or four letters that represent for one vowel sound.
    • Variable vowel teams are vowel teams that can make different sounds.
    • Diphthongs are single vowel phonemes that glide in the middle.
    10f.
    • vowel-r combinations are a single vowel letter or vowel team followed by r that represents a unique vowel sound.
    10g.
    • Words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.
    10h.
    • The sound a makes when it occurs after w.
    • The sound a makes when it occurs before l.
    10i.
    • Words that are spelled with an or after w.
    • When an r follows a vowel, the vowel can make a different sound.
    10j.
    • The hard sound of c is /k/.
    • The soft sound of c is /s/.
    • The hard sound of g is /g/.
    • The soft sound of g is /j/.
    10k.
    • The letter y can make three vowel sounds depending on the number of syllables in the words and its position in a word.
    10l.
    • Silent letter combinations, such as kn, mb, gh.
    10m.
    • Prefixes are word parts that can be added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning of the word.
    • Suffixes are word parts that can be added at the end of the word to change the meaning of the word.
    • Some base words require changes in spelling before a suffix is added.
    10n.
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences as well as those with one irregularity.
    10o.
    • Contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, such as I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll.
    Skills:
    10. Students are able to:
    • Read and spell words accurately in isolation and in context based on their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme relationships, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles.
    10a.
    • Decode words with more than one syllable using their knowledge of common syllable types: open, closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, and schwa.
    10b.
    • Decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words using knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles; for example, VC/CV, rab-bit; V/CV, o-pen; VC/V, cab-in; CV/VC, li-on.
    10c.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with three-consonant blends and blends containing digraphs, such as lunch and shred.
    10d.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with consonant digraphs, such as sh, ch ,th, ph, wh.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with consonant trigraphs, such as tch, dge.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with combinations, such as qu.
    10e.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with variable vowel teams (examples: ea, ie, oo) and vowel diphthongs (examples: oi, ou).
    10f.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with vowel-r combinations, such as ar, air, ear, eer, er, eir, ir, or, our, ur.
    10g.
      Accurately decode and encode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns, such as wild, most, cold, colt, mind.
    10h.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with a after w, such as wash, water, wasp.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with a before l, such as tall, all, talk, small, fall.
    10i.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with or after w pronounced /er/, such as world, word, worm, worst, work.
    10j.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with the hard and soft sounds of c and g, in context and in isolation.
    10k.
  • Accurately decode and encode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words.
  • Distinguish the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words (like fly and my) and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words (like baby and happy).
  • Accurately decode and encode words with vowel y in medial position, such as myth and gym.
  • 10l.
    • Accurately decode words with silent letter combinations.
    10m.
    • Accurately decode and encode words using prefixes, suffixes, or both.
    • Change the endings of words by dropping the e when adding suffixes or changing the y-to-i, when appropriate.
    10n.
    • Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, such as number, way, my, than, word.
    • Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled with one irregularity, such as other, from, what.
    10o.
    • Accurately decode and encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, such as I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll.
    Understanding:
    10. Students understand that:
    • To read (decode), they must accurately say the sounds (phonemes) that are represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
    • To spell (encode), they must accurately represent the letter symbols (graphemes) that correspond to the spoken sounds (phonemes).
    • They can use syllable division principles to accurately decode and encode words.
    • They can use their knowledge of the six syllable types to accurately decode and encode words.
    • They will sometimes use these skills in isolation, and other times in context when reading or writing a longer text.
    10a.
    • They can decode (read) multisyllabic words by dividing the words into syllables and applying their knowledge of syllable patterns.
    10b.
    • Multisyllabic words are composed of more than one syllable.
    • They can create words that are multisyllabic by combining individual syllables.
    • They can use the syllable division principles to help with decoding grade-appropriate words.
    10c.
    • When reading or spelling a word with a three-letter consonant blend each consonant produces a sound.
    • When reading or spelling a word with a digraph and a blend, the digraph will be represented by two letters that make one sound, combined with a consonant that produces its sound.
    10d.
    • Some words have special combinations of letters that can be decoded and encoded using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    10e.
    • Variable vowel teams are also called unpredictable vowel teams because the graphemes make different sounds, such as in meat, head, steak.
    • Vowel diphthongs are a type of vowel team where the mouth position shifts during the production of the single vowel phoneme, such as in boy and cow.
    10f.
    • When an r follows a vowel, the vowel sound frequently changes, and the spellings of these sounds are variable.
    10g.
    • Long-vowel sounds will be produced in words that have the patterns of -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind.
    10h.
    • Adjacent letters and letter position within a word can change the sound a letter produces.
    10i.
    • When or appears after a w in a word, it is pronounced as /er/.
    • When they hear the /er/ sound after the /w/ sound, the word will be spelled with the orvowel combination.
    10j.
    • The letter that follows a c or g determines the sound that c or g will make in a word.
    • C makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    • G makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    10k.
    • Y can make three vowel sounds: long /ī/, long /ē/, and short /ĭ/.
    • The number of syllables in a word and the position of the vowel y in the word determines how the y is pronounced.
    10l.
    • Some words they read will have silent letter combinations in which one or more letters are silent (doesn't represent a phoneme) but another letter in the combination does represent the phoneme.
    10m.
    • Prefixes are added to the beginning of a base word and some have predictable spelling patterns.
    • Suffixes are added to the end of a base word and some have predictable spelling patterns.
    • Words can be read and spelled by identifying the prefixes or suffixes within the word.
    • Some base words require changes before a suffix is added.
    10n.
    • Some high frequency words have irregular spelling patterns that they must learn to be able to read and spell the words accurately.
    10o.
    • Contractions are made up of two words that are shortened by combining the two words and replacing the omitted letters with an apostrophe.
    Fluency
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    11. Apply previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences to multisyllabic words with accuracy and automaticity, in and out of context.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    11.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Multisyllabic words
    • Accuracy
    • Automaticity
    • In context
    • Out of context
    Knowledge:
    11. Students know:
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences in multisyllabic words.
    • Accuracy is reading the word correctly, and automaticity is reading the word quickly without having to sound it out.
    Skills:
    11. Students are able to:
    • Read multisyllabic words with accuracy and automaticity in and out of context by applying knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    Understanding:
    11. Students understand that:
    • Automatic recall of phoneme-grapheme correspondences will help them decode multisyllabic words accurately and become a fluent reader.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 15
    Learning Activities: 1
    Classroom Resources: 14
    12. Read and reread grade-appropriate text accurately, automatically, and with meaningful expression at a rate which supports comprehension.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    12.
    • Reread
    • Grade-appropriate text
    • Accurately
    • Automatically
    • Meaningful expression
    • Rate which supports comprehension
    Knowledge:
    12. Students know:
    • Accurately means reading without mistakes and automatically means knowing the words immediately without sounding them out.
    • Techniques to make appropriate changes in voice, pitch, and expression while reading orally.
    • Reading must occur at a speed (rate) that supports understanding of the text.
    • Rereading is a strategy that aids in word recognition and comprehension.
    Skills:
    12. Students are able to:
    • Read and reread words that are second grade-appropriate with little to no mistakes.
    • Read words quickly without pausing to sound them out.
    • Read and reread at a pace that supports comprehension of the text.
    Understanding:
    12. Students understand that:
    • They should read text with accuracy, automaticity, and meaningful expression at a pace that helps them comprehend the text they are reading.
    • They can reread text to improve their accuracy, automaticity, and comprehension.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 7
    Classroom Resources: 7
    13. Read grade-appropriate poetry, noticing phrasing, rhythm, and rhyme.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    13.
    • Grade-appropriate poetry
    • Phrasing
    • Rhythm
    • Rhyme
    Knowledge:
    13. Students know:
    • The features of poetry include phrasing, rhythm, and rhyme.
    • Words rhyme if their vowel and ending sounds are the same (example: ham, Sam).
    • Rhythm is a steady beat made by stressed syllables in spoken words.
    • A phrase is a group of words.
    Skills:
    13. Students are able to:
    • Read grade-appropriate poetry.
    • Notice the features of poetry, including words that rhyme, stressed syllables that create rhythm, and words that are grouped together in phrases.
    Understanding:
    13.
    • Poetry is a genre of text that uses distinctive style and rhythm to aid in the expression of feelings.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    14. Read high-frequency words commonly found in grade-appropriate text.


    Note: High-frequency words should be taught with the main emphasis of the lesson being on regular correspondences and patterns within the word. The student should be able to read the word accurately three times in a row on different days to be considered accurate enough to add to a personal word box, word ring, or fluency folder for fluency practice. Avoid teaching high-frequency words as "sight words" that need to be memorized as a whole word, unless there are no regular correspondences in the word. "Of" is an example of a word with no regular correspondences.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Fluency
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    14.
    • High-frequency words
    • Grade-appropriate text
    Knowledge:
    14. Students know:
    • High frequency words that are common found in second-grade level text.
    Skills:
    14. Students are able to:
    • Read high-frequency words in second grade-level text accurately and independently three times in a row on different days.
    Understanding:
    14. Students understand that:
    • High-frequency words are words that are found regularly in grade-appropriate text, so it is important to learn to read them automatically, accurately, and independently.
    Vocabulary
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    15. Utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary, making connections to previously learned words and relating new words to background knowledge.

    a. Make connections to a word's structure using knowledge of phonology, morphology, and orthography of the word to aid learning.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    15.
    • Utilize
    • Academic vocabulary
    • Content-specific vocabulary
    • Grade-level vocabulary
    • Connections
    • Relating
    • Background knowledge
    15a.
    • Word structure
    • Phonology
    • Morphology
    • Orthography
    Knowledge:
    15. Students know:
    • Academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary words.
    • Content-specific vocabulary refers to words used in different subjects learned in school such as reading, math, social studies, science.
    • New vocabulary words can be learned by relating them to previously learned words and background knowledge.
    15a.
    • Phonology (speech sounds within words).
    • Morphology (meaningful units of words).
    • Orthography (the written representation of language).
    Skills:
    15. Students are able to:
    • Use new academic, content-specific vocabulary by making connections to previously learned words.
    • Use new academic, content-specific vocabulary by relating new words to background knowledge.
    15a.
    • Make connections to a word's structure using speech sounds, meaningful word parts, and spelling of the word to aid learning.
    Understanding:
    15. Students understand that:
    • Academic, content-specific vocabulary words are used in different school subjects, like reading, math, social studies, and science.
    • They can learn new vocabulary words by making connections to previously learned words or their background knowledge.
    15a.
    • Identifying a word's phonological, morphological, and orthographic structure can help them determine the meaning of a word, as well as the word's origin.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 7
    Classroom Resources: 7
    16. Describe word relationships and nuances in word meanings, including relating them to their opposites and distinguishing shades of meaning in similar or related words.

    a. Use knowledge of antonyms and synonyms.

    b. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs and adjectives.

    Examples: Act out jog, gallop, and sprint to distinguish shades of meaning in words related to run.
    pretty, beautiful, gorgeous; tiny, small, petite

    c. Use knowledge of homophones to determine use of the correct word.

    d. With prompting and support, interpret figurative language.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    16.
    • Describe
    • Word relationships
    • Nuances
    • Opposites
    • Distinguishing
    • Shades of meaning
    • Similar words
    • Related words
    16a.
    • Antonyms
    • Synonyms
    16b.
    • Shades of meaning
    • Verbs
    • Adjectives
    16c.
    • Homophones
    16d.
    • Figurative language
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    16. Students know:
    • Word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    16a.
    • Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings and synonyms are words that have similar meanings.
    16b.
    • A verb expresses an action or state of being.
    • An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.
    16c.
    • Homophones have the same pronunciation, but different meanings, origins, and/or spellings.
    16d.
    • Figurative language is a creative way to use words and phrases beyond their literal definition to explain or describe something.
    Skills:
    16. Students are able to:
    • Describe how the meaning of words are alike or different.
    • Describe the nuances of words that have different shades of meaning (example: happy vs. ecstatic).
    16a.
    • Describe word relationships by relating words of opposite meanings (antonyms) and similar meanings (synonyms).
    16b.
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs, such as act out jog, gallop, and sprint to distinguish shades of meaning in words related to run.
    • Distinguish shades of meaning among adjectives, such as pretty, beautiful, gorgeous; tiny, small, petite.
    16c.
    • Use their knowledge of homophones to determine the correct word meaning and its appropriate use in context.
    16d. With prompting and support,
    • Interpret figurative language to understand its meaning.
    Understanding:
    16. Students understand that:
    • Writers and speakers should carefully select words to convey specific meanings, ideas, and relationships.
    • Words have relationships with others and that words have subtle differences that can be distinguished within text.
    16a.
    • Words can be related to each other, such as some words having similar meanings (synonyms) and some words having opposite meanings (antonyms).
    • Their knowledge of antonyms and synonyms will help improve their academic vocabulary.
    16b.
    • Adjectives and verbs have nuanced meanings.
    • They can use verbs and adjectives with different shades of meaning to clearly convey their meaning when writing and speaking.
    16c.
    • Homophone are words that are pronounced the same, but differ in meaning and/or spelling.
    16d.
    • Figurative language carries meaning other than the literal meaning of the words or phrases .
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 10
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 9
    17. Analyze meaningful parts of words and phrases in discussions and/or text.

    a. Identify possessives and plurals and use them as clues to the meaning of text.

    Example: girl's dress; boys' game; cats, cat's, cats'; houses, house's shutters

    b. Identify meaningful parts of words (morphemes) and use them as clues to the meaning of unknown words, including base words, compound words, and frequently occurring affixes and inflections.

    Examples: -less, -ful, -est

    Note: Adding suffix -est changes an adjective to a superlative adjective; adding suffix -ful changes the part of speech.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    17.
    • Analyze
    • Meaningful word parts
    • Phrases
    17a.
    • Possessives
    • Plurals
    17b.
    • Identify
    • Meaningful parts of words
    • Morphemes
    • Base words
    • Compound words
    • Affixes
    • Inflections
    Knowledge:
    17. Students know:
    • Words can be divided into parts to learn the meaning of the word.
    • Phrases are groups of words that carry meaning.
    17a.
    • That possessives show ownership, and plural mean more than one.
    17b.
    • Words can be divided into smaller parts that carry meaning, which are called morphemes.
    • Compound words are one word made of two independent, base words (example: hot dog is made of hot and dog).
    • Affixes and inflections can be added to words to change their meaning.
    Skills:
    17. Students are able to:
    • Identify and analyze meaningful parts of words or phrases in discussions and/or text.
    17a.
    • Identify possessives by the apostrophe either before or after the s, such as girl's dress; boys' game.
    • Identify plurals by the -s or -es at the end of singular words, such as cats; houses.
    • Use possessives and plurals as clues to the meaning of the text, such as cats, cat's cats'; houses, house's shutters.
    17b.
    • Break words down into their smallest meaningful parts (morphemes) to determine the meaning of an unknown word.
    • Identify suffixes like -less, -est, -ful to determine the meaning of an unknown word.
    • Divide compound words into their smaller individual words to determine the meaning of unknown words.
    Understanding:
    17. Students understand that:
    • Words can be divided into smaller units that carry meaning.
    • Phrases are groups of words that carry meaning.
    17a.
    • Possessives and plurals may change the meaning of text.
    17b.
    • They can break words into smaller parts to determine the meaning of words that they don't know.
    • Knowing affixes and inflections can also help them determine the meaning of unknown words.
    • Compound words are made of two base words, and they can divide the compound word into two parts.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    18. Use dictionary definitions and information found within the text to help determine meaning of unfamiliar or multi-meaning words.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    18.
    • Dictionary definitions
    • Unfamiliar
    • Multi-meaning words
    Knowledge:
    18. Students know:
    • Words can have more than one meaning.
    • Dictionaries are reference books that can be used to find the meaning of unknown or multi-meaning words.
    • Context clues can help determine the meaning of unknown or multi-meaning words.
    Skills:
    18. Students are able to:
    • Use dictionaries (or glossaries in the back of their books) to locate the meanings of unfamiliar or multi-meaning words.
    • Use words within a text to help them determine the meaning of an unfamiliar or multi-meaning words.
    Understanding:
    18. Students understand that:
    • The text around a word can provide clues about the meaning of an unfamiliar or multi-meaning word.
    • They can use reference books, such as a dictionary, to help them determine the meaning of an unknown or multi-meaning word.
    • To comprehend a text, they must use strategies to understand the meaning of vocabulary words.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    19. Identify new vocabulary and the use of word meanings in text to establish real-life connections.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    19.
    • Vocabulary
    • Establish
    • Real-life connections
    Knowledge:
    19. Students know:
    • New vocabulary they encounter in text can be used in their real life.
    • Real life means situations that they have experienced or will experience.
    Skills:
    19. Students are able to:
    • Identify vocabulary words learned through reading text and connect them to something they have personally experienced.
    Understanding:
    19. Students understand that:
    • Making real-life connections to new vocabulary words, helps them move the new words to their long-term memory, becoming part of their "ready to use" vocabulary.
    Reading
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    20. Use grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary to gain meaning from text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    20.
    • Academic vocabulary
    • Domain-specific vocabulary
    Knowledge:
    20. Students know:
    • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
    • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
    • Vocabulary knowledge can be used to comprehend text.
    Skills:
    20. Students are able to:
    • Use knowledge of second grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary words to accurately comprehend text.
    Understanding:
    20. Students understand that:
    • Learning the meaning of academic, domain-specific vocabulary words will help them comprehend text in a variety of subject areas.
    Writing
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    21. Use grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary in writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Vocabulary
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    21.
    • Academic vocabulary
    • Domain-specific vocabulary
    Knowledge:
    21. Students know:
    • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
    • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
    • Academic, domain-specific vocabulary words should be used in writing to clearly communicate ideas.
    Skills:
    21. Students are able to:
    • Use second grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary words in writing.
    Understanding:
    21. Students understand that:
    • Using academic and domain-specific vocabulary words in writing makes their writing more interesting and helps to clearly communicate their message.
    Comprehension
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    22. Use content knowledge built during read-alouds and independent reading of informational and literary texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    22.
    • Content knowledge
    • Read-alouds
    • Independent reading
    • Informational text
    • Literary Text
    • Content-specific discussions
    • Writing
    Knowledge:
    22. Students know:
    • Content knowledge is information learned about a specific subject.
    • Content knowledge can be learned by listening to read-alouds or independently reading.
    • Informational text is nonfiction text, and literary text is fictional.
    Skills:
    22. Students are able to:
    • Build content knowledge from listening to text read aloud and from independently reading.
    • Use content knowledge learned from read-alouds and independent reading in content-specific discussions with peers.
    • Use content knowledge learned from read-alouds and independent reading in writing.
    Understanding:
    22. Students understand that:
    • Content-specific discussions with peers can demonstrate the content knowledge they learned through read-alouds or independent reading.
    • They can produce writings that demonstrate knowledge of content-specific information.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 18
    Learning Activities: 5
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 11
    23. Identify the main story elements in a literary text.

    a. Explain the plot of a narrative, using textual evidence to list the major events in sequence.

    b. Describe the characters' traits, feelings, and behaviors in a story.

    c. Describe the setting of a narrative, using textual evidence.

    d. Identify the central message or moral of a story.

    e. Identify the theme in myths, fables, and folktales.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    23.
    • Story elements
    • Literary text
    23a.
    • Plot
    • Narrative
    • Textual evidence
    • Major events
    • Sequence
    23b.
    • Describe
    • Character
    • Traits
    • Feelings
    • Behaviors
    23c.
    • Setting
    • Narrative
    • Textual evidence
    23d.
    • Central message
    • Moral
    23e.
    • Theme
    • Myths
    • Fables
    • Folktales
    Knowledge:
    23. Students know:
    • Literary text is a story that contains story elements, like a plot and characters.
    23a.
    • Plot is the main events of a story (often referred to as the beginning, middle, and end of a story).
    • The sequence of events is the order in which the story takes place.
    23b.
    • A story author provides descriptions of the characters' traits, feelings, and behaviors.
    23c.
    • Setting is when and where a story takes place.
    23d.
    • A central message or moral is the lesson that is learned through the story or the one big idea of the story.
    23e.
    • Theme is the main, recurring idea in a text.
    • Myths, fables, and folktales are fictional pieces of text.
    Skills:
    23. Students are able to:
    • Identify the main story elements in a literary text, such as characters, settings, and plot.
    23a.
    • Explain the major events of a story in order by using text evidence.
    23b.
    • Describe characters' traits, feelings, and behaviors by using information from the text.
    23c.
    • Describe the setting of a story by using evidence from the text.
    23d.
    • Identify the central message or moral of a story using information from the text.
    23e.
    • Identify the theme of a myth, fable, or folktale.
    Understanding:
    23. Students understand that:
    • Literary texts include story elements, and they can identify the various elements to better understand the text.
    23a.
    • The plot is the main events of the story that happen in a particular sequence.
    • The plot can be explained by using words or phrases from the text.
    23b.
    • Understanding each character's traits, feelings, and behaviors will help them better understand a story's plot.
    • They can learn about characters by carefully reading the story and describing the characters' traits, feelings, and behaviors.
    23c.
    • They can use information from the text to learn when and where the story takes place.
    • They can use the text to describe attributes of the setting.
    23d.
    • Stories will often have a central message or moral that the author intended to share with readers.
    23e.
    • Myths, fables, and folktales are often written to convey a particular theme or main message.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 8
    Learning Activities: 1
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 5
    24. Identify the main idea and supporting details of literary and informational texts.

    a. Explain how the supporting details contribute to the main idea.

    b. Recount or summarize key ideas from the text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    24.
    • Main idea
    • Supporting details
    • Literary text
    • Informational text
    24a.
    • Explain
    • Main idea
    • Supporting details
    • Contribute
    24b.
    • Recount
    • Summarize
    • Key ideas
    Knowledge:
    24. Students know:
    • The main idea is the most important idea presented in the text.
    • The supporting details explain the main idea or provide more information about the main idea.
    24a.
    • The supporting details explain the main idea or provide more information about the main idea.
    24b.
    • Key ideas are important details within a text.
    • Recount means to retell the big ideas of the text.
    • Summarize means to briefly state the big ideas of the text.
    Skills:
    24. Students are able to:
    • Identify the main idea in literary and informational text.
    • Identify the supporting details in literary and informational text.
    24a.
    • Explain how the supporting details provide more information about the main idea.
    24b.
    • Retell or summarize the most important (key) ideas from a text.
    Understanding:
    24. Students understand that:
    • Literary and informational texts have a main idea, or most important message, and supporting details, which provide more information about the main idea.
    • A text usually just has one main idea, but multiple supporting details.
    24a.
    • The supporting details help explain the main idea or provide more information about the main idea.
    24b.
    • Texts have key ideas, and they can retell or summarize these important ideas to demonstrate comprehension of the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 9
    Learning Activities: 2
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 4
    Unit Plans: 1
    25. Identify and use various text features to locate ideas, facts, or supporting details in both written and digital formats.

    a. Identify and locate captions, bold print, subheadings, indexes, graphs, maps, glossaries, and illustrations.

    b. Explain how specific features can clarify a text or enhance comprehension.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    25.
    • Identify
    • Text features
    • Ideas
    • Facts
    • Supporting details
    • Written formats
    • Digital formats
    25a.
    • Captions
    • Bold print
    • Subheadings
    • Indexes
    • Graphs
    • Maps
    • Glossaries
    • Illustrations
    25b.
    • Features
    • Clarify
    • Enhance
    • Comprehension
    Knowledge:
    25. Students know:
    • Text features can be used to locate information in printed and digital text.
    25a.
    • Captions, bold print, subheadings, indexes, graphs, maps, glossaries, and illustrations are important text features that can help provide or locate information.
    25b.
    • Text features can clarify or enhance the meaning of text.
    Skills:
    25. Students are able to:
    • Identify text features in printed and digital text.
    • Use text features to locate ideas, facts, and supporting details.
    25a.
    • Locate captions, bold print, subheads, indexes, graphs, maps, glossaries, and illustrations within a text.
    • Identify captions, bold print, subheads, indexes, graphs, maps, glossaries, and illustrations by naming them within a text.
    25b.
    • Explain how text features can clarify the meaning of text.
    • Explain how text features can improve comprehension of text.
    Understanding:
    25. Students understand that:
    • Printed and digital text has predictable features that can be used to locate important ideas, facts, and supporting details.
    • Using text features helps support their overall comprehension.
    25a.
    • Locating and identifying text features can aid in comprehension.
    • Viewing these text features prior to reading, can provide a preview of the material and give them a purpose for reading.
    25b.
    • They can use text features to better understand, or comprehend, the meaning of a text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 17
    Learning Activities: 8
    Lesson Plans: 5
    Classroom Resources: 4
    26. Compare and contrast important details presented by two texts on the same topic or theme.

    a. Compare and contrast different versions of the same story by different authors, from different cultures, or from different points of view.

    Examples: The Three Little Pigs and The True Story of the Three Little Pigs; Cinderella and The Rough-Face Girl

    b. Compare and contrast story elements of literary texts.

    Examples: characters, settings, sequence of events, plots
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    26.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Topic
    • Theme
    26a.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Authors
    • Cultures
    • Points of view
    26b.
    • Compare
    • Contrast
    • Story elements
    • Literary texts
    Knowledge:
    26. Students know:
    • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar.
    • Contrast means tell how things are different.
    26a.
    • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar.
    • Contrast means tell how things are different.
    • The same story can be told by different authors, can exist in different cultures, or can be told by different narrators.
    26b.
    • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar.
    • Contrast means tell how things are different.
    • Literary texts include common story elements.
    Skills:
    26. Students are able to:
    • Compare and contrast important details after reading two texts that have a common theme or topic.
    26a.
    • Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story by different authors, from different cultures, or from different points of view.
    • For example, The Three Little Pigs and The True Story of the Three Little Pigs or Cinderella and The Rough-Face Girl.
    26b.
    • Compare and contrast story elements in literary texts, such as characters, settings, sequence of events, and plots.
    Understanding:
    26. Students understand that:
    • Texts about the same topic or theme will have similarities and differences.
    • Comparing and contrasting texts with the same topic or theme will improve their overall comprehension of the texts.
    26a.
    • Similarities and differences between the same stories can teach the reader about different cultures and explain different points of view.
    26b.
    • Comparing and contrasting story elements of literary texts can improve their comprehension, or understanding, of the texts.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 3
    Classroom Resources: 3
    27. Identify the text structures within literary and informational texts, including cause and effect, problem and solution, and sequence of events.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    27.
    • Text structures
    • Literary texts
    • Informational texts
    • Cause and effect
    • Problem and solution
    • Sequence of events
    Knowledge:
    27. Students know:
    • Literary and informational texts follow predictable structures.
    • Cause and effect text structure describes an event (the cause) and the consequence or result of the event (the effect).
    • Problem and solution text structure describes a problem and how the problem was solved or could be solved.
    • Sequence of events is the order of events within a text.
    Skills:
    27. Students are able to:
    • Identify the text structure of literary texts.
    • Identify the text structure of informational texts.
    Understanding:
    27. Students understand that:
    • Identifying the text structure of literary and informational texts will set a purpose for their reading and improve their comprehension.
    Reading
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    28. Establish a purpose before reading literary and informational texts to enhance comprehension.

    Examples: for pleasure, to identify main idea, to gather information or facts on a topic
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    28.
    • Establish
    • Purpose
    • Literary texts
    • Informational texts
    • Enhance
    • Comprehension
    Knowledge:
    28. Students know:
    • There are different purposes for reading.
    • Authors write text for different purposes.
    Skills:
    28. Students are able to:
    • Establish a purpose for reading literary and informational text, such as for pleasure, to identify the main idea, to gather information or facts on a topic.
    Understanding:
    28. Students understand that:
    • There are different purposes for reading, and establishing their purpose before engaging in reading can improve their overall comprehension of literary and informational text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    29. With prompting and support, identify and interpret various cohesive devices that help link words and sentences to one another within the text as a scaffold to help build comprehension at the sentence and paragraph level.

    Examples: pronoun references, word substitution using synonyms, conjunctions
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    29.
    • Identify
    • Interpret
    • Cohesive devices
    • Scaffold
    • Comprehension
    • Sentence level
    • Paragraph level
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    29. Students know:
    • Words, sentences, and paragraphs can be joined together with certain words, phrases, or references.
    Skills:
    29. Students are able to:
    With prompting and support,
    • Identify cohesive devices that link together words and sentences within a text, such as pronoun references, word substitution using synonyms, and conjunctions.
    • Interpret cohesive devices to comprehend text at the sentence and paragraph level.
    Understanding:
    29. Students understand that:
    • Cohesive devices, like pronoun references, word substitution, and conjunctions, can link words and sentences together within the larger body of text.
    • To fully comprehend a text, they must understand the meaning of the cohesive devices.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 6
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 4
    30. Read and comprehend literary and informational texts.

    a. State and confirm predictions about a text.

    b. Use background knowledge to make connections to new text.

    c. Draw conclusions based on the text.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    30.
    • Comprehend
    • Literary texts
    • Informational texts
    30a.
    • Confirm
    • Predictions
    30b.
    • Background knowledge
    • Connections
    30c.
    • Draw conclusions
    Knowledge:
    30. Students know:
    • Comprehension is understanding text that is read.
    30a.
    • A prediction is a guess at what they think the story or passage will be about.
    30b.
    • Background knowledge will help make connections to text.
    30c.
    • Drawing conclusions is taking what they currently know and applying it to what they have just read to develop a new thought or reasoning.
    Skills:
    30. Students are able to:
    • Read and comprehend literary (fictional) and informational (nonfiction) text.
    30a.
    • Share predictions about the text they will read.
    • Confirm predictions as correct or incorrect after reading the text.
    30b.
    • Use current background knowledge to make connections to new information presented in text.
    30c.
    • Draw conclusions after reading a text.
    Understanding:
    30. Students understand that:
    • They can read literary and informational texts and use comprehension skills to understand what they have read.
    30a.
    • They can demonstrate comprehension of a text by making predictions and confirming if the prediction was correct or incorrect.
    30b.
    • Connecting their prior knowledge to new information presented in text can improve their comprehension and retention of newly learned information.
    30c.
    • Drawing conclusions from a text demonstrates they comprehended the text and learned new information.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    31. Use information from a text to determine the author's purpose in different forms of informational and literary texts.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    31.
    • Author's purpose
    • Informational texts
    • Literary texts
    Knowledge:
    31. Students know:
    • Authors write for different reasons: to entertain, to persuade, to inform, to explain.
    Skills:
    31. Students are able to:
    • Use text evidence to determine the author's purpose in different types of literary (fictional) and informational (nonfictional) texts.
    Understanding:
    31. Students understand that:
    • Determining the author's purpose when reading allows them to strengthen their understanding and comprehension of the text.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 5
    Learning Activities: 3
    Classroom Resources: 2
    32. Identify rhyme schemes in poems or songs.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    32.
    • Rhyme schemes
    • Poems
    • Songs
    Knowledge:
    32. Students know:
    • Rhyme schemes are patterns of sound that repeat at the end of a line or stanza in a poem or song.
    Skills:
    32. Students are able to:
    • Identify rhyming words in poems or songs.
    • Identify the pattern of sounds that repeat at the end of a line or stanza in poems or songs.
    Understanding:
    32. Students understand that:
    • Rhyming words have the same vowel and ending sound.
    • Poems and songs often have a pattern of rhyming words, called a rhyme scheme.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    33. Read and identify types of poems, including free verse, rhymed verse, haiku, and limerick.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    33.
    • Poems
    • Free verse
    • Rhymed verse
    • Haiku
    • Limerick
    Knowledge:
    33. Students know:
    • Different types of poems have different features and follow different patterns.
    Skills:
    33. Students are able to:
    • Read and identify different types of poetry.
    Understanding:
    33. Students understand that:
    • Poetry is a genre of literary text that can fall into different categories.
    • Reading different types of poetry will increase their knowledge of poetry styles and enable them to identify different types of poems.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    34. Differentiate between fact and opinion in a text.

    a. Use prior knowledge and information gathered from research to evaluate opinions in texts.

    b. Use textual evidence and gathered research from reliable sources to prove facts.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    34.
    • Differentiate
    • Fact
    • Opinion
    34a.
    • Prior knowledge
    • Information
    • Research
    • Evaluate
    • Opinions
    34b.
    • Textual evidence
    • Gathered research
    • Reliable sources
    • Facts
    Knowledge:
    34. Students know:
    • A fact is a statement that can be proven with evidence.
    • An opinion is a personal belief that cannot be proven true in every case.
    34a.
    • Research happens when you look up information about a topic.
    • Opinions are what someone thinks or feels and cannot be proven true or false, but they can be evaluated based on evidence.
    34b.
    • A fact is something that can be proven true or false through research.
    • A reliable source is a source that provides accurate information.
    Skills:
    34. Students are able to:
    • Differentiate between a fact and an opinion in a text.
    34a.
    • Use prior knowledge and information learned through research to make judgments on opinions within texts.
    34b.
    • Use text evidence from reliable sources to prove facts.
    • Gather research from reliable sources to prove facts.
    • Identify reliable sources of information.
    Understanding:
    34. Students understand that:
    • A fact is a thing that is known or proved to be true, and an opinion is a personal view or judgment about something.
    34a.
    • They can evaluate opinions in text by using their background knowledge and newly gained information from research.
    34b. Students understand that:
    • Some texts are not reliable sources of information.
    • A reliable text is a source of information that can be used for research and providing text evidence.
    Listening
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    35. Demonstrate listening skills and build background knowledge by asking and answering questions about texts read aloud.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    35.
    • Listening skills
    • Background knowledge
    Knowledge:
    35. Students know:
    • Active listening skills.
    • Asking and answering questions about text builds background knowledge.
    Skills:
    35. Students are able to:
    • Demonstrate active listening skills by asking and answering questions about text read aloud.
    • Build background knowledge by asking and answering questions about text read aloud.
    Understanding:
    35. Students understand that:
    • Listening skills and background knowledge can be used to answer questions about texts read aloud.
    Writing
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 2
    Classroom Resources: 2
    36. Manipulate words and/or phrases to create simple and compound sentences, including coordinating conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so, to help build syntactic awareness and comprehension at the sentence level.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Comprehension
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    36.
    • Manipulate
    • Phrases
    • Simple sentences
    • Compound sentences
    • Coordinating conjunctions
    • Syntactic awareness
    • Sentence level
    Knowledge:
    36.
    • A complete simple sentence includes a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought.
    • A complete compound sentence includes two subjects and two predicates and expresses two complete thoughts.
    • A complete compound sentence must include a coordinating conjunction to link the two complete thoughts.
    Skills:
    36. Students are able to:
    • Manipulate words and/or phrases to create simple and compound sentences in their writing.
    • Use coordinating conjunctions to combine two simple sentences into a compound sentence in their writing.
    Understanding:
    36. Students understand that:
    • They can improve their reading comprehension and build syntactic awareness by using different types of sentences in their writing.
    • They can join two simple sentences with a coordinating conjunction to form a compound sentence.
    • Writers vary their sentence structure to engage their readers.
    Writing
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    37. Write legibly.

    a. Write words and sentences fluently using correctly-formed manuscript letters with appropriate size and spacing.

    b. Demonstrate cursive writing strokes, including undercurve, overcurve, downcurve, and slant.

    c. Form uppercase and lowercase letters in cursive.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    37.
    • Legibly
    37a.
    • Manuscript letters
    • Fluently
    37b.
    • Cursive writing strokes
    • Undercurve
    • Overcurve
    • Downcurve
    • Slant
    37c.
    • Uppercase
    • Lowercase
    • Cursive
    Knowledge:
    37. Students know:
    • Legible writing can be read by others.
    37a.
    • Legible manuscript writing requires letters to be formed correctly with the appropriate size and spacing between letters and words.
    • Fluently means writing without having to pause to think about the next motion.
    37b.
    • Cursive writing is created using a series of strokes, including the undercurve, overcurve, downcurve, and slant.
    37c.
    • The strokes to form uppercase and lowercase letters in cursive writing.
    Skills:
    37. Students are able to:
    • Write letters that can be read easily by others.
    37a.
    • Fluently write words with correctly-formed, appropriately sized manuscript letters with appropriate spaces between the letters.
    • Fluently write sentences with correctly-formed, appropriately sized manuscript letters with appropriate spaces between the letters and the words.
    37b.
    • Correctly form the cursive writing strokes including the undercurve, overcurve, downcurve, and slant.
    37c.
    • Correctly use the cursive writing strokes to write the uppercase and lowercase cursive letters.
    Understanding:
    37. Students understand that:
    • Letters should be formed correctly and with appropriate spacing so it can be read by others.
    37a.
    • Fluent, legible writing of words and sentences is an important skill as they begin to write longer pieces.
    37b.
    • They can form cursive letters by using a series of basic strokes: the undercurve, overcurve, downcurve, and slant.
    37c.
    • Combining cursive writing strokes forms the uppercase and lowercase cursive letters.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 14
    Learning Activities: 4
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Classroom Resources: 7
    38. Apply knowledge of grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, syllable division principles, and spelling rules (or generalizations) to encode words accurately.

    a. Encode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words using knowledge of syllable types, including open, closed, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, vowel-r, and consonant-le.

    b. Apply knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles to encode grade-appropriate words correctly.

    Examples: VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, CV/VC; rab-bit, o-pen, cab-in, di-et

    c. Encode words with final /v/ and /j/ sounds using knowledge that no English word ends with a, v, or j.

    Examples: have, give, save; cage, rage, budge, lodge

    d. Encode one- and two-syllable words with long and short vowel patterns.

    e. Encode words with two- and three-consonant blends, including those containing digraphs.

    Examples: st, sm, sn, sl, cl, dr, br, bl, str, scr, thr, squ, spl, spr

    f. Encode words with consonant digraphs, trigraphs, and combinations.

    Examples: ph, gh, ch, sh, wh, th, ng, tch, dge, qu

    g. Encode words with the common vowel teams, including diphthongs.

    Examples: ai, ay, ea, ee, ei, igh, oa, ow, ou, ue, ew, eigh

    h. Encode words with vowel-r combinations.

    Examples: ar, or, ir, er, ur, air, ear, oar

    i. Encode words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.

    Examples: wild, cold, most, colt, mind

    j. Encode words with a after w read /ä/ and a before l read /â/.

    Examples: wash, water, wasp; tall, all, talk, small, fall

    k. Encode words with or after w read /er/.

    Examples: world, word, worm, worst, work

    l. Encode words with hard and soft c and g.

    Examples: carry, cent; game, giraffe

    m. Encode words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words, distinguishing the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words, and words with vowel y in medial position, producing the short /ĭ/ sound for these words.

    Examples: fly, my; baby, happy; myth, gym

    n. Encode words with prefixes and suffixes, including words with dropped e and y-to-i changes for suffix addition.

    Examples: pro-, trans-, non-, mid-, -ful, -less, -ness, -ed, ing, -es, -er, -est, -en, -y, -ly

    o. Encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, including those that contain only one irregularity.

    Examples: decodable - number, way, my, than, word
    decodable except for one irregularity - other (o is schwa); from- (o is schwa);
    what- (a is schwa or short o depending on dialect)

    p. Encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, using apostrophes appropriately.

    Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll

    q. Encode frequently confused homophones accurately, using knowledge of English orthography and meaning to facilitate learning.

    Examples: their/they're/there; eight/ate; cent/scent/sent
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    38.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Spelling rules
    • Generalizations
    • Encode
    • Accurately
    38a.
    • Encode
    • Multisyllabic
    • Syllable types
    • Open syllable
    • Closed syllable
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllable
    • Vowel team syllable
    • vowel-r syllable
    • Consonant-le syllable
    38b.
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Encode
    38c.
    • Encode
    • Final /v/ sound
    • Final /j/ sound
    38d.
    • Encode
    • One-syllable words
    • Two-syllable words
    • Long vowel patterns
    • Short vowel patterns
    38e.
    • Encode
    • Two-consonant blends
    • Three-consonant blends
    • Digraphs
    38f.
    • Encode
    • Consonant digraphs
    • Trigraphs
    • Combinations
    38g.
    • Encode
    • Vowel teams
    • Diphthongs
    38h.
    • Encode
    • vowel-r combinations
    38i.
    • Encode
    • Patterns
    38j.
    • Encode
    38k.
    • Encode
    38l.
    • Encode
    • Hard c
    • Soft c
    • Hard g
    • Soft g
    38m.
    • Encode
    • Vowel y
    • Medial position
    • Final position
    • One-syllable words
    • Two-syllable words
    • Long /ī/ sound
    • Long /ē/ sound
    • Short /ĭ/ sound
    38n.
    • Encode
    • Prefixes
    • Suffixes
    • Suffix addition
    38o.
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
    • Predictable
    • Decodable
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Irregularity
    38p.
    • Encode
    • Contractions
    • Apostrophes
    38q.
    • Encode
    • Frequently confused homophones
    • English orthography
    • Meaning
    • Facilitate
    Knowledge:
    38. Students know:
    • Grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Multisyllabic words are words that are composed of two or more syllables.
    • Syllable division principles.
    • Spelling rules (or generalizations).
    • To encode accurately means to spell a word correctly.
    38a.
    • The features of a closed syllable.
    • The features of an open syllable.
    • The features of a vowel-consonant-e syllable.
    • The features of a vowel-r syllable.
    • The features of common vowel team syllables.
    • The features of a consonant-le syllable.
    38b.
    • Multisyllabic words are words that are constructed of two or more syllables.
    • Multisyllabic words can be broken down into single syllables using syllable division principles.
    38c.
    • Words with final /v/ sound.
    • No English word ends with a v.
    • Words with final /j/ sound.
    • No English words end with a j.
    38d.
    • Vowels can make a long sound or a short sound.
    • Each type of vowel sound has predictable spelling patterns.
    38e.
    • Consonant blends are a combination of two or three consonants in which each grapheme represents a phoneme sound.
    • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
    38f.
    • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
    • Trigraphs are three letter combinations that represents a single phoneme sound.
    • Combinations are two letters that frequently appear together and have an associated phoneme.
    38g.
    • Vowel teams are a combination of two, three, or four letters that represent for one vowel sound.
    • Diphthongs are single vowel phonemes that glide in the middle.
    38h.
    • vowel-r combinations are a single vowel letter or vowel team followed by r that represents a unique vowel sound.
    38i.
    • Words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns.
    38j.
    • The letter a can be used to spell different sounds, depending on the letter the precedes it.
    38k.
    • Words that are spelled with an or after w.
    • When an r follows a vowel, the vowel can make a different sound.
    38l.
    • The hard sound of c is /k/.
    • The soft sound of c is /s/.
    • The hard sound of g is /g/.
    • The soft sound of g is /j/.
    • The spelling generalizations associated with hard and soft c and g.
    38m.
    • The letter y can represent three different vowel sounds depending on the number of syllables in the words and its position in a word.
    38n.
    • Prefixes are word parts that can be added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning of the word.
    • Suffixes are word parts that can be added at the end of the word to change the meaning of the word.
    • Some base words require changes in spelling before a suffix is added.
    38o.
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, as well as those that have one irregularity.
    38p.
    • Contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, such as I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll.
    38q.
    • Homophones are words that sound the same, but have different spellings and meanings.
    • Frequently confused homophones, such as their/they're/there; eight/ate; cent/scent/sent.
    Skills:
    38. Students are able to:
    • Accurately encode (spell) single syllable and multisyllabic words using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, syllable division principles, and spelling generalization.
    • Accurately divide words into syllables to spell multisyllabic words correctly.
    38a.
    • Accurately encode (spell) multisyllabic words using their knowledge of the spelling patterns of the six syllable types.
    38b.
    • Accurately encode (spell) grade-appropriate multisyllabic words using knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles. For example, VC/CV, rab-bit; V/CV, o-pen; VC/V, cab-in; CV/VC, li-on.
    38c.
    • Encode (spell) words with final /v/ sound by adding an -e at the end of the word, such as in have, give, save.
    • Encode (spell) words with final /j/ sound by adding an -ge or -dge at the end of the word, such as in cage, rage, budge, lodge.
    38d.
    • Encode (spell) words with short and long vowel patterns in words that have one or two syllables.
    38e.
    • Encode (spell) words with two-consonant blends, such as st, sm, sn, sl, cl, dr, br, bl.
    • Encode (spell) words with three-consonant blends, such as str, scr, spl, spr.
    • Encode (spell) words with a digraph paired with a consonant blend, such as thr, squ.
    38f.
    • Encode (spell) words with consonant digraphs, such as ph, gh, ch, sh, wh, th, ng.
    • Encode (spell) words with consonant trigraphs, such as tch, dge.
    • Encode (spell) words with combinations, such as qu.
    38g.
  • Encode (spell) words with common vowel teams and diphthongs, such as ai, ay, ea, ee, ei, igh, oa, ow, ou, ue, ew, eigh.
  • 38h.
    • Encode (spell) words with vowel-r combinations, such as ar, or, ir, er, ur, air, ear, oar.
    38i.
      Encode (spell) words that follow the -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind patterns, such as wild, cold, most, colt, mind.
    38j.
    • Encode (spell) words that have a after w read /ä/, such as wash, water, wasp.
    • Encode (spell) words that have a before l read /â/, such as tall, all, talk, small, fall.
    38k.
    • Encode (spell) words with or after w pronounced /er/, such as world, word, worm, worst, work.
    38l.
    • Encode (spell) words with the hard c, such as carry, and the soft c, such as cent.
    • Encode (spell) words with the hard g, such as game, and the soft g, such as giraffe.
    38m.
    • Encode (spell) words with vowel y in the final position of one and two syllable words.
    • Distinguish the difference between the long /ī/ sound in one-syllable words (like fly and my) and the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words (like baby and happy).
    • Encode (spell) words with vowel y in medial position, such as myth and gym.
    38n.
    • Encode (spell) words with prefixes, suffixes, or both.
    • Change the endings of words by dropping the e when adding suffixes or changing the y-to-i, when appropriate.
    38o.
    • Encode (spell) grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled using predictable, decodable phoneme-grapheme correspondences, such as number, way, my, than, word.
    • Encode (spell) grade-appropriate high frequency words that are spelled with one irregularity, such as other, from, what.
    38p.
    • Encode (spell) contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, such as I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll, with correct apostrophe usage.
    38q.
    • Encode (spell) homophones using knowledge of English orthography and word meaning.
    Understanding:
    38. Students understand that:
    • To spell (encode), they must accurately represent the letter symbols (graphemes) that correspond to the spoken sounds (phonemes).
    • They can use syllable division principles to break a word apart to make it easier to spell.
    • They can use their knowledge of the six syllable types to accurately encode words.
    • There are spelling rules, or generalizations, in the English language that can help them spell words accurately.
    38a.
    • They correctly spell multisyllabic words by using their knowledge of the spelling patterns of the six syllable types.
    38b.
    • When spelling multisyllabic words, they should divide the word into individual syllables and use their knowledge of the syllable types to spell each syllable correctly.
    38c.
    • There are no words in the English language that end with v, so words that end with a /v/ sound will follow the spelling rule of adding an -e to the end of the word.
    • There are no words in the English language that end with j, so words that end with a /j/ sound will follow the spelling rule of adding an -ge or -dge to the end of the word.
    38d.
    • Vowels have more than one sound (long or short).
    • They can spell one or two-syllable words by knowing the spelling rules for long and short vowel patterns.
    38e.
    • When spelling a word with a two- or three-letter consonant blend, each consonant produces its sound.
    • When spelling a word with a digraph and a blend, the digraph will be represented by two letters that make one sound, combined with a consonant that produces its sound.
    38f.
    • Some words have special combinations of letters that can be encoded using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    38g.
    • Vowel teams are a combination of two, three, or four letters that represent one vowel sound.
    • Diphthongs are a combination of vowels that glide in the middle due to a shifting mouth position.
    38h.
    • When an r follows a vowel or a vowel team, the vowel sound frequently changes, and the spellings of these sounds are variable.
    38i.
    • The can use the predictable spelling patterns of -ild, -ost, -old, -olt, and -ind to correctly spell words.
    38j.
    • Adjacent letters and letter position within a word can change the sound a letter produces.
    38k.
    • When the letters or come after w, they do not make the same sound as words with or after other letters, such as fork, Oreo.
    • When they hear the /er/ sound after the /w/ sound, the word will be spelled with the or vowel combination.
    38l.
    • The letter that follows a c or g determines the sound that c or g will make in a word.
    • C makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    • G makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
    38m.
      Y can represent three vowel sounds: long /ī/, long /ē/, and short /ĭ/.
    • Letter y represents the long /ī/ sound in one syllable words when the y is in the final position.
    • Letter y makes the long /ē/ sound in two-syllable words when the y is in the final position.
    • Letter y represents the short /ĭ/ sound when the y is in the medial position of the word.
    38n.
    • Prefixes are added to the beginning of a base word and some have predictable spelling patterns, like pro-, trans-, non-, mid-.
    • Suffixes are added to the end of a base word and some have predictable spelling patterns, like -ful, -less, -ness, -ed.
    • Words can be spelled by identifying the prefixes or suffixes within the word.
    • Some base words require changes before a suffix is added.
    38o.
    • Some high frequency words have irregular spelling patterns that they must learn to be able to spell the words accurately.
    38p.
    • Contractions are made up of two words that are shortened by combining the two words and replacing the omitted letters with an apostrophe.
    • Accurate spelling of contractions requires correct apostrophe usage.
    38q.
    • Homophones are words that are pronounced the same but have different spellings and meanings.
    • It is important to spell homophones accurately to convey their intended message.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    39. Organize a list of words into alphabetical order according to first, second, and third letters.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    39.
    • Organize
    • List
    • Alphabetical order
    • First letter
    • Second letter
    • Third letter
    Knowledge:
    39. Students know:
    • The order of the letters of the alphabet.
    • Alphabetical order to the first, second, and third letter.
    Skills:
    39. Students are able to:
    • Organize a list of words in alphabetical order according to the first, second, and third letters.
    • Identify when to use the second or third letter for alphabetical order.
    Understanding:
    39. Students understand that:
    • The alphabet has an exact order which can be used to organize a list of words.
    • They must use the second letter of the word when the first letters are the same, and the third letter of the word, if the first two letters are the same.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 10
    Learning Activities: 3
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 5
    40. Write a personal or fictional narrative using a logical sequence of events, including details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings and providing a sense of closure.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    40.
    • Personal narrative
    • Fictional narrative
    • Logical
    • Sequence of events
    • Details
    • Actions
    • Thoughts
    • Feelings
    • Closure
    Knowledge:
    40. Students know:
    • A narrative is a piece of writing that tells a story.
    • A narrative story describes a sequence of events in a logical order (beginning, middle, end).
    • A narrative story describes the actions, thoughts, and feelings of the characters.
    Skills:
    40. Students are able to:
    • Write a personal narrative that recalls a personal experience or write a fictional narrative with a made-up story.
    • Write a narrative with a logical sequence of events and provide details that describe how the character feels, acts, and thinks.
    • Write a narrative that ends with a sense of closure.
    Understanding:
    40. Students understand that:
    • Narrative writing includes predictable elements, like a logical sequence of events and an ending that provides the reader with a sense of closure.
    • Narrative writing can be used to tell about something that happened to them personally or it can tell a story they made up.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 7
    Learning Activities: 3
    Classroom Resources: 4
    41. Write informative or explanatory texts, introducing the topic, providing facts and relevant details to develop points, and providing a conclusion.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    41.
    • Informative text
    • Explanatory text
    • Topic
    • Facts
    • Relevant details
    • Develop
    • Points
    • Conclusion
    Knowledge:
    41. Students know:
    • Informative or explanatory text is a piece of writing that provides factual information.
    • Informative or explanatory text begins by introducing the topic, provides facts and relevant details, and ends with a conclusion.
    Skills:
    41. Students are able to:
    • Write an informative or explanatory text.
    • Write an informative or explanatory text that begins with introducing the topic, provides facts and details about the topic, and ends with a conclusion.
    Understanding:
    41. Students understand that:
    • Informative or explanatory writing follows a predictable text structure that includes introducing the topic, providing facts or additional details about the topic, and ends with a conclusion.
    • Informative or explanatory writing can be used to tell facts about a topic.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 9
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Classroom Resources: 6
    42. Write an opinion piece about a topic or text with details to support the opinion, using transitional words and providing a sense of closure.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    42.
    • Opinion
    • Topic
    • Text
    • Details
    • Transitional words
    • Closure
    Knowledge:
    42. Students know:
    • An opinion piece is a writing that provides an opinion about a topic or text and provides reasons for the opinion.
    • Opinion pieces often include transitional words.
    Skills:
    42. Students are able to:
    • Write an opinion piece about a topic or text using details to support the opinion, transitional words, and a concluding statement.
    Understanding:
    42. Students understand that:
    • Opinion writing follows a predictable structure which includes, stating the opinion, providing details to support the opinion, and ends with a conclusion.
    • Opinion pieces often include transitional words.
    • Opinion writing can be used to explain their opinions and the reasons they have the opinion.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 4
    Classroom Resources: 4
    43. Write complete sentences demonstrating knowledge of punctuation conventions.

    a. Utilize commas with words in a series in a sentence.

    b. Use apostrophes to form contractions and possessives.

    Examples: contractions with am, is, has, not (I'm, she's, don't)

    c. Use punctuation to set off interjections.

    d. Expand sentences using frequently-occurring conjunctions.

    Examples: because, so, but
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    43.
    • Complete sentences
    • Punctuation conventions
    43a.
    • Commas
    • Series
    43b.
    • Apostrophes
    • Contractions
    • Possessives
    43c.
    • Punctuation
    • Interjections
    43d.
    • Expand
    • Conjunctions
    Knowledge:
    43. Students know:
    • A complete sentence expresses a complete thought and contains at minimum one subject and one predicate.
    • A complete sentence ends with one of three ending punctuation marks: a period, a question mark, or an exclamation mark.
    43a.
    • Commas are used to separate groups of words.
    43b.
    • Contractions are made of two words, shortened with an apostrophe taking the place of the missing letters.
    • Possessives show ownership and an apostrophe is used in the formation of possessives.
    43c.
    • Interjections show emotion.
    43d.
    • Conjunctions are words that join ideas together in a sentence.
    Skills:
    43. Students are able to:
    • Write complete sentences with appropriate ending punctuation marks.
    43a.
    • Write sentences that correctly use commas to separate words in a series, such as cat, dog, turtle, etc.
    43b.
    • Use apostrophes accurately when forming contractions and possessives.
    43c.
    • Use correct punctuation to set off interjections, such as Ah! or Well,.
    43d.
    • Form and expand sentences using conjunctions, like because, so, but.
    Understanding:
    43. Students understand that:
    • Complete sentences express a complete thought and contain at least one subject and one predicate.
    • Sentences that are statements or demands end with a period.
    • Sentences that are interrogative end with a question mark.
    • Exclamatory sentences end with an exclamation mark.
    43a.
    • Commas are used to separate a group of words in a series.
    43b.
    • An apostrophe is a punctuation mark that is used when forming contractions and possessives.
    43c.
    • An interjection shows feeling or emotion, rather than expressing meaning within a sentence, so it must be set apart from the rest of the sentence with a punctuation mark.
    43d.
    • Conjunctions are words that can join ideas in a sentence, and they can be used to expand their sentences to make them more complex or to include more ideas.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 0
    44. With prompting and support, compose and develop a well-organized paragraph with a topic sentence, details to support, and a concluding sentence.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    44.
    • Compose
    • Develop
    • Well-organized paragraph
    • Topic sentence
    • Details
    • Concluding sentence
    • Prompting
    • Support
    Knowledge:
    44. Students know:
    • A well-organized paragraph has a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence.
    Skills:
    44. Students are able to:
    • With prompting and support, write a well-organized paragraph that consists of a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence.
    Understanding:
    44. Students understand that:
    • A well-written paragraph includes a topic sentence to introduce the topic, provides supporting details to explain the topic, and ends with a concluding sentence.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 11
    Classroom Resources: 11
    45. Demonstrate understanding of standard English language conventions when writing.

    a. Identify the role of a noun, verb, adjective, and adverb within a sentence and explain the type of the information it conveys.

    b. Form regular nouns and verbs by adding -s or -es.

    c. Form and use simple present and past verb tenses.

    d. Form plurals by changing -y to -ies.

    e. Form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns and verbs.

    f. Use plural possessives.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    45.
    • English Language conventions
    45a.
    • Noun
    • Verb
    • Adjective
    • Adverb
    • Conveys
    45b.
    • Regular nouns
    • Regular verbs
    45c.
    • Verb tenses
    • Simple present
    • Simple past
    45d.
    • Plurals
    45e.
    • Irregular plural nouns
    • Irregular plural verbs
    45f.
    • Plural possessives
    Knowledge:
    45. Students know:
    • The English language has grammatical conventions that must be followed when writing.
    45a.
    • There are different types of words within a sentence, and each word provides a particular type of information.
    • The role of a noun, verb, adjective, and adverb within a sentence.
    45b.
    • Regular nouns and verbs are formed by adding an -s or -es suffix.
    45c.
    • Present tense verbs tell about something that is happening currently or continuously.
    • Past tense verbs tell about something that already happened.
    • Different suffixes must be added to the end of verbs to show when the action happened.
    45d.
    • A plural shows there is more than one of something.
    • Base words that end in y must be changed before adding the plural suffix.
    45e.
    • Some nouns and verbs do not follow the regular pattern when forming a plural.
    45f.
    • A plural possessive is used when a plural noun has ownership, or possession, of something.
    Skills:
    45. Students are able to:
    • Correctly use standard English language conventions in writing.
    45a.
    • Identify a noun, verb, adjective, and adverb in a sentence.
    • Explain the type of information nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs provide in a sentence.
    45b.
    • Correctly form regular nouns and verbs by adding an -s or -es suffix.
    45c.
    • Form and use simple present and past verb tenses in writing.
    45d.
    • Form plurals by changing -y to -ies when the base word ends in y.
    45e.
    • Form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural nouns, such as feet, children, mice, fish, teeth.
    • Form and use frequently-occurring irregular plural verbs.
    45f.
    • Accurately use plural possessives in writing.
    Understanding:
    45. Students understand that:
    • To clearly communicate through writing, they must use standard English language conventions.
    45a.
    • Each word in a sentence plays an important role in conveying meaning.
    • A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea and tells who or what the sentence is about.
    • A verb expresses an action or a state of being and tells what the noun is doing.
    • An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun and tells attributes of the noun.
    • An adverb describes a verb, adjective, or adverb, and provides more description about another word in the sentence.
    45b.
    • An -s or -es suffix is added to the end of regular nouns and verbs for subject-verb agreement and to form plurals.
    45c.
    • The simple present verb tense is used to describe things that are happening right now, and the suffix -s or -es is usually added to the end of the base word.
    • The simple past verb tense is used to describe things that have already happened, and the suffix -ed is usually added to the end of the base word.
    45d.
    • To form a plural of a word that end in y, the y must be changed to -ies.
    45e.
    • Some nouns and verbs are made plural by changing vowels, changing the entire word, or adding a different ending.
    45f.
    • Plural possessive nouns show that a plural noun has ownership and that an apostrophe or -s apostrophe is added to the end of the word.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 2
    All Resources: 15
    Learning Activities: 3
    Lesson Plans: 8
    Classroom Resources: 4
    46. Gather and use research to answer questions to complete a research product.

    a. Create topics of interest for a research project.

    b. Create questions to gather information for a research project.

    c. Find information from a variety of sources.

    Examples: books, magazines, newspapers, digital media

    d. Define plagiarism and explain the importance of using their own words.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Writing
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    46.
    • Gather
    • Research
    • Questions
    46a.
    • Create
    • Topics
    • Research project
    46b.
    • Questions
    46c.
    • Variety of sources
    46d.
    • Plagiarism
    Knowledge:
    46. Students know:
    • Information must be gathered from a variety of sources, and the information can be used to answer questions.
    46a.
    • A topic of interest must be selected before beginning a research project.
    46b.
    • Generating questions and finding information to answer those questions is an important component of a research project.
    46c.
    • A variety of sources can be used to find information and answer research questions.
    46d.
    • Plagiarism is presenting someone else's words or ideas as their own without crediting the source.
    Skills:
    46. Students are able to:
    • Gather and use the research to answer questions and create a research product.
    46a.
    • Generate a list of interesting topics for a research project.
    46b.
    • Create questions and gather information to answer those questions to complete a research project.
    46c.
    • Find information to answer research questions using a variety of sources, such as books, magazines, newspapers, or digital media.
    46d.
    • Define plagiarism.
    • Explain the importance of using their own words in their writing.
    Understanding:
    46. Students understand that:
    • A research product requires gathering information from a variety of sources and using the research to answer questions.
    46a.
    • Creating topics of interest prepares them for the writing process.
    • By creating topics of interest for a research project, they are completing the brainstorming part of a research project.
    46b.
    • Asking questions helps get information for their research projects.
    • Creating questions helps guide their research and that questions may be changed or added based on answers to previous questions.
    46c.
    • Information can come from a variety of sources.
    • They should use different sources to gather information for a research project.
    46d.
    • It is important to use their own words and ideas in writing and/or presentations.
    Recurring Standards
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 12
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 10
    R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R1.
    • Active listening
    • Discussion
    • Conversation
    • Rules
    • Participation
    Knowledge:
    R1. Students know:
    • Active listening skills.
    • How to engage in discussions and conversations in a variety of settings.
    • Agreed-upon rules for participation.
    Skills:
    R1. Students are able to:
    • Demonstrate active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings.
    • Converse in pairs, small groups, and large groups.
    • Practice the agreed-upon rules for participation.
    Understanding:
    R1. Students understand that:
    • Conversations and discussions follow agreed-upon rules which help us actively listen and gain understanding.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 4
    Learning Activities: 2
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    R2. Use knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and word analysis skills to decode and encode words accurately.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R2.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Word-analysis skills
    Knowledge:
    R2. Students know:
    • Phoneme (sound) to grapheme (letter or letters) correspondences to encode (spell) words accurately.
    • Grapheme (letter or letters) to phoneme (sound) correspondences to decode (read) words accurately.
    • Word-analysis skills.
    Skills:
    R2. Students are able to:
    • Encode and decode words accurately using knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Encode and decode words accurately using word-analysis skills.
    Understanding:
    R2. Students understand that:
    • Mapping graphemes to phonemes is essential for learning to read or decode words efficiently.
    • Mapping phonemes to graphemes is essential for learning to spell or encode words efficiently.
    • Analyzing a word's structure helps to read and spell a word.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 1
    Classroom Resources: 1
    R3. Expand background knowledge and build vocabulary through discussion, reading, and writing.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R3.
    • Background knowledge
    • Vocabulary
    • Discussion
    Knowledge:
    R3. Students know:
    • Relating experiences through discussions, reading, and writing will help build background knowledge and improve vocabulary.
    Skills:
    R3. Students are able to:
    • Connect new concepts to prior experiences to increase background knowledge through discussions, reading, and writing.
    • Construct the meaning of words through discussions, reading, and writing.
    Understanding:
    R3. Students understand that:
    • Background knowledge can increase by relating experiences to new ideas, topics, and words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
    • Vocabulary will increase by constructing the meaning of words while participating in discussions, reading, and writing.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 11
    Learning Activities: 2
    Lesson Plans: 3
    Classroom Resources: 6
    R4. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically for research and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R4.
    • Digital tools
    • Electronic tools
    • Appropriately
    • Safely
    • Ethically
    • Research
    • Individually
    • Collaboratively
    Knowledge:
    R4. Students know:
    • Digital and electronic tools must be used appropriately, safely, and ethically.
    • Digital and electronic tools can be used for research or for writing tasks.
    • Digital and electronic tools can be independently or with others.
    Skills:
    R4. Students are able to:
    • Engage in safe and ethical behavior when using digital and electronic tools individually and collaboratively.
    Understanding:
    R4. Students understand that:
    • Safe behaviors, interactions that keep you out of harm's way, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
    • Ethical behavior, interactions that align to one's moral code, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 28
    Learning Activities: 2
    Lesson Plans: 2
    Classroom Resources: 23
    Unit Plans: 1
    R5. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Recurring Standard
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    R5.
    • Writing process
    • Plan
    • Draft
    • Revise
    • Edit
    • Publish
    • Genres
    Knowledge:
    R5. Students know:
    • The writing process steps are to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish.
    • Various genres of writing.
    Skills:
    R5. Students are able to:
    • Plan writings in various genres.
    • Draft writings in various genres.
    • Revise writings in various genres.
    • Edit writings in various genres.
    • Publish writings in various genres.
    Understanding:
    R5. Students understand that:
    • The writing process is a set of steps that make writing easier.
    • There are different categories, or genres, of writing that can be used for different purposes.
    Literacy Foundations
    Oral Language
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 0
    1. Contribute meaningful ideas to discussions with groups and peers utilizing agreed upon rules.

    a. Elaborate on responses in conversations and discussions.

    Examples: use precise, descriptive language; build upon previously expressed ideas
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    1.
    • Contribute
    • Meaningful ideas
    • Discussions
    • Peers
    • Agreed upon rules
    1a.
    • Elaborate
    • Conversations
    • Discussion
    Knowledge:
    1. Students know:
    • Strategies to actively engage in meaningful discussions utilizing agreed upon rules.
    1a.
    • Elaboration strategies for conversations and discussions.
    Skills:
    1. Students are able to:
    • Contribute meaningful ideas to a discussion with groups and peers.
    • Appropriately participate in discussions with groups and peers utilizing agreed upon rules.
    1a.
    • Expand their responses to others in conversations and discussions. For example use precise, descriptive language and build upon previously expressed ideas.
    Understanding:
    1. Students understand that:
    • Good conversations occur when participants actively listen, build on others' ideas, and ask clarifying questions.
    1a.
    • By elaborating their responses, they are fully explaining, justifying, or defending their responses in conversation, which provides clarity to others participating in the conversations and discussions.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 3
    Lesson Plans: 1
    Classroom Resources: 2
    2. Present information orally using complex sentence structures, appropriate volume, and clear pronunciation.

    a. Use oral language for different purposes: to inform, to entertain, to persuade, to clarify, and to respond.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    2.
    • Present
    • Orally
    • Complex sentence structure
    • Appropriate volume
    • Clear pronunciation
    2a.
    • Oral language
    • Inform
    • Entertain
    • Persuade
    • Clarify
    • Respond
    Knowledge:
    2. Students know:
    • Clear oral communication requires the speaker to use complex sentence structures, appropriate speaking volume, and correct speech pronunciation.
    2a.
    • Oral language is used for different purposes.
    • Oral language can be used to inform about a topic, to provide an entertaining story, to persuade someone about a particular opinion, to further explain a topic, or to respond to someone else's ideas.
    Skills:
    2. Students are able to:
    • Form complex sentences, use appropriate voice volume based on the situation or environment, and use clear pronunciation when sharing information orally.
    2a.
    • Use their listening and speaking skills to inform an audience about a topic.
    • Use their listening and speaking skills to entertain an audience.
    • Use their listening and speaking skills to further explain information or provide additional details.
    • Use their listening and speaking skills to respond to others' ideas or questions.
    • Use their listening and speaking skills to persuade an audience about a particular opinion.
    Understanding:
    2. Students understand that:
    • Presenting information orally requires them to use complex sentences, an appropriate voice volume for the setting, and speaking words clearly.
    2a.
    • They can use their oral language skills for a variety of purposes, including informing others, entertaining others, persuading others, clarifying ideas, and responding to others.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 2
    Learning Activities: 2
    3. Apply oral literacy skills by participating in a variety of oral language activities.

    Examples: plays, dramas, choral readings, oral reports
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    3.
    • Oral language activities
    • Oral literacy skills
    Knowledge:
    3. Students know:
    • Oral literacy skills include speaking, listening, and comprehending.
    • Oral language activities are those activities in which speakin, listening, and understanding are required.
    Skills:
    3. Students are able to:
    • Apply oral literacy skills when participating in various oral language activities, such as plays, dramas, choral readings, oral reports.
    Understanding:
    3. Students understand that:
    • They can learn, practice, and apply oral literacy skills by participating in a variety of oral language activities.
    Speaking
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 0
    4. Ask and answer questions using complete sentences and grade-level vocabulary.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    4.
    • Questions
    • Complete sentences
    • Grade-level vocabulary
    Knowledge:
    4. Students know:
    • Asking questions in complete sentences with grade-level vocabulary is a strategy to learn information.
    • Answering questions questions in complete sentences with grade-level vocabulary is a method to provide others with information.
    Skills:
    4. Students are able to:
    • Ask clarifying questions using complete sentences and grade-level vocabulary.
    • Answer questions using complete sentences and grade-level vocabulary.
    Understanding:
    4. Students understand that:
    • They can demonstrate active listening skills by asking and answering questions using complete sentences and grade-level vocabulary.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 0
    5. Express ideas, opinions, and feelings orally in a logical sequence clearly, accurately, and precisely, using appropriate volume, clear pronunciation, and standard English grammar.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    5.
    • Ideas
    • Opinions
    • Feelings
    • Logical sequence
    • Accurately
    • Precisely
    • Appropriate volume
    • Clear pronunciation
    • Standard English grammar
    Knowledge:
    5. Students know:
    • Orally communicating ideas, opinions, and feelings, requires a logical sequence, accurate and precise language, appropriate voice volume, clear speech pronunciation, and the use of standard English grammar.
    Skills:
    5. Students are able to:
    • Orally express ideas, opinions, and feelings in a logical sequence and with accurate and precise language.
    • Use appropriate voice volume, clear speech pronunciation, and standard English grammar when orally presenting ideas, opinions, and feelings.
    Understanding:
    5. Students understand that:
    • When presenting their ideas, opinions, and feelings orally, they must use a logical sequence, an appropriate volume for speaking, clear pronunciation of words, and standard English grammar, so others can clearly comprehend (understand) what they are trying to express.
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 0
    6. Use digital tools to enhance oral presentations, working collaboratively.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Oral Language
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    6.
    • Digital tools
    • Oral presentations
    • Enhance
    • Collaboratively
    Knowledge:
    6. Students know:
    • Digital tools often refer devices like computers, laptops, etc.
    • Digital tools can help improve or enhance oral presentations.
    Skills:
    6. Students are able to:
    • Use digital tools to create visual aids to enhance oral presentations.
    • Work collaboratively.
    Understanding:
    6. Students understand that:
    • Digital tools can help aid their oral presentations because their peers can see visual representations and can gain a better understanding of the information.
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 0
    7. Demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills in spoken words.

    a. Delete phonemes in initial and final blends of a spoken word.

    Examples: Say smoke. Now say smoke, but don't say /m/. (soak)
    Say best. Now say best, but don't say /s/. (bet)

    b. Substitute phonemes in initial and final blends in a spoken word.

    Examples: Say sweep. Now say sweep, but change the /w/ to /l/. (sleep) Say list. Now say list, but change the /s/ to /f/. (lift)

    c. Reverse phonemes in a spoken word.

    Examples: Say safe. Now say safe but say the last sound first and the first sound last. (face)
    Say slack. Now say slack but say the last sound first and the first sound last. (class)

    d. In a series of words, apply phoneme chaining that changes only one sound at a time to show addition, deletion, substitution and resequencing of sounds from one word to the next.

    Examples: sap, lap, lip, slip, slit, lit; gob, cob, cub, cup, cap; train, rain, lane, lame, blame

    e. Use knowledge of syllable and affix substitution and deletion to demonstrate morphological changes.

    Examples: Say photograph. Change graph to cell. (photocell)
    Say anytime. Change time to where. (anywhere)
    Say blocked. Change /t/ to /ing/. (blocking)
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonological Awareness/Phonemic Awareness
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    7.
    • Demonstrate
    • Advanced phonemic awareness skills
    • Spoken words
    7a.
    • Delete
    • Phonemes
    • Initial
    • Final
    • Blends
    • Spoken words
    7b.
    • Substitute
    • Phonemes
    • Initial
    • Final
    • Blends
    • Spoken word
    7c.
    • Reverse
    • Phonemes
    • Spoken word
    7d.
    • Series
    • Apply
    • Phoneme chaining
    • Addition
    • Deletion
    • Substitution
    • Resequencing
    7e.
    • Demonstrate
    • Syllable substitution
    • Affix substitution
    • Deletion
    • Morphological changes
    Knowledge:
    7. Students know:
    • Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate the individual phonemes (sounds) in spoken words.
    7a.
    • A blend is made up of two or more sounds (phonemes).
    • A blend can occur at the beginning or end of a word.
    7b.
    • Substituting phonemes means changing phonemes.
    • A blend is made up of two or more sounds (phonemes).
    • A blend can occur at the beginning or end of a word.
    7c.
    • Reverse means to change the sequence of sounds to an opposite order.
    7d.
    • Addition means add to, deletion means take away from, substitution means change, and resequencing means changes the order of.
    • Words can be manipulated by changing only one sound at a time.
    7e.
    • A syllable is a unit of speech organized around a vowel sound.
    • Multisyllabic words can be divided into individual syllables.
    • Affixes are word parts that can be changed or deleted to create words or change words.
    • Morphology refers to the meaningful units of a word that are combined to make the whole word.
    Skills:
    7. Students are able to:
    • Identify individual phonemes in words and manipulate those sounds.
    7a.
    • Delete phonemes in spoken words with an initial blend. For example, say smoke. Now say smoke, but don't say /m/. (soak).
    • Delete phonemes in spoken words with a final blend. For example, say best. Now say best, but don't say /s/. (bet).
    7b.
    • Substitute phonemes in spoken words with an initial blend. For example, say sweep. Now say sweep, but change the /w/ to /l/. (sleep).
    • Substitute phonemes in spoken words with a final blend. For example, say list. Now say list, but change the /s/ to /f/. (lift).
    7c.
    • Reverse sounds in a spoken word by saying the last sound first and the first sound last. For example, say safe. Now say safe but say the last sound first and first sound last. (face).
    7d.
    • Change one sound in a word at a time using phoneme addition, deletion, and substitution to resequence sounds in a phoneme chain; for example, sap, lap, lip, slip, slit, lit; gob, cob, cub, cup, cap; train, rain, lane, lame, blame.
    7e.
    • Create new words by substituting and deleting affixes to change words and word meanings. For example, say photograph. Change graph to cell. (photocell) Say anytime. Change time to where. (anywhere) Say blocked. Change /t/ to /ing/. (blocking).
    Understanding:
    7. Students understand that:
    • Spoken words are made up of one or more phonemes.
    • They can demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills by manipulating those phonemes through additions, deletions, reversals, and substitutions of phonemes.
    • Advanced phonemic awareness skills will help them improve their reading, spelling, and writing.
    7a.
    • By deleting phonemes in the initial and final blends of words, they are able to identify all the sounds within the word and demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills.
    • Blends are made of more than one sound, and they can delete different sounds within a blend to create a new word.
    7b.
    • New words can be created by substituting, or changing, sounds (phonemes) within the word.
    • Blends are made of more than one sound, and they can interchange different sounds within a blend to create a new word.
    7c.
    • Spoken words can be manipulated by reversing the first and last sounds.
    7d.
    • They can demonstrate advanced phonemic awareness skills by changing one sound in a word to create a chain (or group of words).
    • Words can be manipulated by adding, deleting, substituting, and resequencing sounds.
    7e.
    • They can change words to create new words with different meanings by substituting and deleting affixes.
    • Understanding the meaning of individual word units is called morphology.
    Phonics
    English Language Arts (2021)
    Grade(s): 3
    All Resources: 6
    Learning Activities: 2
    Classroom Resources: 4
    8. Apply knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles to decode and encode (spell) words accurately in isolation and in context.

    a. Decode multisyllabic words with common syllable patterns, including open/closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, and odd or schwa syllables.

    b. Apply knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles to decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words.

    Examples: VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, CV/VC; com-mit-ment, e-vent, ev-er-y, po-et

    c. Decode and encode words with three-consonant blends, digraphs, trigraphs, quadrigraph eigh, combinations, diphthongs, and silent letter combinations.

    Examples: spl-, str-, scr-, squ-; th, sh, ch, ck, ph; tch, dge, igh; er, ir, ar, or; oi, oy, ou, ow; kn, gn, mb, wr, gh

    d. Decode and encode words with graphemes that represent multiple sound-symbol correspondences by applying knowledge of most common to least common frequency.

    Examples: y can be read /y/ in yet, /ē/ in candy, /ī/ in fly
    digraph ch can be read /ch/ in chair, /sh/ in chef, and /k/ in school
    diphthong ow is read /ou/ in cow, but digraph ow is read /ō/ in snow

    e. Decode and encode multisyllabic words using knowledge of stress or accent to pronounce a word correctly, including the schwa sound when appropriate.

    Examples: the noun con'/vict vs. the verb con/vict'; the noun pro'/duce vs. the verb pro/duce'

    f. Decode and encode words using knowledge of the morphological structure of a word, including prefixes, suffixes, and roots.

    Examples: fore-, anti-, post-, sub-; -ment, -hood, -er, -or; port, ject, form, dict

    g. Decode and encode contractions with am, is, has, not, have, would, and will.

    Examples: I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll

    h. Decode and encode frequently confused homophones accurately using knowledge of English and meaning to facilitate learning.

    Examples: hear/here; night/knight; tacks/tax

    i. Decode and encode words with hard and soft c and g.

    j. Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular and irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences, using knowledge of the specific sound-symbol correspondences that are irregular.
    Unpacked Content
    Content Area:
    Literacy Foundations
    Focus Area:
    Phonics
    Teacher Vocabulary:
    8.
    • Phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Isolation
    • In context
    8a.
    • Decode
    • Multisyllabic words
    • Common syllable patterns
    • Open syllable
    • Closed syllable
    • vowel-r syllable
    • Vowel-consonant-e syllable
    • Vowel team syllable
    • Consonant-le syllable
    • Odd syllable
    • Schwa syllable
    8b.
    • Multisyllabic word construction
    • Syllable division principles
    • Decode
    • Grade-appropriate multisyllabic words
    8c.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Three-Consonant blends
    • Digraphs
    • Trigraphs
    • Quadrigraph
    • Combinations
    • Diphthongs
    • Silent letter combinations
    8d.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Graphemes
    • Sound-Symbol correspondences
    • Apply
    • Knowledge
    • Most common frequency
    • Least common frequency
    8e.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Multisyllabic words
    • Stress
    • Accent
    • Pronounce
    • Schwa sound
    8f.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Knowledge
    • Morphological structure
    • Prefixes
    • Suffixes
    • Roots
    8g.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Contractionse
    8h.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Frequently confused homophones
    • Accurately
    • Knowledge of English
    8i.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Hard c
    • Soft c
    • Hard g
    • Soft g
    8j.
    • Decode
    • Encode
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words
    • Regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences
    • Sound-symbol correspondences
    Knowledge:
    8. Student know:
    • Spoken words can be represented in print by using letter symbols (graphemes) to represent sounds (phonemes).
    • Printed words can be read by saying the sound (phoneme) that is represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
    • Multisyllabic words contain more than one syllable, and multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining individual syllables.
    • Syllable division is breaking words apart by the syllables.
    • Decode means to read, and encode means to spell.
    • Decoding and encoding in isolation means reading or spelling a single word, while in context refers to these skills within a larger text.
    8a.
    • Accurately decoding multisyllabic words requires knowledge of common syllable types.
    • Syllable patterns are principles that help divide words into parts with one vowel sound that can be easily decoded.
    8b.
    • Multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining syllables.
    • Syllable division principles help divide words into parts with one vowel sound based on predictable patterns.
    8c.
    • Three-consonant blends are a combination of three consonants in which each represents a phoneme sound.
    • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
    • Trigraphs are three letter combinations that represents a single phoneme sound.
    • Quadrigraph eigh is a combination of four letters that represents a single phoneme sound.
    • Combinations are two letters that frequently appear together and have an associated phoneme.
    • Diphthongs are single vowel phonemes that glide in the middle.
    • Silent letter combinations are letter combinations in which one or more letters is silent (does not represent a phoneme), but another letter does represent the phoneme.
    8d.
    • Graphemes can represent more than one sound.
    • Graphemes represent some sounds more often than other sounds.
    8e.
    • Some sounds in words have a stronger emphasis or are heard more clearly and loudly than other sounds within the words.
    • The schwa sound refers to an "empty" vowel in an unaccented syllable, meaning the spelling for the vowel sound is difficult to identify.
    8f.
    • Prefixes are word parts that can be added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning of the word.
    • Suffixes are word parts that can be added at the end of the word to change the meaning of the word.
    • The root word is the base word in which a prefix or suffix can be added.
    • Morphology refers to the meaningful units of a word that are combined to make the whole word.
    8g.
    • Contractions are words that are combined, or shortened, and an apostrophe represents the omitted letters.
    8h.
    • Homophones have the same pronunciation, but different meanings, origins, and/or spellings.
    8i.
    • The hard sound of c is /k/.
    • The soft sound of c is /s/.
    • The hard sound of g is /g/.
    • The soft sound of g is /j/.
    • The spelling generalizations associated with hard and soft c and g.
    8j.
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Grade-appropriate high frequency words that do not follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • The part of a word that does not follow the regular phoneme-grapheme correspondence.
    Skills:
    8. Students are able to:
    • Read and spell words accurately in isolation and in context based on their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme relationships, multisyllabic word construction, and syllable division principles.
    8a.
    • Decode words with more than one syllable using their knowledge of common syllable types: open, closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, odd, and schwa.
    8b.
    • Decode grade-appropriate multisyllabic words using knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles; for example, VC/CV, com-mit,ment; V/CV, e-vent; VC/V, ev-er-y; CV/VC, po-et.
    8c.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with three-consonant blends, such as spl-, str-, scr-, squ-.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with consonant digraphs, such as th, sh, ch, ck, ph.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with consonant trigraphs, such as tch, dge, igh.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with combinations, such as er, ir, ar, or.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with diphthongs, such as oi oy, ou, ow.
    • Accurately decode and encode words with silent letter combinations, such as kn, gn, mb, wr, gh.
    8d.
    • Decode and encode words that contain graphemes that represent multiple sound-symbol correspondences, using their knowledge of the most common and least common sound-symbol correspondence; for example, y can be read /y/ in yet, /ē/ in candy, /ī/ in fly.
    8e.
    • Decode multisyllabic words using knowledge of stressed and unstressed syllables and the schwa sound, such as the noun con'/vict, vs. the verb con/vict'; the noun pro'/duce vs. the verb pro/duce'.
    • Encode multisyllabic words using knowledge of the stressed and unstressed syllables and the schwa sound.
    8f.
    • Decode and encode words with prefixes, suffixes, or both, using their knowledge of the morphological structure of words.
    8g.
    • Decode and encode contractions with the words am, is, has, not, have, would, and will, such as I'm, he's, she's, isn't, don't, I've, he'd, they'll.
    8h.
    • Accurately decode and encode homophones using their understanding of the English language and word meaning; for example, hear/here, night/knight, tacks/tax.
    8i.
    • Decode and encode words with the hard and soft c.
    • Decode and encode words with the hard and soft g.
    8j.
    • Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
    • Decode and encode grade-appropriate high frequency words that follow irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences, using knowledge of the sound-symbol correspondences that are irregular.
      Understanding:
      8. Students understand that:
      • To read (decode), they must accurately say the sounds (phonemes) that are represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
      • To spell (encode), they must accurately represent the letter symbols (graphemes) that correspond to the spoken sounds (phonemes).
      • They can use syllable division principles to accurately decode and encode words.
      • They can use their knowledge of the six syllable types to accurately decode and encode words.
      • They will sometimes use these skills in isolation, and other times in context when reading or writing a longer text.
      8a.
      • They can decode (read) multisyllabic words by dividing the words into syllables and applying their knowledge of syllable patterns.
      8b.
      • Multisyllabic words are composed of more than one syllable.
      • They can create words that are multisyllabic by combining individual syllables.
      • They can use the syllable division principles to help with decoding grade-appropriate words.
      8c.
      • Some words have special combinations of letters that can be decoded and encoded using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
      8d.
      • Knowing that some graphemes represent multiple sounds strengthens their phonics skills so they are able to readily read and spell words that are both common and not common.
      8e.
      • Knowing stresses and accents in words and how they are pronounced, can help them read and spell the correct word required by the context.
      8f.
      • Their knowledge of the different word parts (prefixes, suffixes, and roots) can help them read and spell most multisyllabic words if they break them apart into smaller morphemes.
      8g.
      • Contractions are combinations of more than one word and use an apostrophe in place of the omitted letters.
      8h.
      • Homophones are words that can be confused so it is important to pay attention to the word's meaning in context (whether in written text or oral conversation) to determine the correct spelling of the homophone.
      8i.
      • The letter that follows a c or g determines the sound that c or g will make in a word.
      • C makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
      • G makes a hard sound when it comes before a, o, u, or any consonant, and it makes a soft sound when it comes before i, e, or y.
      8j.
      • Some high frequency words have regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences, while others have irregular spelling patterns that they must learn to be able to read and spell the words accurately.
      Fluency
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 0
      9. Apply previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences to multisyllabic words with accuracy and automaticity, in and out of context.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Fluency
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      9.
      • Apply
      • Previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences
      • Multisyllabic words
      • Accuracy
      • Automaticity
      • In context
      • Out of context
      Knowledge:
      9. Students know:
      • Previously-taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences in multisyllabic words.
      • Accuracy is reading the word correctly, and automaticity is reading the word quickly without having to sound it out.
      • Out of context means reading word by itself, while in context refers to reading words within a larger text.
      Skills:
      9. Students are able to:
      • Read multisyllabic words with accuracy and automaticity in and out of context by applying knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
      Understanding:
      9. Students understand that:
      • Automatic recall of phoneme-grapheme correspondences will help them decode multisyllabic words accurately and become a fluent reader.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 1
      Learning Activities: 1
      10. Read and reread grade-appropriate text accurately, automatically, and with meaningful expression at a rate which supports comprehension.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Fluency
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      10.
      • Reread
      • Grade-appropriate text
      • Accurately
      • Automatically
      • Meaningful expression
      • Rate which supports comprehension
      Knowledge:
      10. Students know:
      • Accurately means reading without mistakes, and automatically means knowing the words immediately without sounding them out.
      • Techniques to make appropriate changes in voice, pitch, and expression while reading orally.
      • Reading must occur at a speed (rate) that supports understanding of the text.
      • Rereading is a strategy that aids in word recognition and comprehension.
      Skills:
      10. Students are able to:
      • Read and reread words that are third grade-appropriate with little to no mistakes.
      • Read words quickly without pausing to sound them out.
      • Read and reread at a pace that supports comprehension of the text.
      Understanding:
      10. Students understand that:
      • They should read text with accuracy, automaticity, and meaningful expression at a pace that helps them comprehend the text they are reading.
      • They can reread text to improve their accuracy, automaticity, and comprehension.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 3
      Learning Activities: 3
      11. Read and reread grade-appropriate poetry, practicing phrasing, rhythm, rhyme, and meaningful expression.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Fluency
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      11.
      • Reread
      • Grade-appropriate poetry
      • Phrasing
      • Rhythm
      • Rhyme
      • Meaningful expression
      Knowledge:
      11. Students know:
      • The features of poetry include phrasing, rhythm, and rhyme.
      • Words rhyme if their vowel and ending sounds are the same (example: ham, Sam).
      • Rhythm is a steady beat made by stressed syllables in spoken words.
      • A phrase is a group of words.
      • Strategies to show meaningful expression, including making appropriate changes in voice, pitch, and expression while reading poetry orally.
      Skills:
      11. Students are able to:
      • Read and reread grade-appropriate poetry.
      • Practice rhyming, stressing syllables that create rhythm, grouping together words in phrases, and meaningful expression when reading poetry.
      Understanding:
      11. Students understand that:
      • Poetry is a genre of text that uses distinctive style and rhythm to aid in the expression of feelings.
      • They can reread poetry to practice their use of phrasing, rhythm, rhyme, and meaningful expression.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 0
      12. Read high-frequency words commonly found in grade-appropriate text accurately and automatically.

      Note: High-frequency words should be taught with the main emphasis of the lesson being on regular correspondences and patterns within the word. The student should be able to read the word accurately three times in a row on different days to be considered accurate enough to add to a personal word box, word ring, or fluency folder. Avoid teaching high-frequency words as "sight words" that need to be memorized as a whole word, unless there are no regular correspondences in the word. "Of" is an example of a word with no regular correspondences
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Fluency
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      12.
      • High-frequency words
      • Grade-appropriate text
      • Commonly
      • Accurately
      • Automatically
      Knowledge:
      12. Students know:
      • High frequency words that are common found in third-grade level text.
      • Accurately means reading without mistakes, and automatically means knowing the words immediately without sounding them out.
      Skills:
      12. Students are able to:
      • Read high-frequency words in third grade-level text accurately and automatically three times in a row on different days.
      Understanding:
      12. Students understand that:
      • High-frequency words are words that are found regularly in grade-appropriate text, so it is important to learn to read them automatically, accurately, and independently.
      Vocabulary
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 10
      Classroom Resources: 10
      13. Utilize new academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary to make connections to previously learned words and relate new words to background knowledge.

      a. Make connections to a word's structure using knowledge of phonology, morphology, and orthography of the word to aid learning.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Vocabulary
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      13.
      • Utilize
      • Academic vocabulary
      • Content-specific vocabulary
      • Grade-level vocabulary
      • Connections
      • Relating
      • Background knowledge
      13a.
      • Word structure
      • Phonology
      • Morphology
      • Orthography
      Knowledge:
      13. Students know:
      • Academic, content-specific, grade-level vocabulary words.
      • Content-specific vocabulary refers to words used in different subjects learned in school such as reading, math, social studies, science.
      • New vocabulary words can be learned by relating them to previously learned words and background knowledge.
      13a.
      • Phonology (speech sounds within words).
      • Morphology (meaningful units of words).
      • Orthography (the written representation of language).
      Skills:
      13. Students are able to:
      • Use new academic, content-specific vocabulary by making connections to previously learned words.
      • Use new academic, content-specific vocabulary by relating new words to background knowledge.
      13a.
      • Make connections to a word's structure using speech sounds, meaningful word parts, and spelling of the word to aid learning.
      Understanding:
      13. Students understand that:
      • Academic, content-specific vocabulary words are used in different school subjects, like reading, math, social studies, and science.
      • They can learn new vocabulary words by making connections to previously learned words or their background knowledge.
      13a.
      • Identifying a word's phonological, morphological, and orthographic structure can help them determine the meaning of a word, as well as the word's origin.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 13
      Classroom Resources: 13
      14. Describe word relationships and nuances in word meanings, including relating them to their opposites and distinguishing shades of meaning in similar or related words, including nouns, verbs, and adjectives.

      a. Determine meaning of words using synonyms in context.

      b. Determine meaning of words using antonyms as a clue.

      c. Describe the similarities and differences between related words.

      d. Use knowledge of homophones to determine appropriate use of words.

      e. Interpret figurative language.

      f. Identify relationships and nuances in word meanings to determine real-life connections between words and their use.
      Examples: Discuss relationships in words related to home (house, residence, habitat) and give reasons for choosing a particular word in speaking or writing.
      Distinguish shades of meaning in words related to bad (terrible, awful, horrible) and give reasons for choosing a particular word in speaking or writing.
      Distinguish shades of meaning in words related to talk (yell, scream, bellow) and give reasons for choosing a particular word in speaking or writing.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Vocabulary
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      14.
      • Describe
      • Word relationships
      • Nuances
      • Opposites
      • Distinguishing
      • Shades of meaning
      • Similar words
      • Related words
      • Nouns
      • Verbs
      • Adjectives
      14a.
      • Determine
      • Synonyms
      • Context
      14b.
      • Determine
      • Antonyms
      • Clue
      14c.
      • Similarities
      • Differences
      • Related words
      • Describe
      14d.
      • Homophones
      14e.
      • Interpret
      • Figurative language/li>
      14f.
      • Word relationships
      • Nuances in word meanings
      • Identify
      • Real-life connections
      Knowledge:
      14. Students know:
      • Word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
      • Words with opposite meanings are antonyms, and words with similar meanings are synonyms.
      • A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea.
      • A verb expresses an action or state of being.
      • An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.
      14a.
      • Synonyms are words that have similar meanings.
      • The meaning of an unfamiliar word can be identified using synonyms.
      14b.
      • Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings.
      • The meaning of an unfamiliar word can be identified using antonyms.
      14c.
      • Related words can be described by their similarities and differences.
      14d.
      • Homophones have the same pronunciation, but different meanings, origins, and/or spellings.
      14e.
      • Figurative language is a creative way to use words and phrases beyond their literal definition to explain or describe something.
      14f.
      • Writers and speakers use a variety of words to distinguish between specific intended meanings.
      • Real life means situations that they have experienced or will experience, and they can make real-life connections about how vocabulary words can be used.
      Skills:
      14. Students are able to:
      • Describe the relationships between words and nuances in word meanings.
      • Describe how the meaning of words are alike or different.
      • Describe the nuances of words that have different shades of meaning.
      14a.
      • Use synonyms to interpret word meaning in context.
      14b.
      • Use antonyms as a clue to interpret word meaning.
      14c.
      • Describe how the meaning of related words are alike and different.
      14d.
      • Determine appropriate homophone use based on their knowledge of homophones and context clues.
      14e.
      • Interpret figurative language to understand its meaning.
      14f.
      • Discuss relationships of words and give reasons for choosing to use a particular word in writing or speaking; for example, words related to home include house, residence, and habitat.
      • Distinguish shades of meaning in related words, and give reasons for choosing to use a particular word in writing or speaking; for example, words related to bad with different nuances include terrible, awful, horrible.
      Understanding:
      14. Students understand that:
      • Writers and speakers should carefully select words to convey specific meanings, ideas, and relationships.
      • Words have relationships with other words and words have subtle differences that can be distinguished within text.
      14a.
      • Synonyms are words that have similar meanings, and they can be used to determine the meaning of a new vocabulary word.
      14b.
      • Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, and they can be used to determine the meaning of a new vocabulary word.
      14c.
      • Identifying the similarities and differences of related words improves their vocabulary knowledge.
      14d.
      • Their knowledge and understanding of homophones can help determine the correct word to use when given context clues.
      14e.
      • Figurative language carries meaning other than the literal meaning of the words or phrases .
      14f.
      • Writers and speakers carefully select words to convey specific meanings, ideas, and relationships.
      • Making real-life connections to new vocabulary words helps them move the new words to their long-term memory, becoming part of their "ready to use" vocabulary.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 4
      Classroom Resources: 4
      15. Analyze meaningful parts (morphemes) of words and phrases in discussions and/or text.

      a. Identify meaningful parts of words (morphemes) and use them as clues to the meaning of unfamiliar words, including base words, roots, and frequently occurring affixes and inflections.

      Examples: affixes -less, -ful, pro-, trans- ; roots aqua, cent, port, form, ject, spect, dict, tend, fer

      b. Apply knowledge of the changes in tense (-ed), number (-s), and degree (-er and -est) signified by inflected endings to determine the meaning of a word.

      c. Identify common and derivational prefixes and suffixes and use them as clues to a word's meaning.

      Examples: pre-, re-, mis-; -ly, -less, -ful, -able, -ment

      d. Identify common Latin and Greek roots and use them to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.

      e. Sort words with shared and varied suffixes by parts of speech.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Vocabulary
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      15.
      • Analyze
      • Meaningful parts
      • Morphemes
      • Words
      • Phrases
      15a.
      • Meaningful parts of words
      • Morphemes
      • Clues
      • Unfamiliar words
      • Base words
      • Roots
      • Affixes
      • Inflections
      15b.
      • Knowledge
      • Tense
      • Number
      • Degree
      • Inflected endings
      • Determine
      15c.
      • Identify
      • Common and derivational prefixes
      • Common and derivational suffixes
      15d.
      • Identify
      • Common Latin roots
      • Common Greek roots
      • Determine
      15e.
      • Sort
      • Suffixes
      • Parts of speech
      Knowledge:
      15. Students know:
      • Morphemes are the smallest unit in a word that carry meaning.
      • Words and phrases can be divided into morphemes to identify the meaning of the word or phrase.
      15a.
      • Morphemes are the smallest unit in a word that carry meaning.
      • Morphemes can be used to determine meanings of words.
      • Affixes and inflections can be added to words to change their meaning.
      15b.
      • Inflected endings are added to words to show that a word's meaning has changed in tense, number, or degree.
      15c.
      • Prefixes and suffixes change a word's meaning.
      15d.
      • Many English words and English morphemes originated from ancient Latin and Greek languages.
      • Understanding Latin and Greek roots can provide clues to meanings of unknown words.
      15e.
      • Suffixes are word parts that are added to the ends of words.
      • Parts of speech are words that can be categorized by their function in a sentence.
      • Different parts of speech require different types of suffixes.
      Skills:
      15. Students are able to:
      • Identify and analyze morphemes of words and phrases in discussions and/or text.
      15a.
      • Identify morphemes and use them as clues to determine word meaning, including affixes like -less, -ful, pro-, trans- and roots like aqua, cent, port, form, ject, spect, dict, tend, fer.
      15b.
      • Apply knowledge of inflectional endings to determine meaning of words.
      15c.
      • Identify common and derivational prefixes, such as pre-, re-, mis-, and use them as clues to learn a word's meaning.
      • Identify common and derivational suffixes, such as -ly, -less, -ful, -able, -ment, and use them as clues to learn a word's meaning.
      15d.
      • Identify and use Latin and Greek roots as clues to the meaning of a word.
      15e.
      • Sort words with suffixes by parts of speech.
      Understanding:
      15. Students understand that:
      • Morphemes are meaningful word parts, and they can help find the meaning of unfamiliar words.
      15a.
      • Base words, roots, affixes, inflections and other morphemes can be used to help find the meaning of unfamiliar words.
      15b.
      • When a word has an inflected ending, the meaning of the base word has changed.
      • When an -ed is added to a verb, it signifies the verb happened in the past.
      • When an -s is added to a noun, it signifies the noun is plural (more than one).
      • When an -er or -est is added to the end of an adjective it changes the degree of comparison.
      15c.
      • Prefixes and suffixes change a word's meaning.
      15d.
      • The meaning of an unknown word can be learned by knowing the orthography of the word, including its origin.
      15e.
      • When a suffix is added to the end of a word, it changes the meaning of the word.
      • Each part of speech provides a different type of information.
      • Words can be categorized by parts of speech.
      • English orthography dictates that only particular suffixes can be added to each part of speech.
      Reading
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 2
      Classroom Resources: 2
      16. Use knowledge of grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary to gain meaning from text.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Vocabulary
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      16.
      • Academic vocabulary
      • Domain-specific vocabulary
      Knowledge:
      16. Students know:
      • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
      • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
      • Vocabulary knowledge can be used to comprehend text.
      Skills:
      16. Students are able to:
      • Use knowledge of third grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary words to accurately comprehend text.
      Understanding:
      16. Students understand that:
      • Learning the meaning of academic, domain-specific vocabulary words will help them comprehend text in a variety of subject areas.
      Writing
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 1
      Classroom Resources: 1
      17. Use grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary in writing.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Vocabulary
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      17.
      • Academic vocabulary
      • Domain-specific vocabulary
      • Writing
      Knowledge:
      17. Students know:
      • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
      • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
      • Academic, domain-specific vocabulary words should be used in writing to clearly communicate ideas.
      Skills:
      17. Students are able to:
      • Use third grade-level academic and domain-specific vocabulary words in writing.
      Understanding:
      17. Students understand that:
      • Using academic and domain-specific vocabulary words in writing makes their writing more interesting and helps to clearly communicate their message.
      Comprehension
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 31
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Classroom Resources: 25
      18. Demonstrate content knowledge built during independent reading of informational and literary texts by participating in content-specific discussions with peers and/or through writing.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      18.
      • Demonstrate
      • Content knowledge
      • Independent reading
      • Informational text
      • Literary text
      • Content-specific discussions
      Knowledge:
      18. Students know:
      • Content knowledge is information learned about a specific subject.
      • Content knowledge can be learned by independently reading text.
      • Informational text is nonfiction text, and literary text is fictional.
      • Active listening skills.
      • Writing skills.
      Skills:
      18. Students are able to:
      • Build content knowledge from independently reading informational or literary text.
      • Use content knowledge learned from independent reading in content-specific discussions with peers.
      • Use content knowledge learned from independent reading in writing.
      Understanding:
      18. Students understand that:
      • Content-specific discussions with peers can demonstrate the content knowledge they learned through independent reading.
      • They can produce writings that demonstrate knowledge of content-specific information.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 17
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Classroom Resources: 10
      Unit Plans: 1
      19. Determine the explicit or implied main idea and supporting details of a text.

      a. Explain how supporting details contribute to the main idea, using textual evidence.

      b. Recount or summarize the key ideas from the text.

      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      19.
      • Explicit main idea
      • Implied main idea
      • Supporting details
      19a.
      • Supporting details
      • Main idea
      • Textual evidence
      19b.
      • Recount
      • Summarize
      • Key ideas
      Knowledge:
      19. Students know:
      • The main idea is the most important idea presented in the text.
      • Sometimes an author will clearly state the main idea, while other times an author will merely suggest the main idea.
      • The supporting details explain the main idea or provide more information about the main idea.
      19a.
      • The supporting details explain the main idea or provide more information about the main idea.
      • Textual evidence is quotations from the text that are used to provide information.
      19b.
      • Key ideas are important details within a text.
      • Recount means to retell the big ideas of the text.
      • Summarize means to briefly state the big ideas of the text.
      Skills:
      19. Students are able to:
      • Identify the main idea in of a text.
      • Determine if the main idea is explicitly stated or implies.
      • Identify the supporting details of a text.
      19a.
      • Explain how the supporting details provide more information about the main idea, using evidence from the text.
      19b.
      • Retell or summarize the most important (key) ideas from a text.
      Understanding:
      19. Students understand that:
      • Literary and informational texts have a main idea, or most important message, and supporting details, which provide more information about the main idea.
      • An author can choose to state the main idea in the text or provide clues to imply the main idea.
      • A text usually just has one main idea, but multiple supporting details.
      19a.
      • The supporting details help explain the main idea or provide more information about the main idea.
      19b.
      • Texts have key ideas, and they can retell or summarize these important ideas to demonstrate comprehension of the text.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 0
      20. Establish a purpose before reading literary and informational texts to enhance comprehension, including identifying background knowledge and generating questions about the topic or characters.

      Examples: reading for pleasure, application, or information; to identify a theme or an author's purpose
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      20.
      • Establish
      • Purpose
      • Literary text
      • Informational text
      • Comprehension
      • Identify
      • Background knowledge
      • Generating questions
      • Topic
      • Characters
      Knowledge:
      20. Students know:
      • There are different purposes for reading.
      • Authors write text for different purposes.
      Skills:
      20. Students are able to:
      • Establish a purpose for reading literary and informational text, such as reading for pleasure, application, or information; to identify a theme or an author's purpose.
      • Establish a purpose for reading by identifying their current background knowledge and generating questions about the topic or characters in the text.
      Understanding:
      20. Students understand that:
      • There are different purposes for reading, and establishing their purpose before engaging in reading can improve their overall comprehension of literary and informational text.
      • To establish a purpose for reading, they can reflect upon their current background knowledge of a topic or generate questions about the topic or characters in the text.
      Reading
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 2
      Classroom Resources: 2
      21. Identify and interpret various cohesive devices that link words and sentences to one another within the text.

      Examples: pronoun references, conjunctions, word substitution using synonyms

      Note: Working with cohesive devices is a scaffold to building comprehension at both sentence and paragraph levels.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      21.
      • Identify
      • Interpret
      • Cohesive devices
      • Link
      Knowledge:
      21. Students know:
      • Words and sentences can be joined together with certain words, phrases, or references.
      Skills:
      21. Students are able to:
      • Identify cohesive devices that link together words and sentences within a text, such as pronoun references, word substitution using synonyms, and conjunctions.
      • Interpret cohesive devices to build comprehension at the sentence and paragraph levels.
      Understanding:
      21. Students understand that:
      • Cohesive devices, like pronoun references, word substitution, and conjunctions, can link words and sentences together within the larger body of text.
      • To fully comprehend a text, they must understand the meaning of the cohesive devices.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 25
      Learning Activities: 4
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Classroom Resources: 19
      22. Describe literary elements within a story, including setting, plot, characters, and themes.

      a. Describe in detail the characters' behavior, emotions, and traits and explain how their actions influence events in the story.

      b. Explain how the characters' actions and dialogue contribute to the meaning of the story.

      c. Identify the central message, theme, or moral in a story, including myths, fables, and folktales, and explain the meaning conveyed in the passage.

      d. Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots from two texts.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      22.
      • Describe
      • Literary elements
      • Story
      • Setting
      • Plot
      • Characters
      • Themes
      22a.
      • Describe
      • Character
      • Behaviors
      • Emotions
      • Traits
      • Actions
      • Influence
      • Events
      22b.
      • Explain
      • Characters
      • Actions
      • Dialogue
      • Contribute
      • Meaning
      22c.
      • Central message
      • Theme
      • Moral
      • Myths
      • Fables
      • Folktales
      • Conveyed
      22d.
      • Compare
      • Contrast
      • Theme
      • Setting
      • Plot
      • Stories
      Knowledge:
      22. Students know:
      • Literary elements within a story include the setting, plot, characters, and themes.
      • Setting is when and where a story takes place.
      • Plot is the main events of a story (often referred to as the beginning, middle, and end of a story).
      • Characters are any person, animal, or figure that affect the plot.
      • Theme is the main, recurring idea in a text.
      22a.
      • A story author provides descriptions of the characters' behavior, emotions, and traits.
      • The actions of characters in a story affect the events, or plot, of the story.
      22b.
      • The actions of characters in a story affect the events, or plot, of the story.
      • The dialogue, or spoken words, of characters in a story affect the plot of the story.
      22c.
      • Qualities of myths, fables, and folktales.
      • Many stories have a central message, theme, or moral.
      • A central message or moral is the lesson that is learned through the story or the one big idea of the story.
      • The central message, theme, or moral is conveyed through key details.
      22d.
      • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar.
      • Contrast means tell how things are different.
      • Literary elements from different texts, like themes, settings, and plots, can be compared and contrasted.
      • Setting is when and where a story takes place.
      • Plot is the main events of a story (often referred to as the beginning, middle, and end of a story).
      • Theme is the main, recurring idea in a text.
      Skills:
      22. Students are able to:
      • Identify and describe the literary elements, including setting, plot, characters, and theme, within the text.
      22a.
      • Provide a detailed description of story characters' behavior, emotions, and traits.
      • Explain how story characters' actions affect the events of the story.
      22b.
      • Explain how the actions of characters' contribute to the meaning of the story.
      • Explain how the dialogue between two or more characters contributes to the meaning of the story.
      22c.
      • Identify the central message, theme, or moral of a story, including myths, fables, and folktales.
      • Explain the meaning of the central message, theme, or moral conveyed in the passage.
      22d.
      • Compare and contrast literary elements, such as themes, settings, and plots, of two texts.
      Understanding:
      22. Students understand that:
      • Identifying and describing literary elements within a story will help in comprehending the text.
      22a.
      • Understanding each character's behavior, emotions, and traits will help them better understand a story's plot.
      • Characters in a story drive the plot by engaging in different actions.
      22b.
      • Characters' actions and dialogue contribute to the meaning of a story.
      • Understanding the actions and dialogue of story characters improves overall comprehension of the text.
      22c.
      • Understanding the meaning of the central message, theme, or moral of a story will improve overall comprehension of the passage.
      • Myths, fables, and folktales are types of narrative stories that often include a moral.
      22d.
      • Comparing and contrasting literary elements can improve their comprehension, or understanding, of both texts.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 23
      Learning Activities: 5
      Lesson Plans: 4
      Classroom Resources: 13
      Unit Plans: 1
      23. Identify and use text features in informational passages to locate information.

      Examples: headings, photographs, illustrations, labels, charts, graphs, legends

      a. Explain how text features support details in the text.

      b. Explain how illustrations contribute to meaning in a story.

      c. Interpret text features used in written and digital formats.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      23.
      • Text features
      • Locate
      • Informational passage
      • Identify
      23a.
      • Explain
      • Text features
      • Supporting details
      • Text
      23b.
      • Explain
      • Illustrations
      • Contribute
      • Meaning in a story
      23c.
      • Interpret
      • Text features
      • Written formats
      • Digital formats
      Knowledge:
      23. Students know:
      • Informational passages often include text features that can be used to locate information within the text.
      23a.
      • Text features can provide additional or clarifying information about details in a text.
      23b.
      • Illustrations included with a story can contribute to the story's meaning.
      23c.
      • Text features can be used in printed (written) and digital text.
      Skills:
      23. Students are able to:
      • Identify text features in informational passages, such as headings, photographs, illustrations, labels, charts, graphs, legends.
      • Use text features to locate information within an informational passage.
      23a.
      • Identify text features and explain how the text features supports details in a text.
      23b.
      • Identify an illustration and explain how it contributes to the meaning of the story.
      23c.
      • Interpret text features presented in a digital format.
      • Interpret text features presented in a written format.
      Understanding:
      23. Students understand that:
      • Informational passages have predictable features that can be used to locate important information within the text.
      • Text features that are often used in informational text include headings, photographs, illustrations, labels, charts, graphs, and legends.
      • Using text features helps support their overall comprehension.
      23a.
      • An author chooses to include text features to provide additional information, clarify information, or enhance ideas with in a text.
      • Using text features supports their comprehension of details in a text.
      23b.
      • Authors and illustrators choose to include illustrations to enhance the meaning of the story provided in the text.
      23c.
      • Text features are often included in written (printed) text and digital text.
      • In either format, text features can be used to locate information or enhance overall comprehension.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 2
      Classroom Resources: 2
      24. Identify the text structures within literary and informational texts.

      a. Explain how the structures, including comparison and contrast, sequence of events, problem and solution, and cause and effect, contribute to the meaning of the text, using textual evidence.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      24.
      • Identify
      • Text structures
      • Literary text
      • Informational text
      24a.
      • Text structures
      • Comparison and contrast
      • Sequence of events
      • Problem and solution
      • Cause and effect
      • Contribute
      • Textual evidence
      Knowledge:
      24. Students know:
      • Literary and informational texts follow predictable structures.
      24a.
      • Compare means tell how things are similar, and contrast means tell how things are different.
      • Sequence of events is the chronological order of events within a text.
      • Problem and solution text structure describes a problem and how the problem was solved or could be solved.
      • Cause and effect text structure describes an event (the cause) and the consequence or result of the event (the effect).
      • They have to use quotations from the text to prove their answers.
      Skills:
      24. Students are able to:
      • Identify the text structure of literary texts.
      • Identify the text structure of informational texts.
      24a.
      • Explain how text structures contribute to the meaning of the text.
      • Provide textual evidence to support their explanation.
      Understanding:
      24. Students understand that:
      • Identifying the text structure of literary and informational texts will set a purpose for their reading and improve their comprehension.
      24a.
      • Texts follow a predictable structure that contributes to the overall meaning of the text.
      • They can demonstrate their comprehension of a text by using textual evidence to support their explanations.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 1
      Classroom Resources: 1
      25. Identify statements in informational texts as facts or opinions.

      a. Use prior knowledge and/or details from the text to distinguish fact from opinion.

      b. Use information gathered from research to evaluate opinions.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      25.
      • Identify
      • Statements
      • Informational text
      • Facts
      • Opinions
      25a.
      • Prior knowledge
      • Details
      • Distinguish
      • Fact
      • Opinion
      25b.
      • Information
      • Research
      • Evaluate
      • Opinions
      Knowledge:
      25. Students know:
      • A fact is a statement that can be proven with evidence.
      • An opinion is a personal belief that cannot be proven true in every case.
      • Informational text can present both facts and opinions.
      25a.
      • The difference between facts and opinions.
      • Prior knowledge and/or details from the text can be used to identify facts and opinions.
      25b.
      • Research happens when you look up information about a topic.
      • Opinions are what someone thinks or feels and cannot be proven true or false, but they can be evaluated based on evidence.
      Skills:
      25. Students are able to:
      • Identify facts within an informational text.
      • Identify opinions within an informational text.
      25a.
      • Distinguish between facts and opinions using their prior knowledge.
      • Distinguish between facts and opinions using details from the text.
      25b.
      • Identify the opinions within a text.
      • Gather information from research about a particular statement.
      • Use the information gathered from research to determine if the opinion makes sense or contributes to the text.
      Understanding:
      25. Students understand that:
      • A fact is a thing that is known or proved to be true, and an opinion is a personal view or judgment about something.
      • To fully comprehend a text, they must distinguish between facts and opinions.
        • 25a.
          • They can determine if a statement is a fact or an opinion using their current knowledge or by referencing details in a text.
          25b.
          • They can evaluate, or make judgments about, opinions by using newly gained information from research.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 5
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Classroom Resources: 4
      26. Use text comparisons (text to text, text to self, and text to world) to make meaning.

      a. Use prior knowledge to determine similarities between texts they are reading and texts they have previously read.

      b. Compare different versions of the same story.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      26.
      • Text comparison
      • Text to text
      • Text to self
      • Text to world
      • Meaning
      26a.
      • Prior knowledge
      • Determine
      • Similarities
      26b.
      • Compare
      • Versions
      Knowledge:
      26. Students know:
      • Comparison is identifying similarities between two things.
      • Text to text comparison means to identify similarities between two texts.
      • Text to self comparison means to identify similarities between a text and a personal experience.
      • Text to world comparison means to identify similarities between a text and a current event or background knowledge.
      26a.
      • Prior knowledge is what they already know.
      • Information gathered from texts they have previously read becomes part of their prior knowledge.
      26b.
      • Comparison is identifying similarities between two things.
      Skills:
      26. Students are able to:
      • Compare two texts to make meaning of the information presented in the text.
      • Compare a text to their personal experiences to make meaning of the information presented in the text.
      • Compare a text to a current event or their background knowledge to make meaning of the information presented in the text.
      26a.
      • Use prior knowledge to make comparisons between texts.
      • Determine similarities between a text they are currently reading and a text that have read in the past.
      26b.
      • Identify similarities between different versions of the same story.
      Understanding:
      26. Students understand that:
      • Their comprehension will be enhanced by making multiple connections between texts, themselves, and the real world.
      26a.
      • Their prior knowledge can help make connections between texts.
      • Each text they read increases their background knowledge, and they can make connections to new texts to improve their comprehension.
      26b.
      • Different authors can produce different versions of the same story.
      • They can improve their comprehension by making connections between two similar texts.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 16
      Classroom Resources: 16
      27. Read prose, poetry, and dramas, identifying the literary devices used by the author to convey meaning.

      Examples: personification, imagery, alliteration, onomatopoeia, symbolism, metaphor, simile
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      27.
      • Prose
      • Poetry
      • Dramas
      • Identifying
      • Literary devices
      • Author
      • Convey meaning
      Knowledge:
      27. Students know:
      • Literary text often includes literary devices, such as personification, imagery, alliteration, onomatopoeia, symbolism, metaphor, and simile.
      • An author uses literary devices to convey meaning within the text.
      Skills:
      27. Students are able to:
      • Identify the literary devices when reading prose, poetry, and dramas.
      Understanding:
      27. Students understand that:
      • Literary devices are a special type of language that an author uses to convey meaning in literary text.
      • Literary devices are language that carries meaning other than the literal meaning of the words or phrases.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 4
      Learning Activities: 3
      Classroom Resources: 1
      28. Identify the narration of a literary text as first person or third person.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      28.
      • Identify
      • Narration
      • Literary text
      • First person
      • Third person
      Knowledge:
      28. Students know:
      • Literary text can be narrated from a first person or third person point of view.
      • Pronouns used by the author can indicate the narrator's point of view.
      Skills:
      28. Students are able to:
      • Identify the narration of a literary text as first person or third person.
      Understanding:
      28. Students understand that:
      • In first person narration the narrator is a character in the story and is telling the story from their perspective. The pronouns I, me, we, or us are often used.
      • In third person narration, the narrator is not part of the story and the characters never acknowledge the narrator's presence. The pronouns he, she, it, or they are often used.
      Listening
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 6
      Classroom Resources: 6
      29. Determine the main idea of a text read aloud or information presented in an audible format.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      29.
      • Determine
      • Main idea
      • Information
      • Audible format
      Knowledge:
      29. Students know:
      • Active listening skills.
      • Strategies to determine the main ideas of a text.
      Skills:
      29. Students are able to:
      • Demonstrate active listen skills.
      • Determine the main ideas of a text read aloud or information presented in an audible format.
      Understanding:
      29. Students understand that:
      • To comprehend a text that is read aloud or presented in an audible format, they must use active listening skills.
      • Identifying the main idea of a text can contribute to their overall comprehension.
      Writing
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 2
      Classroom Resources: 2
      30. Manipulate words and/or phrases to create compound sentences, including coordinating conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so, and complex sentences to help build syntactic awareness and comprehension at the sentence level.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Comprehension
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      30.
      • Manipulate
      • Phrases
      • Compound sentences
      • Coordinating conjunctions
      • Complex sentences
      • Syntactic awareness
      • Comprehension
      • Sentence level
      Knowledge:
      30. Students know:
      • A complete compound sentence includes two subjects and two predicates and expresses two complete thoughts.
      • A complete compound sentence must include a coordinating conjunction to link the two complete thoughts.
      • A complex sentence expresses two thoughts, one complete thought and one incomplete thought, that are joined by a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun.
      Skills:
      30. Students are able to:
      • Manipulate words and/or phrases to create compound and complex sentences in their writing.
      • Use coordinating conjunctions to combine two simple sentences into a compound sentence in their writing.
      Understanding:
      30. Students understand that:
      • They can improve their reading comprehension and build syntactic awareness by using different types of sentences in their writing.
      • They can join two simple sentences with a coordinating conjunction to form a compound sentence.
      • They can create a complex sentence by using a subordinate conjunction or relative pronoun.
      • Writers vary their sentence structure to engage their readers.
      Writing
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 0
      31. Write legibly in cursive with connected, correctly-formed letters and appropriate spacing between words.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      31.
      • Legibly
      • Cursive
      • Connected letters
      • Correctly-formed letters
      • Appropriate spacing
      Knowledge:
      31. Students know:
      • Legible writing can be read by others.
      • Cursive writing strokes for all letters.
      • Cursive writing connects the letters within words.
      • Appropriate spacing should occur between words.
      Skills:
      31. Students are able to:
      • Write legibly in cursive.
      • Connect and correctly form cursive letters.
      • Include appropriate spacing between words.
      Understanding:
      31. Students understand that:
      • Cursive writing is a special type of writing that connects letters within words.
      • Appropriate spacing is important so that readers can tell where one cursive word ends and the next begins.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 7
      Learning Activities: 3
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Classroom Resources: 2
      32. Apply knowledge of grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, syllable division rules, and spelling rules (or generalizations) to encode words accurately.

      a. Apply knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles to encode multisyllabic words.

      Examples: VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, CV/VC; com-mit-ment, e-vent, ev-er-y, po-et

      b. Encode multisyllabic words, using common syllable patterns: open/closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, and odd or schwa syllables.

      c. Encode words with two and three letter blends and previously taught digraphs, trigraphs, combinations, diphthongs, quadrigraph eigh, vowel y, hard and soft c and g, silent letter combinations, and contractions.

      d. Encode words with less common prefixes, suffixes, and common Latin roots.

      Examples: prefixes: fore-, pro-, intra-, inter-, trans-, non-, over-, sub-, super-, semi-, anti-, mid-, ex-, post-
      suffixes: -y, -ly, -ful, -ment, -hood, -less, -ness, -er, -or, -en
      Latin roots: port, form, ject, spect, dict, tend, fer

      e. Encode frequently confused homophones accurately, using context to determine correct spelling.

      Examples: hear/here; night/knight; tacks/tax
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      32.
      • Knowledge
      • Grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences
      • Multisyllabic word construction
      • Syllable division rules
      • Spelling rules
      • Generalizations
      • Encode
      • Accurately
      32a.
      • Apply
      • Knowledge
      • Multisyllabic word construction
      • Syllable division principles
      • Encode
      • Multisyllabic words
      32b.
      • Encode
      • Multisyllabic words
      • Common syllable patterns
      • Open syllable
      • Closed syllable
      • vowel-r syllable
      • Vowel-consonant-e syllable
      • Vowel team syllable
      • Consonant-le syllable
      • Odd syllable
      • Schwa syllable
      32c.
      • Encode
      • Two letter blends
      • Three letter blends
      • Digraphs
      • Trigraphs
      • Combinations
      • Diphthongs
      • Quadrigraph eigh
      • Hard and soft c
      • Hard and soft g
      • Silent letter combinations
      • Contractions
      32d.
      • Encode
      • Prefixes
      • Suffixes
      • Common Latin roots
      32e.
      • Encode
      • Frequently confused homophones
      • Context
      Knowledge:
      32. Students know:
      • Grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences.
      • Multisyllabic words are words that are composed of two or more syllables.
      • Syllable division principles.
      • Spelling rules (or generalizations).
      • To encode accurately means to spell a word correctly.
      32a.
      • Multisyllabic words can be constructed by combining syllables.
      • Syllable division principles help divide words into parts with one vowel sound based on predictable patterns.
      32b.
      • Accurate encoding of multisyllabic words requires knowledge of common syllable types.
      • Syllable patterns are principles that help divide words into parts with one vowel sound that can be easily spelled.
      32c.
      • Two letter blends are a combination of two consonants in which each represents a phoneme sound.
      • Three letter blends are a combination of three consonants in which each represents a phoneme sound.
      • Digraphs are two letter combination that represents a single phoneme sound in which neither letter represents its usual sound.
      • Trigraphs are three letter combinations that represents a single phoneme sound.
      • Combinations are two letters that frequently appear together and have an associated phoneme.
      • Diphthongs are two vowels that represent a single vowel phonemes that glide in the middle.
      • Quadrigraph eigh is a combination of four letters that represents a single phoneme sound.
      • The letter y can represent three different vowel sounds depending on the number of syllables in the words and its position in a word.
      • The spelling generalizations associated with hard and soft c and g.
      • Silent letter combinations are letter combinations in which one or more letters is silent (does not represent a phoneme), but another letter does represent the phoneme.
      • Contractions are words that are combined, or shortened, and an apostrophe represents the omitted letters.
      32d.
      • Prefixes are word parts that can be added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning of the word.
      • Suffixes are word parts that can be added at the end of the word to change the meaning of the word.
      • The root word is the base word in which a prefix or suffix can be added, and many English words contain Latin root words.
      32e.
      • Homophones have the same pronunciation, but different meanings, origins, and/or spellings.
      • Context clues must be used to determine the correct spelling of a homophone.
      Skills:
      32. Students are able to:
      • Accurately encode (spell) single syllable and multisyllabic words using their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, multisyllabic word construction, syllable division principles, and spelling generalization.
      • Accurately divide words into syllables to spell multisyllabic words correctly.
      32a.
      • Encode multisyllabic words using knowledge of multisyllabic word construction and syllable division principles; for example, VC/CV, com-mit,ment; V/CV, e-vent; VC/V, ev-er-y; CV/VC, po-et.
      32b.
      • Encode words with more than one syllable using their knowledge of common syllable types: open, closed, vowel-r, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, consonant-le, odd, and schwa.
      32c.
      • Accurately encode words with previously taught letter patterns, such as two letter blends, three letter blends, digraphs, trigraphs, combinations, diphthongs, quadrigraph eigh, vowel y, hard and soft c and g, silent letter combinations, and contractions.
      32d.
      • Encode words with less common prefixes, such as fore-, pro-, intra-, inter-, trans-, non-, over-, sub-, super-, semi-, anti-, mid-, ex-, post-.
      • Encode words with less common suffixes, such as -y, -ly, -ful, -ment, -hood, -less, -ness, -er, -or, -en.
      • Encode words with common Latin roots, such as port, form, ject, spect, dict, tend, fer.
      32e.
      • Accurately encode homophones using context clues to determine the correct spelling; for example, hear/here, night/knight, tacks/tax.
      Understanding:
      32. Students understand that:
      • To spell (encode), they must accurately represent the letter symbols (graphemes) that correspond to the spoken sounds (phonemes).
      • They can use syllable division principles to break a word apart to make it easier to spell.
      • They can use their knowledge of the six syllable types to accurately encode words.
      • There are spelling rules, or generalizations, in the English language that can help them spell words accurately.
      32a.
      • Multisyllabic words are composed of more than one syllable.
      • They can write and spell words that are multisyllabic by dividing the word into syllables and spelling each syllable, then combining the individual syllables to construct complete word.
      32b.
      • They can encode (spell/write) multisyllabic words by dividing the words into syllables and applying their knowledge of syllable patterns.
      32c.
      • Knowing the sound-symbol correspondences of common letter patterns will help them encode (spell/write) words accurately.
      32d.
      • Their knowledge of the different word parts (prefixes, suffixes, and roots) can help them read and spell most multisyllabic words if they divide them apart into smaller units.
      • Knowing less common prefixes and suffixes and common Latin roots strengthens their spelling skills.
      32e.
      • Homophones are words that can be confused so it is important to pay attention to the word's meaning in context (whether in written text or oral conversation) to determine the correct spelling of the homophone.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 19
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 3
      Classroom Resources: 15
      33. Write personal or fictional narratives with a logical plot (sequence of events), characters, transitions, and a sense of closure.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      33.
      • Personal narrative
      • Fictional narrative
      • Logical plot
      • Sequence of events
      • Characters
      • Transitions
      • Closure
      Knowledge:
      33. Students know:
      • A narrative is a piece of writing that tells a story.
      • A personal narrative tells about an event that was personally experienced by the author, while a fictional narrative tells a made up story.
      • A narrative story describes a sequence of events in a logical order (beginning, middle, end) and provides a sense of closure as an ending.
      • A narrative story describes the actions, thoughts, and feelings of the characters.
      • Narrative transitions indicate when and where the story is occurring.
      Skills:
      33. Students are able to:
      • Write a personal narrative that recalls a personal experience or a fictional narrative with a made-up story.
      • Write a narrative with a logical sequence of events and details that describe how the characters feels, acts, and thinks.
      • Use appropriate transitions in narrative writing.
      • Write a narrative that ends with a sense of closure.
      Understanding:
      33. Students understand that:
      • Narrative writing includes predictable elements, like a logical sequence of events and an ending that provides the reader with a sense of closure.
      • Because narrative writing describes a chronological sequence of events, it includes transitions that indicate the time and place in which the story is occurring.
      • Narrative writing can be used to tell about something that happened to them personally or it can tell a story they made up.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 15
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Classroom Resources: 12
      Unit Plans: 1
      34. Write informative or explanatory texts about a topic using sources, including an introduction, facts, relevant details with elaboration, and a conclusion.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      34.
      • Informative text
      • Explanatory text
      • Sources
      • Topic
      • Introduction
      • Facts
      • Relevant details
      • Elaboration
      • Conclusion
      Knowledge:
      34. Students know:
      • Informative or explanatory text is a piece of writing that provides factual information that was gathered from research sources.
      • Informative or explanatory text begins by introducing the topic, provides facts and relevant details, and ends with a conclusion.
      • Elaboration means to supply additional information about a detail by using academic, content-specific vocabulary or by including text features.
      Skills:
      34. Students are able to:
      • Gather information from sources.
      • Write an informative or explanatory text using information gathered from sources.
      • Write an informative or explanatory text that begins with introducing the topic, provides facts and details about the topic, and ends with a conclusion.
      • Elaborate on details included in the text.
      Understanding:
      34. Students understand that:
      • Informative or explanatory writing follows a predictable text structure that includes introducing the topic, providing facts or additional details about the topic, and ends with a conclusion.
      • They must gather their facts about the topic from a research source.
      • Informative or explanatory writing can be used to tell facts about a topic.
      • Writers elaborate details included in the text by using academic, content-specific vocabulary and text features.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 6
      Learning Activities: 2
      Lesson Plans: 2
      Classroom Resources: 2
      35. Write an argument to convince the reader to take an action or adopt a position, using an introduction, logical reasoning supported by evidence from various sources, and a conclusion.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      35.
      • Argument
      • Take an action
      • Adopt a position
      • Introduction
      • Logical reasoning
      • Evidence
      • Sources
      • Conclusion
      Knowledge:
      35. Students know:
      • The purpose of argumentative writing is to convince the reader to take action or adopt a particular position.
      • Argumentative writing includes an introduction, logical reasoning supported by evidence, and a concluding statement.
      • Evidence to support the argument must be collected from various sources.
      Skills:
      35. Students are able to:
      • Write an argument to convince a reader to take action or adopt a position.
      • Include an introduction, logical reasoning supported by evidence, and a conclusion in argumentative writing.
      • Gather evidence from various sources to support a claim.
      Understanding:
      35. Students understand that:
      • To persuade a reader to take action or adopt an opinion, they must present logical reasoning supported by evidence from various sources.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 29
      Learning Activities: 4
      Classroom Resources: 25
      36. Demonstrate knowledge of the rules of standard English grammar including punctuation, capitalization, sentence formation, and spelling appropriate for third grade.

      a. Use articles a, an, and the correctly.

      b. Identify the role of a noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, and conjunction within a sentence and explain the type of the information it conveys.

      c. Form plural nouns, verbs, and possessives, including irregular plural nouns and verbs.

      d. Use simple abbreviations, including days of the week, months of the year, titles, units of metric and customary measurement, street names, and state names.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      36.
      • Demonstrate
      • Knowledge
      • Rules of standard English grammar
      • Punctuation
      • Capitalization
      • Sentence formation
      • Spelling
      36a.
      • Articles
      36b.
      • Identify
      • Role
      • Noun
      • Verb
      • Adjective
      • Adverb
      • Pronoun
      • Preposition
      • Conjunction
      • Information
      • Conveys
      36c.
      • Form
      • Plural noun
      • Plural verb
      • Plural possessives
      • Irregular plural nouns
      • Irregular plural verbs
      36d.
      • Simple abbreviations
      Knowledge:
      36. Students know:
      • Standard English grammar and spelling conventions.
      • Punctuation marks and their appropriate usage.
      • Capitalization rules for standard English.
      • Complete sentences have a subject and predicate and end with an ending punctuation mark.
      36a.
      • The articles a, an, and the come before a noun to show if it's specific or general.
      • The is used to refer to specific or particular nouns.
      • A and an are used to refer to a non-specific, general noun.
      • A is generally used before nouns that start with a consonant sound.
      • An is generally used before nouns that start with a vowel sound.
      36b.
      • There are different types of words within a sentence, and each word provides a particular type of information.
      • The role of a noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, and conjunction within a sentence.
      36c.
      • A plural shows there is more than one of something.
      • An -s or -es suffix is added to the end of regular nouns and verbs for subject-verb agreement and to form plurals.
      • Possessives show ownership and an apostrophe is used in the formation of possessives.
      • A plural possessive is used when a plural noun has ownership, or possession, of something.
      • Some nouns and verbs do not follow the regular pattern when forming a plural.
      36d.
      • An abbreviation is a shortened version of a whole word and it will usually have a period at the end of the shortened version.
      Skills:
      36. Students are able to:
      • Demonstrate knowledge of the rules of standard English grammar.
      • Use appropriate punctuation.
      • Use correct capitalization.
      • Form sentences correctly.
      • Spell third grade level words correctly.
      36a.
      • Correctly use the articles a, an, and the in writing.
      36b.
      • Identify a noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, and conjunction in a sentence.
      • Explain the type of information nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, and conjunctions provides in a sentence.
      36c.
      • Form plural nouns, verbs, and possessives in writing.
      • Form irregular nouns and verbs in writing.
      36d.
      • Form correct abbreviations for days of the week, months of the year, titles, units of metric and customary measurement, street names, and state names in writing.
      Understanding:
      36. Students understand that:
      • There are rules to forming grammatically correct sentences in standard English.
      • When writing, they must use punctuation correctly, capitalize appropriate words, form complete sentences with subject-verb agreement, and spell the words that are appropriate for third graders.
      36a.
      • Articles are a part of speech that can come before a noun to indicate if the noun is specific (Bring me the book) or general (Bring me a book.)
      • A is usually used before nouns that start with a consonant sound, while an is usually used before words that start with a vowel sound.
      36b.
      • Each word in a sentence plays an important role in conveying meaning.
      • A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea and tells who or what the sentence is about.
      • A verb expresses an action or a state of being and tells what the noun is doing.
      • An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun and tells attributes of the noun.
      • An adverb describes a verb, adjective, or adverb, and provides more description about another word in the sentence.
      • A pronoun can be used in place of a noun.
      • A preposition is placed before a noun or pronoun to create a prepositional phrase that modifies (changes the meaning of) another word in the sentence.
      • A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses and indicates the relationship between the joined units; there are coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.
      36c.
      • There are standard English grammar conventions to make nouns, verbs, and possessives plural, and following these conventions helps make their writing clear.
      • Some nouns and verbs do not form plurals in a regular way.
      36d.
      • Abbreviations can be used in place of whole words when writing.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 6
      Classroom Resources: 6
      37. Compose simple, compound, and complex sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

      a. Identify and correct sentence fragments and run-on sentences.

      b. Identify the subject and predicate of a sentence.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      37.
      • Compose
      • Simple sentence
      • Compound sentence
      • Complex sentence
      • Subject-verb agreement
      37a.
      • Sentence fragments
      • Run-on sentences
      37b.
      • Identify
      • Subject
      • Predicate
      Knowledge:
      37. Students know:
      • A complete simple sentence includes a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought.
      • A complete compound sentence includes two subjects and two predicates and expresses two complete thoughts.
      • A complete compound sentence must include a coordinating conjunction to link the two complete thoughts.
      • A complex sentence expresses two thoughts, one complete thought and one incomplete thought, that are joined by a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun.
      • A subject and its verb must both be singular or both plural.
      37a.
      • A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence that is missing either its subject or its main verb.
      • A run-on sentence occurs when multiple complete sentences are joined incorrectly or
      37b.
      • A complete sentence has at least one subject and one predicate.
      • A subject is who or what the sentence is about, while the predicate describes the action of the subject.
      Skills:
      37. Students are able to:
      • Write simple sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.
      • Write compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.
      • Write complex sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.
      37a.
      • Identify sentence fragments and run-on sentences.
      • Correct sentence fragments and run-on sentences.
      37b.
      • Correctly identify the subject and predicate in a sentence.
      Understanding:
      37. Students understand that:
      • There are different types of sentences, and writers vary the types of sentences they use to create variety in their writing.
      • In all sentences, the subject must agree with the verb: singular subjects use singular verbs and plural subjects use plural verbs.
      37a.
      • Sentence fragments and run-on sentences should not be included in academic writing, and they must be corrected when the occur.
      37b.
      • Every complete sentence contains two parts: a subject and a predicate.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 0
      38. Compose and develop a well-organized paragraph with a topic sentence, details to support, and a concluding sentence.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      38.
      • Compose
      • Develop
      • Well-organized paragraph
      • Topic sentence
      • Details
      • Concluding sentence
      Knowledge:
      38. Students know:
      • A well-organized paragraph has a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence.
      Skills:
      38. Students are able to:
      • Write a well-organized paragraph that consists of a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence.
      Understanding:
      38. Students understand that:
      • A well-written paragraph includes a topic sentence to introduce the topic, provides supporting details to explain the topic, and ends with a concluding sentence.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 8
      Lesson Plans: 1
      Classroom Resources: 7
      39. Gather and evaluate information about a topic from a variety of sources, including digital sources, and utilize it to create a project, report, or presentation.

      a. Avoid plagiarism by using their own words and utilizing digital sources ethically.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      39.
      • Gather
      • Evaluate
      • Information
      • Topic
      • Sources
      • Digital sources
      • Utilize
      • Project
      • Report
      • Presentation
      39a.
      • Avoid
      • Plagiarism
      • Utilize
      • Digital sources
      • Ethically
      Knowledge:
      39. Students know:
      • Information can be gathered from print or digital sources.
      • Strategies to gather and evaluate information.
      • Relevant information about a topic should be added to a project, report, or presentation.
      39a.
      • Plagiarism is presenting someone else's words or ideas as their own without crediting the source.
      Skills:
      39. Students are able to:
      • Gather information about a topic from a variety of print and digital sources.
      • Evaluate the relevance of the information to the topic.
      • Use information to create a project, report, or presentation.
      39a.
      • Use their own ideas and words in writing and/or presenting information.
      • Behave ethically when using digital sources by appropriately crediting original creators.
      Understanding:
      39. Students understand that:
      • The first step in creating a project, report, or presentation is gathering and evaluating information from a variety of sources.
      39a.
      • Plagiarism is using someone else's ideas and/or words without giving credit, and it should be avoided both in written and digital work.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 0
      40. Use grade-level and domain-appropriate vocabulary in writing.

      a. Use specific vocabulary to develop a story.

      b. Use specific vocabulary to explain or inform on a topic.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      40.
      • Grade-level vocabulary
      • Domain-appropriate vocabulary
      40a.
      • Specific vocabulary
      • Develop
      • Story
      40b.
      • Specific vocabulary
      • Explain
      • Inform
      • Topic
      Knowledge:
      40. Students know:
      • Domain-appropriate vocabulary refers to words that are specifically used within a topic of study.
      • Writers use domain-appropriate vocabulary words to clearly express their meaning and enhance details.
      40a.
      • Writers select specific vocabulary words to develop a story.
      40b.
      • Writers select specific vocabulary related to a topic to explain details or provide information.
      Skills:
      40. Students are able to:
      • Use grade-level and domain-appropriate vocabulary in their writing.
      40a.
      • Use specific vocabulary words while developing a story.
      40b.
      • Use specific vocabulary to explain or inform information on a topic.
      Understanding:
      40. Students understand that:
      • Using grade-level and domain-appropriate vocabulary will enhance their writing and help them clearly express their ideas.
      40a.
      • Writers use specific vocabulary to develop a story for a variety of audiences, tasks, and purposes.
      40b.
      • Vocabulary related to topic can help provide detailed explanations or information.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 0
      41. Use words and phrases in writing for effect and elaboration.

      a. Use transition words and phrases for sentence variety.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      41.
      • Phrases
      • Effect
      • Elaboration
      41a.
      • Transition words
      • Transition phrases
      Knowledge:
      41. Students know:
      • Using particular words and phrases in writing, like unique verbs and adjectives, can create an effect for readers.
      • Particular words and phrase can be used to elaborate, or provide more details, about a topic.
      41a.
      • Transition words and phrases help link together ideas within paragraphs and longer texts.
      Skills:
      41. Students are able to:
      • Use words and phrases in writing for effect and elaboration.
      41a.
      • Write a variety of sentences that use transition words phrases.
      Understanding:
      41. Students understand that:
      • Writers carefully choose words to use in writing to elaborate on details and create an effect for readers.
      41a.
      • Transition words and phrases are used in text to provide sentence variety.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 3
      All Resources: 1
      Classroom Resources: 1
      42. Write poetry or prose in response to visual images to interpret their meanings.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Writing
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      42.
      • Poetry
      • Prose
      • Visual images
      • Interpret
      Knowledge:
      42. Students know:
      • Poetry is a genre of text that uses distinctive style and rhythm to aid in the expression of feelings, while prose is written in ordinary language.
      • Writing can be created in response to visual images.
      • Visual images carry meaning to viewers.
      Skills:
      42. Students are able to:
      • Write poetry or prose after viewing visual images to explain their meaning.
      Understanding:
      42. Students understand that:
      • Visual images can inspire them to write poetry or prose to describe their feelings and explain the image's meaning.
      Recurring Standards
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 15
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 5
      Classroom Resources: 8
      Unit Plans: 1
      R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Recurring Standard
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      R1.
      • Active listening
      • Discussion
      • Conversation
      • Rules
      • Participation
      Knowledge:
      R1. Students know:
      • Active listening skills.
      • How to engage in discussions and conversations in a variety of settings.
      • Agreed-upon rules for participation.
      Skills:
      R1. Students are able to:
      • Demonstrate active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings.
      • Converse in pairs, small groups, and large groups.
      • Practice the agreed-upon rules for participation.
      Understanding:
      R1. Students understand that:
      • Conversations and discussions follow agreed-upon rules which help us actively listen and gain understanding.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 2
      Classroom Resources: 2
      R2. Use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar spoken or written words.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Recurring Standard
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      R2.
      • Context clues
      • Determine
      • Unfamiliar spoken words
      • Unfamiliar written words
      Knowledge:
      R2. Students know:
      • Context clues in speech or text can provide the meaning of unfamiliar words.
      • There are different types of context clues, including: inference/general clues, definition/explanation clues, restatement/synonym clues, and contrast/antonym clues.
      • Context clues in text are often indicated by punctuation marks.
      Skills:
      R2. Students are able to:
      • Use context clues to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words in speech.
      • Use context clues to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words in text.
      Understanding:
      R2. Students understand that:
      • An author or a speaker use context clues to explain the meaning of unusual words or academic, domain-specific vocabulary.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 5
      Learning Activities: 1
      Classroom Resources: 4
      R3. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically when researching and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Recurring Standard
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      R3.
      • Digital tools
      • Electronic tools
      • Appropriately
      • Safely
      • Ethically
      • Research
      • Individually
      • Collaboratively
      Knowledge:
      R3. Students know:
      • Digital and electronic tools must be used appropriately, safely, and ethically.
      • Digital and electronic tools can be used for research or for writing tasks.
      • Digital and electronic tools can be independently or with others.
      Skills:
      R3. Students are able to:
      • Engage in safe and ethical behavior when using digital and electronic tools individually and collaboratively.
      Understanding:
      R3. Students understand that:
      • Safe behaviors, interactions that keep you out of harm's way, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
      • Ethical behavior, interactions that align to one's moral code, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 10
      Classroom Resources: 10
      R4. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Recurring Standard
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      R4.
      • Writing process
      • Plan
      • Draft
      • Revise
      • Edit
      • Publish
      • Genres
      Knowledge:
      R4. Students know:
      • The writing process steps are to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish.
      • Various genres of writing.
      Skills:
      R4. Students are able to:
      • Plan writings in various genres.
      • Draft writings in various genres.
      • Revise writings in various genres.
      • Edit writings in various genres.
      • Publish writings in various genres.
      Understanding:
      R4. Students understand that:
      • The writing process is a set of steps that make writing easier.
      • There are different categories, or genres, of writing that can be used for different purposes.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 0
      R5. Identify and explain literary devices in prose and poetry.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Recurring Standard
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      R5.
      • Identify
      • Explain
      • Literary devices
      • Prose
      • Poetry
      Knowledge:
      R5. Students know:
      • Literary devices are language that carries meaning other than the literal meaning of the words or phrases.
      • Literary text often includes literary devices, such as personification, imagery, alliteration, onomatopoeia, symbolism, metaphor, and simile.
      • Poetry is a genre of text that uses distinctive style and rhythm to aid in the expression of feelings, while prose is written in ordinary language.
      Skills:
      R5. Students are able to:
      • Identify literary devices in prose and poetry.
      • Explain the meaning of literary devices in prose and poetry.
      Understanding:
      R5. Students understand that:
      • Literary devices are often included in literary text, like prose and poems.
      • An author uses literary devices to convey meaning within the text.
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 0
      R6. Assess the formality of occasions in order to speak or write using appropriate language and tone.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Recurring Standard
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      R6.
      • Assess
      • Formality
      • Occasions
      • Appropriate language
      • Appropriate tone
      Knowledge:
      R6. Students know:
      • Some occasions (times and places) call for formal language and tone, while other occasions permit a casual communication.
      Skills:
      R6. Students are able to:
      • Assess the formality of occasions.
      • In formal occasions, speak and write with a formal language and tone.
      • In informal occasions, speak and write with a casual language and tone.
      Understanding:
      R6. Students understand that:
      • Different situations require different types of languages and tones.
      Literacy Foundations
      Phonics
      Reception
      Reading
      English Language Arts (2021)
      Grade(s): 4
      All Resources: 2
      Learning Activities: 1
      Lesson Plans: 1
      1. Apply knowledge of grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences, syllable types, and morphological structure to read unfamiliar multisyllabic words accurately, both in context and in isolation.
      Unpacked Content
      Content Area:
      Literacy Foundations
      Focus Area:
      Phonics
      Teacher Vocabulary:
      1.
      • Apply
      • Grade-appropriate phoneme-grapheme correspondences
      • Syllable types
      • Morphological structure
      • Multisyllabic
      • In context
      • In isolation
      Knowledge:
      1. Students know:
      • Printed words can be read by saying the sound (phoneme) that is represented by the letter symbols (graphemes).
      • There are six main syllable types that can be used to easily decode multisyllabic words.
      • Morphological structure refers to the meaningful units of a word that are combined to make the whole word.
      • In isolation means reading a single word, while in context refers to reading skills within a larger text.
        Skills:
        1. Students are able to:
        • Read unfamiliar multisyllabic words accurately in context and in isolation, using knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences, syllable patterns, and the word's morphological structure.
        Understanding:
        1. Students understand that:
        • Multisyllabic words can be read using a variety of strategies.
        English Language Arts (2021)
        Grade(s): 4
        All Resources: 0
        2. Determine and use the correct syllable type(s) to decode unfamiliar multisyllabic words, including open, closed, vowel-consonant-e, r-controlled, vowel team (including diphthongs), consonant-le, and "leftovers" including odd and schwa syllables.

        Examples: dam-age, ac-tive, na-tion
        Unpacked Content
        Content Area:
        Literacy Foundations
        Focus Area:
        Phonics
        Teacher Vocabulary:
        2.
        • Determine
        • Decode
        • Multisyllabic words
        • Syllable types
        • Open syllable
        • Closed syllable
        • Vowel-consonant-e syllable
        • r-controlled syllable
        • Vowel team syllable
        • Diphthongs
        • Consonant-le syllable
        • Odd syllable
        • Schwa syllable
        Knowledge:
        2.
        • Syllable types are patterns of phoneme-grapheme correspondences that help divide words into parts with one vowel sound which can be easily decoded.
        Skills:
        2.
        • Decode words with more than one syllable using their knowledge of common syllable types: open, closed, vowel-consonant-e, r-controlled, vowel teams, consonant-le, odd, and schwa.
        Understanding:
        2.
        • They can decode (read) multisyllabic words by dividing the words into syllables and applying their knowledge of syllable patterns.
        Writing
        English Language Arts (2021)
        Grade(s): 4
        All Resources: 2
        Classroom Resources: 2
        3. Apply knowledge of roots, prefixes, and suffixes to decode unfamiliar multisyllabic words.
        Unpacked Content
        Content Area:
        Literacy Foundations
        Focus Area:
        Phonics
        Teacher Vocabulary:
        3.
        • Roots
        • Suffixes
        • Prefixes
        • Decode
        • Multisyllabic words
        Knowledge:
        3. Students know:
        • Prefixes are word parts that can be added to the beginning of a word.
        • Suffixes are word parts that can be added at the end of a word.
        • The root word is the base word in which a prefix or suffix can be added.
          Skills:
          3. Students are able to:
          • Decode (read) multisyllabic words using their knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes.
          Understanding:
          3. Students understand that:
          • Their knowledge of the different word parts (prefixes, suffixes, and roots) can help them read most multisyllabic words if they divide them apart into smaller units.
          Expression
          Writing
          English Language Arts (2021)
          Grade(s): 4
          All Resources: 4
          Learning Activities: 1
          Lesson Plans: 1
          Classroom Resources: 2
          4. Apply knowledge of roots, prefixes, and suffixes to encode unfamiliar multisyllabic words.
          Unpacked Content
          Content Area:
          Literacy Foundations
          Focus Area:
          Phonics
          Teacher Vocabulary:
          4.
          • Roots
          • Suffixes
          • Prefixes
          • Encode
          • Multisyllabic words
          Knowledge:
          4. Students know:
          • Prefixes are word parts that can be added to the beginning of a word.
          • Suffixes are word parts that can be added at the end of a word.
          • The root word is the base word in which a prefix or suffix can be added.
            Skills:
            4. Students are able to:
            • Encode (write/spell) multisyllabic words using their knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes.
            Understanding:
            4. Students understand that:
            • Their knowledge of the different word parts (prefixes, suffixes, and roots) can help them spell most multisyllabic words if they divide them apart into smaller units.
            Fluency
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 20
            Lesson Plans: 1
            Classroom Resources: 19
            5. Demonstrate fluency when reading grade-level text and when responding through writing or speaking.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Fluency
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            5.
            • Demonstrate
            • Fluency
            • Reading
            • Responding
            • Writing
            • Speaking
            Knowledge:
            5. Students know:
            • Fluency is the ability to read, write, or speak at a pace that does not negatively impact meaning or understanding.
            Skills:
            5. Students are able to:
            • Read grade-level text fluently.
            • Demonstrate fluency when writing.
            • Demonstrate fluent speech.
            Understanding:
            5. Students understand that:
            • The ability to read fluently supports comprehension, or understanding, of the text.
            • The ability to write and speak fluently helps clearly communicate with others.
            Reception
            Reading
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 0
            6. Read grade-level text orally with appropriate pauses, phrasing, stress, intonation, rate, and integration to support comprehension.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Fluency
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            6.
            • Pauses
            • Intonation
            • Integration
            • Stress
            • Phrasing
            • Rate
            • Comprehension
            Knowledge:
            6. Students know:
            • Fluent readers include pauses at appropriate times, link spoken words together in phrases, stress the correct syllables and words in sentences, and use changes in voice tone to convey meaning.
            • Oral reading must occur at a rate (speed) to integrate meaning and support comprehension.
            Skills:
            6. Students are able to:
            • Demonstrate oral reading with appropriate pauses, phrasing, stress, and intonation.
            • Orally read at a rate that supports comprehension.
            Understanding:
            6. Students understand that:
            • To comprehend text that they read aloud, they must read at an appropriate speed, and include pauses, phrasing, stress, and intonation as indicated by the text.
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 0
            7. Read words with irregular and regular spelling patterns accurately and automatically.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Fluency
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            7.
            • Irregular spelling pattern
            • Regular spelling pattern
            • Accurately
            • Automatically
            Knowledge:
            7. Students know:
            • Regular and irregular spelling patterns.
            • Accurately means reading without mistakes, and automatically means knowing the words immediately without sounding them out.
            Skills:
            7. Students are able to:
            • Read words with regular and irregular spelling patterns quickly and correctly.
            Understanding:
            7. Students understand that:
            • Knowing spelling patterns that are common in the English language will help them read words quickly and correctly.
            Expression
            Writing
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 11
            Classroom Resources: 11
            8. Write routinely and independently in response to text.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Fluency
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            8.
            • Routinely
            • Independently
            Knowledge:
            8. Student know:
            • Routinely means on a consistent basis, and independently means without help from others.
            • Writing skills.
            Skills:
            8. Students are able to:
            • Respond to text in writing on a consistent basis without support from others.
            Understanding:
            8. Students understand that:
            • To demonstrate comprehension of text, they can construct a written response.
            Vocabulary
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 10
            Lesson Plans: 1
            Classroom Resources: 9
            9. Accurately interpret general academic and domain-specific words and phrases.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Vocabulary
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            9.
            • Interpret
            • General academic vocabulary
            • Domain-specific vocabulary
            Knowledge:
            9. Students know:
            • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
            • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
            Skills:
            9. Students are able to:
            • Correctly identify the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases.
            Understanding:
            9. Students understand that:
            • There are multiple strategies they can use to interpret the meaning of academic and domain-specific vocabulary, including using context clues in the text, their background knowledge, the morphological structure of the word, and outside resources.
            Reception
            Reading
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 11
            Learning Activities: 3
            Classroom Resources: 8
            10. Interpret words and phrases, including figurative language, as they are used in a text.

            a. Explain how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

            b. Explain how figurative language contributes to the meaning of text, including simile, metaphor, alliteration, personification, hyperbole, and idioms.

            c. Use the relationships between synonyms, antonyms, and homographs to increase understanding of word meanings.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Vocabulary
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            10.
            • Interpret
            • Figurative language
            10a.
            • Word choice
            • Meaning
            • Tone
            10b.
            • Figurative language
            • Simile
            • Metaphor
            • Alliteration
            • Personification
            • Hyperbole
            • Idiom
            10c.
            • Synonym
            • Antonym
            • Homograph
            Knowledge:
            10. Students know:
            • Strategies to identify word meaning in context.
            • Figurative language is a creative way to use words and phrases beyond their literal definition to explain or describe something.
            10a.
            • Words have nuanced shades of meaning.
            • Authors choose to use specific words to convey intended meaning and create tone in the text.
            10b.
            • Figurative language is a creative way to use words and phrases beyond their literal definition to explain or describe something.
            • Examples of figurative language include similes, metaphors, alliteration, personification, hyperbole, and idioms.
            10c.
            • Words with opposite meanings are antonyms, and words with similar meanings are synonyms.
            • Homographs are words that are spelled the same, but not necessarily pronounced the same and have different meanings and origins.
            Skills:
            10. Students are able to:
            • Explain the meaning of words and phrases that are specific to the text.
            10a.
            • Explain how the specific word choices of an author create meaning and indicate tone in the text.
            10b.
            • Identify examples of similes, metaphors, alliteration, personification, hyperbole, and idioms in text.
            • Explain how figurative language contributes to the meaning of the text.
            10c.
            • Use synonyms, antonyms, and homographs to interpret word meaning.
            Understanding:
            10. Students understand that:
            • Words and phrases, including figurative language, can have different meanings in different texts.
            10a.
            • Words can determine the tone of the text and contribute to text meaning.
            10b.
            • Figurative language carries meaning other than the literal meaning of the words or phrases, and authors choose to include figurative language in text to enhance the text's meaning.
            10c.
            • The relationships between words can be used to increase vocabulary knowledge.
            Expression
            Writing
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 0
            11. Use commonly misused words correctly in writing.

            Examples: accept/except; effect/affect; racket/racquet; its/it's; your/you're; our/are; quiet/quit/quite
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Vocabulary
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            11.
            • Commonly misused words
            Knowledge:
            11. Students know:
            • Words must be used correctly in writing to convey the intended message.
            Skills:
            11. Students are able to:
            • Correctly write commonly misused words, such as accept/except; effect/affect; racket/racquet; its/it's; your/you're; our/are; quiet/quit/quite.
            Understanding:
            11. Students understand that:
            • It is important to use the correct spellings and forms of words in their writing to clearly communicate their ideas.
            Speaking
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 0
            12. Consult reference materials to find the pronunciation of unknown words and phrases.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Vocabulary
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            12.
            • Reference materials
            • Pronunciation
            Knowledge:
            12. Students know:
            • Reference materials, such as dictionaries, can be used to find the proper pronunciations of unknown words and phrases.
            Skills:
            12. Students are able to:
            • Use reference materials to identify correct pronunciations of words and phrases.
            Understanding:
            12. Students understand that:
            • They have tools to help them determine the correct pronunciation of unknown words and phrases.
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 0
            13. Use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in presentations and discussions.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Vocabulary
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            13.
            • Academic vocabulary
            • Domain-specific vocabulary
            • Presentations
            • Discussions
            Knowledge:
            13. Students know:
            • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
            • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
            • Academic, domain-specific vocabulary should be used in school for presentations and discussions.
            Skills:
            13. Students are able to:
            • Use academic and domain-specific words in speech.
            Understanding:
            13. Students understand that:
            • It is important to use academic, domain-specific vocabulary in formal settings, like school discussions and presentations.
            Comprehension
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 18
            Lesson Plans: 2
            Classroom Resources: 16
            14. Demonstrate comprehension of literary and informational text by utilizing its content when discussing or writing in response to the text.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Comprehension
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            14.
            • Comprehension
            • Literary text
            • Informational text
            • Discussing
            • Writing
            • Response
            Knowledge:
            14. Students know:
            • Comprehension of text can be demonstrated by referring to the text in discussions or written responses.
            • Informational text is nonfiction text, and literary text is fictional.
            Skills:
            14. Students are able to:
            • Demonstrate understanding of literary and informational text by referring to the text in discussions.
            • Demonstrate understanding of literary and informational text by referring to the text in written responses.
            Understanding:
            14. Students understand that:
            • They can show that they understood literary and informational text by discussing or writing about specific content from the text.
            Reception
            Reading
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 25
            Learning Activities: 3
            Lesson Plans: 6
            Classroom Resources: 16
            15. Analyze in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text.

            a. Identify and explain attitudes and influences of multiple characters within a text.

            b. Explain how the main character changes throughout the story, using explicit evidence from the text.

            c. Make an inference about a character's behavior, the setting, and/or specific events, using explicit details from the story.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Comprehension
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            15.
            • Analyze
            • Character
            • Setting
            • Event
            • Story
            • Drama
            • Specific details
            15a.
            • Attitude
            • Influence
            • Characters
            15b.
            • Main character
            • Explicit evidence
            15c.
            • Inference
            • Character
            • Behavior
            • Setting
            • Specific events
            • Explicit details
            Knowledge:
            15. Students know:
            • Characters are any person, animal, or figure that affect the events of the story.
            • Setting is when and where a story takes place.
            • Events are situations that are described in the story.
            • A drama is a story with dialogue that can be read by different people.
            • Details in the text provide information about the characters, setting, and events.
            15a.
            • Characters are any person, animal, or figure that affect the events of the story.
            • Characters in text are described as having certain attributes, like attitude.
            • Characters in text can be influenced by other characters or events in the text.
            15b.
            • The main character is the focus of the plot and often displays changes in attitude or beliefs during the story.
            • Explicit evidence refers to direct quotations from the text.
            15c.
            • Making an inference requires using observation and background knowledge to reach a logical conclusion.
            • Inferences can be drawn by using information from the text.
            Skills:
            15. Students are able to:
            • Use specific details from the text to explain attributes of the characters, setting, or event in a story or drama.
            15a.
            • Identify attitudes and influences of multiple characters within a text.
            • Explain the reasoning behind characters' attitudes and influences.
            15b.
            • Identify the main character in a story.
            • Use explicit evidence from text to explain how the main character changed in the story.
            15c.
            • Use explicit details from a story to support inferences about a character's behavior, the story's setting, and/or specific events.
            Understanding:
            15. Students understand that:
            • They can explain details about characters, settings, and events in a story or drama by using evidence from the text.
            15a.
            • There are influences that affect characters' behavior and attitude in a text.
            15b.
            • A story usually focuses on one main character who changes throughout the text.
            • Their explanations can be supported with direct quotations from the text.
            15c.
            • Making an inference requires them to use information from the text and their background knowledge to draw conclusions about characters, settings, and events in a story.
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 0
            16. Describe how authors use literary devices and text features to convey meaning in prose, poetry, and drama.

            a. Identify clues in the text to recognize implicit meanings.

            b. Apply prior knowledge to textual clues to draw conclusions about the author's meaning.

            c. Make an inference about the meaning of a text and support it with textual evidence.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Comprehension
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            16.
            • Literary devices
            • Text features
            • Prose
            • Poetry
            • Drama
            16a.
            • Clues
            • Implicit meanings
            16b.
            • Prior knowledge
            • Textual clues
            • Draw conclusions
            16c.
            • Inference
            • Textual evidence
            Knowledge:
            16. Students know:
            • Literary devices are language that carries meaning other than the literal meaning of the words or phrases.
            • Text features are items other than the main text that provide additional or clarifying information about details in a text.
            • Poetry is a genre of text that uses distinctive style and rhythm to aid in the expression of feelings, while prose is written in ordinary language.
            • A drama is a story with dialogue that can be read by different people.
            16a.
            • An implicit meaning is not directly stated in the text, it is implied or suggested.
            • Authors often provide clues about their intended implicit meaning of the text.
            16b.
            • A reader's background knowledge can be used to draw conclusions about the meaning of the text.
            16c.
            • Making an inference requires using observation and background knowledge to reach a logical conclusion.
            • Inferences can be drawn by using information from the text.
            Skills:
            16. Students are able to:
            • Describe how literary devices and text features convey meaning in prose, poetry, and drama.
            16a.
            • Identify text clues that could be used to determine the implicit meaning of the text.
            16b.
            • Use their prior knowledge and text clues to draw conclusions about an author's meaning.
            16c.
            • Make inferences about text meaning and use text evidence to support their thinking.
            Understanding:
            16. Students understand that:
            • Authors use literary devices and text features to further explain and enhance specific details in prose, poetry, and drama.
            16a.
            • Sometimes authors will not state their intended message in the text, so they must use clues to draw a conclusion about the implicit meaning of the text.
            16b.
            • Their background knowledge can be combined with clues from the text to make inferences about the author's intended meaning.
            16c.
            • Making an inference requires them to use information from the text and their background knowledge to draw logical conclusions, that are supported with evidence from the text.
            English Language Arts (2021)
            Grade(s): 4
            All Resources: 3
            Lesson Plans: 2
            Classroom Resources: 1
            17. Identify the narrator's point of view in a literary text and explain how it differs from a character's perspective.

            a. Explain the difference between first person and third person narration, including omniscient and third person limited.

            b. State an opinion of the author's use of narration, supporting reasoning with examples from the text.
            Unpacked Content
            Content Area:
            Literacy Foundations
            Focus Area:
            Comprehension
            Teacher Vocabulary:
            17.
            • Narrator
            • Point of view
            • Literary text
            • Perspective
            17a.
            • First person narration
            • Third person narration
            • Third person limited
            • Omniscient
            17b..
            • Opinion
            • Narration
            • Reasoning
              Knowledge:
              17. Students know:
              • A narrator is the speaker who is telling the story.
              • Different characters in a story can have different perspectives, or viewpoints.
              17a.
              • The features of different narration styles, including first person, third person omniscient, and third person limited.
              • Pronouns used by the author can indicate the narrator's point of view.
              17b..
              • An author chooses a narration style for a particular purpose and to convey specific meaning.
                Skills:
                17. Students are able to:
                • Identify the narrator's point of view in a literary text.
                • Explain how the narrator's point of view is different from a character's perspective.
                17a.
                • Explain how first person, third person, omniscient and third person limited narration styles differ in literary texts.
                17b..
                • Identify the author's use of narration.
                • Form and state a personal opinion about the author's use of narration.
                • Support their opinion with evidence from the text.
                  Understanding:
                  17. Students understand that:
                  • Narrators and characters can have different points of view and perspectives within the same story.
                  17a.
                  • In first person narration the narrator is a character in the story and is telling the story from their perspective. The pronouns I, me, we, or us are often used.
                  • In third person narration, the narrator is not part of the story and the characters never acknowledge the narrator's presence. The pronouns he, she, it, or they are often used.
                  • Third person narration can be limited or omniscient.
                  • An third person omniscient narrator is all-seeing and all-knowing and can tell the story from multiple characters' perspectives, while a third person limited narrator tells the story from only one character's perspective.
                  17b..
                  • Although an authors chose to use a specific style of narration, that does not mean it was the best or only choice.
                  • They can form opinions about authors' literary choices and provide examples from the text to support their opinion.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 5
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 4
                  18. Identify the point of view in a narrative and describe how the narrative would be different if told from the perspective of a different character or narrator.

                  a. Compare and contrast firsthand and secondhand accounts of the same event or topic, describing the differences in focus and the information provided.

                  b. Compare the perspectives of different characters within a text.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  18.
                  • Point of view
                  • Narrative
                  • Narrator
                  • Character
                  18a.
                  • Compare
                  • Contrast
                  • Firsthand accounts
                  • Secondhand accounts
                  • Event
                  • Topic
                  • Focus
                  18b.
                  • Perspective
                  Knowledge:
                  18. Students know:
                  • A narrative is a story that is told either by a narrator or a character in the story.
                  18a.
                  • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar, and contrast means tell how things are different.
                  • A firsthand account can be told by someone who was personally present at the event or has personal experience with the topic.
                  • A secondhand account can be told by someone who received information about an event or topic from someone with firsthand experience.
                  18b.
                  • Characters in a text will have different perspectives, views, and opinions.
                  Skills:
                  18. Students are able to:
                  • Identify the point of view in a narrative.
                  • Describe how a narrative would be different if told from the perspective of a different character or narrator.
                  18a.
                  • Compare and contrast firsthand and secondhand accounts of the same event or topic.
                  • Describe the differences in focus and the information provided in firsthand and secondhand accounts.
                  18b.
                  • Compare the perspectives of different characters within a text.
                  Understanding:
                  18. Students understand that:
                  • Narratives can be told from different points of view that offer different perspectives.
                  • A story will change if it is told by a different character or narrator.
                  18a.
                  • Information a reader gets in a text is impacted by the source of the information.
                  18b.
                  • The perspective of characters in a text are often different.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 13
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  Lesson Plans: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 10
                  19. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

                  a. Determine and state an implied theme, explicit theme, or life lesson from a myth, story, or other traditional literature.

                  b. Analyze a common or shared theme and its development in stories, myths, and/or other traditional literature.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  19.
                  • Compare
                  • Contrast
                  • Treatment
                  • Theme
                  • Stories
                  • Myths
                  • Traditional literature
                  • Cultures
                  19a.
                  • Implied theme
                  • Explicit theme
                  • Life lesson
                  • Myth
                  • Story
                  • Traditional literature
                  19b.
                  • Analyze
                  • Theme
                  • Myth
                  • Traditional literature
                  Knowledge:
                  19. Students know:
                  • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar, and contrast means tell how things are different.
                  • Theme is the main, recurring idea in a text, and there are common themes in literary text.
                  • A myth is a type of traditional literature, that often explains the early history of a people or some natural or social phenomenon, that typically involves supernatural beings or events.
                  • Culture is the customs or institutions of a particular nation, people, or another social group.
                  19a.
                  • An implied theme is not directly stated in the text, while an explicit theme is directly stated in the text.
                  • Myths, stories, and other types of traditional literature were often written with the purpose of teaching a life lesson.
                  19b.
                  • An author develops a theme by including specific details in the text to help the reader identify and understand the theme.
                  • There are common, or universal, themes that frequently appear in literary text.
                  Skills:
                  19. Students are able to:
                  • Identify the theme in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.
                  • Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes in literature from different cultures.
                  19a.
                  • Identify an implied theme, explicit theme, or life lesson from a myth, story, or another type of traditional literature.
                  • State the implied theme, explicit theme, or life lesson from a myth, story, or another type of traditional literature.
                  19b.
                  • Identify the common theme in various types of traditional literature.
                  • Analyze how the author developed the theme throughout the literature.
                  Understanding:
                  19. Students understand that:
                  • Literature often includes universal (common) themes than can help the reader better understand other perspectives and cultures.
                  19a.
                  • Sometimes an author will state the theme or life lesson in the text, while other times the reader must use clues and details from the text to infer the theme or lesson.
                  • Myths and traditional literature were often written with the purpose of teaching life lessons.
                  19b.
                  • Literature often includes universal (common) themes, and the author suggests the theme of the text by including particular details about characters or events.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 18
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  Lesson Plans: 8
                  Classroom Resources: 9
                  20. Use details and examples from a text to indicate what the text explicitly states.

                  a. Interpret facts from an informational article, using details and examples from the text to explain the interpretation.

                  b. List the main questions answered by an informational article.

                  c. Categorize statements in an article or other informational text as fact or opinion and give reasons for each choice.

                  d. Explain the differences between primary and secondary sources, giving examples from texts.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  20.
                  • Details
                  • Examples
                  • Explicitly
                  20a.
                  • Interpret
                  • Facts
                  • Details
                  • Examples
                  • Informational article
                  20b.
                  • List
                  • Main questions
                  • Informational article
                  20c.
                  • Categorize
                  • Fact
                  • Opinion
                  • Reasons
                  20d.
                  • Primary sources
                  • Secondary source
                  Knowledge:
                  20. Students know:
                  • Explicit means directly stated within the text.
                  • Specific details and examples from the text an be used to demonstrate an understanding of the text's explicit meaning.
                  20a.
                  • Facts gathered from an informational article can be explained using details and examples from the text.
                  20b.
                  • Informational text is often written with the purpose of answering questions.
                  20c.
                  • A fact is a statement that can be proven with evidence, while an opinion is a personal belief that cannot be proven true in every case.
                  • Informational text can present both facts and opinions.
                  20d.
                  • Primary sources are firsthand accounts of events and provide raw information.
                  • Secondary sources explain, analyze, or summarize primary sources.
                  Skills:
                  20. Students are able to:
                  • Identify details and examples from a text that demonstrates comprehension of the text's explicit meaning.
                  20a.
                  • Explain facts sourced from an informational text, using text evidence to support the explanation.
                  20b.
                  • Identify the main questions answered by an informational text.
                  20c.
                  • Determine if statements in an informational text are facts or opinions.
                  • Describe reasons that a particular statement is identified as a fact or an opinion.
                  20d.
                  • Explain the differences between primary and secondary sources.
                  • Support their explanation with specific examples from the text.
                  Understanding:
                  20. Students understand that:
                  • Explicit meanings are directly stated in text, and they can use specific details and examples from the text to show they understood the text's explicit meaning.
                  20a.
                  • To demonstrate comprehension of an informational article, they can explain the facts using specific details and examples from the text.
                  20b.
                  • Informational articles often answer questions and identifying these questions can improve comprehension.
                  20c.
                  • A fact is a thing that is known or proved to be true, and an opinion is a personal view or judgment about something.
                  • To fully comprehend a text, they must distinguish between facts and opinions.
                  • They can determine if a statement is a fact or an opinion using their current knowledge or by referencing details in a text.
                  20d.
                  • The information a reader gets from a text is impacted by the source of the information.
                  • Primary and secondary sources will be told from different perspectives.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 12
                  Lesson Plans: 3
                  Classroom Resources: 9
                  21. Explain how relevant details support the implied or explicit main idea of a text.

                  a. Determine the central idea or theme of a text.

                  b. Explain the difference between implied and explicit details.

                  c. Summarize the key supporting details by citing evidence from a text.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  21.
                  • Implied main idea
                  • Explicit main idea
                  • Relevant details
                  21a.
                  • Central idea
                  • Theme
                  21b.
                  • Implied detail
                  • Explicit detail
                  21c.
                  • Summarize
                  • Key supporting details
                  • Citing
                  • Evidence
                  Knowledge:
                  21. Students know:
                  • The main idea is the most important idea presented in the text.
                  • Sometimes an author will clearly state the main idea, while other times an author will merely suggest the main idea.
                  • The supporting details explain the main idea or provide more information about the main idea.
                  21a.
                  • Theme is the main, recurring idea in a text.
                  21b.
                  • An author can directly state details, or an author can include details that require the reader to make inferences.
                  21c.
                  • A summary is a short statement explaining the main point or most important details of a text.
                  Skills:
                  21. Students are able to:
                  • Identify the implied or explicit main idea of a text.
                  • Use relevant details to support the main idea of a text.
                  21a.
                  • Determine the central idea or theme of a text.
                  21b.
                  • Identify implied and explicit details and explain how they are different.
                  21c.
                  • Cite evidence from the text to create a summary of a text's most important details.
                  Understanding:
                  21. Students understand that:
                  • Most texts have a main idea, or most important message, and supporting details, which provide more information about the main idea.
                  • An author can choose to state the main idea in the text or provide clues through details in the text to imply the main idea.
                  21a.
                  • The central idea or theme of a text is conveyed through details in the text.
                  21b.
                  • An author can choose to explicitly state details in the text or provide details that require the reader to infer the details.
                  21c.
                  • A summary is a short explanation of the most important details from a text, and statements in a summary should be supported with textual evidence.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 20
                  Lesson Plans: 12
                  Classroom Resources: 8
                  22. Analyze events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in informational texts, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

                  a. Cite evidence to explain the author's perspective toward a topic in an informational text.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  22.
                  • Analyze
                  • Events
                  • Procedures
                  • Ideas
                  • Concepts
                  • Informational texts
                  22a.
                  • Cite
                  • Evidence
                  • Author's perspective
                  • Topic
                  • Informational text
                  Knowledge:
                  22. Students know:
                  • Informational text often describes events, procedures, ideas, or concepts.
                  22a.
                  • Authors of informational text have personal perspectives or viewpoints that are reflected in their writing.
                  Skills:
                  22. Students are able to:
                  • Use specific information in informational text to describe events, procedures, ideas, or concepts.
                  • Explain the causes and effects of the events described in text.
                  22a.
                  • Identify and explain an author's perspective toward a topic in informational text.
                  • Provide textual evidence to support their explanation of the author's perspective.
                  Understanding:
                  22. Students understand that:
                  • They can use information from the text to examine and interpret events, procedures, ideas, or concepts from informational texts.
                  • Some informational text will explain the causes and effects of certain events.
                  22a.
                  • Authors of informational text have views and opinions about the topics they write about, and their perspectives will be reflected within the text.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 8
                  Learning Activities: 2
                  Lesson Plans: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 3
                  Unit Plans: 1
                  23. Evaluate how text features and structures contribute to the meaning of an informational text.

                  a. Identify and describe the structures within a text, including description, comparison and contrast, sequence, problem and solution, and cause and effect.

                  b. Interpret information from text features in both print and digital formats.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  23.
                  • Text features
                  • Text structures
                  • Informational texts
                  23a.
                  • Description
                  • Comparison and contrast
                  • Sequence
                  • Problem and solution
                  • Cause and effect
                  23b.
                  • Text features
                  • Print format
                  • Digital format
                  Knowledge:
                  23. Students know:
                  • Informational text often includes text features, such as graphs, charts, diagrams, photographs, etc., to help readers better understand the information in the text.
                  • Informational text often follows a predictable text structure.
                  23a.
                  • Informational text often follows a particular text structure and understanding the types of text structure can help improve comprehension.
                  • A text that follows a description structure will provide facts and details about a topic.
                  • A text that follows a comparison and contrast structure will describe how two or more things are alike or different.
                  • A text that follows a sequence text structure will describe events that occurred in chronological order.
                  • Problem and solution text structure describes a problem and how the problem was solved or could be solved.
                  • Cause and effect text structure describes an event (the cause) and the consequence or result of the event (the effect).
                  23b.
                  • Text features are items like charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages.
                  • Text features can provide additional information or enhance understanding of the text.
                  Skills:
                  23. Students are able to:
                  • Identify and describe how text features contribute to the meaning of informational text.
                  • Identify and describe how text structure contributes to the meaning of informational text.
                  23a.
                  • Identify the type of text structure a text follows.
                  • Describe characteristics of the text structure.
                  23b.
                  • Identify text features in print and digital formats.
                  • Explain the meaning of text features in print and digital formats.
                  Understanding:
                  23. Students understand that:
                  • Text features are often included in informational text to help readers better understand the author's intended meaning and message.
                  • Informational texts often follow a predictable text structure, and identifying the structure of a text can improve comprehension.
                  23a.
                  • Texts follow a predictable structure that contributes to the overall meaning of the text.
                  23b.
                  • Text features can be found in printed and digital text materials.
                  • Text features often provide important information about details in the text or can enhance understanding of details in the text.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 6
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 5
                  24. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points and claims in an informational text or argument.

                  a. Make text-based inferences to determine possible reasons for an author's stance.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  24.
                  • Reasons
                  • Evidence
                  • Points
                  • Claims
                  • Informational text
                  • Argument
                  24a.
                  • Text-based inference
                  • Stance
                  Knowledge:
                  24. Students know:
                  • Authors of informational texts or argumentative writings often include logical reasons and evidence to support their points or claims.
                  24a.
                  • A text-based inference is a logical conclusion that is drawn from details in the text.
                  • Authors often take a particular stance, or attitude, towards the topic of their writing.
                  Skills:
                  24. Students are able to:
                  • Identify key points and claims in an informational text or argument.
                  • Identify reasons and text evidence that supports the points or claims of an author.
                  • Explain how the author used reasons and evidence to support their key points and claims.
                  24a.
                  • Make inferences about an author's stance using evidence from the text.
                  Understanding:
                  24. Students understand that:
                  • Authors use logical reasoning and factual evidence to support their points and claims within informational texts or arguments.
                  24a.
                  • Authors will often have a particular attitude towards the topic of their writing, and readers can determine an author's stance by using text evidence to draw conclusions.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 0
                  25. Explain how the form of a poem contributes to its meaning.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  25.
                  • Poem
                  • Form
                  Knowledge:
                  25. Students know:
                  • Poetry can be written in different formats.
                  Skills:
                  25. Students are able to:
                  • Identify the form of a poem.
                  • Describe how a poem's form helps convey its meaning.
                  Understanding:
                  25. Students understand that:
                  • Poems have varying forms that can be used to convey different meanings.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 0
                  26. Analyze how rhythm and rhyme in poetry contribute to meaning.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  26.
                  • Rhythm
                  • Rhyme
                  Knowledge:
                  26. Students know:
                  • Poetry is a genre of text that uses distinctive style and rhythm to aid in the expression of feelings.
                  • Words rhyme if their vowel and ending sounds are the same.
                  • Rhythm is a steady beat made by stressed syllables in spoken words.
                  Skills:
                  26. Students are able to:
                  • Identify rhythm and rhyme in poetry.
                  • Describe how rhythm and rhyme convey meaning in a poem.
                  Understanding:
                  26. Students understand that:
                  • Authors of poetry select particular rhyme and rhythm schemes to convey meaning.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 1
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  27. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  27.
                  • Reasons
                  • Speaker
                  • Evidence
                  • Points
                  Knowledge:
                  27. Students know:
                  • Active listening skills.
                  • Just like in written language, a speaker will often provide reasons and evidence to support their key points.
                  Skills:
                  27. Students are able to:
                  • Identify a speaker's main points.
                  • Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker uses to support their main points.
                  Understanding:
                  27. Students understand that:
                  • Like an author of written text, speakers use reasons and evidence to support their key points.
                  Expression
                  Writing
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 0
                  28. Write clear and coherent responses to texts, using explicit or implicit evidence that supports a particular point.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  28.
                  • Clear
                  • Coherent
                  • Explicit evidence
                  • Implicit evidence
                  Knowledge:
                  28. Students know:
                  • Clear and coherent writing follows a particular structure and is easily understood by readers.
                  • Text-based responses should include textual evidence that is explicit (direct quotation) or implicit (summary or paraphrase).
                  Skills:
                  28. Students are able to:
                  • Respond to texts in clear, coherent writing that using textual evidence to support their points.
                  Understanding:
                  28. Students understand that:
                  • They can demonstrate comprehension of text by creating clear and coherent writing that utilizes textual evidence to support points.
                  Speaking
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 0
                  29. Add audio recordings to presentations, when appropriate, to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  29.
                  • Audio recordings
                  • Presentations
                  • Enhance
                  • Development
                  • Main ideas
                  • Themes
                  Knowledge:
                  29. Students know:
                  • Adding sound recordings to written presentations can supplement the development of main ideas or themes.
                  Skills:
                  29. Students are able to:
                  • Create audio recordings to use with presentations to enhance the development of main ideas or theme.
                  Understanding:
                  29. Students understand that:
                  • There are occasions when particular sounds can improve the development of main ideas or themes.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 6
                  Lesson Plans: 4
                  Classroom Resources: 1
                  Unit Plans: 1
                  30. Synthesize information on a topic in order to write or speak knowledgeably about the subject.

                  a. Make complex inferences within and across texts to determine the importance of information.

                  b. Use evidence to explain information across texts including different perspectives and/or points of view.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  30.
                  • Synthesize
                  • Topic
                  • Subject
                  30a.
                  • Inferences
                  30b.
                  • Evidence
                  • Perspectives
                  • Points of view
                  Knowledge:
                  30. Students know:
                  • Synthesizing information about a topic means to combine information from many different sources.
                  30a.
                  • A complex inference is drawing a conclusion based on available information within one text or across multiple texts.
                  30b.
                  • Different texts will often display different perspectives and different points of view.
                  Skills:
                  30. Students are able to:
                  • Write or speak knowledgeable about a topic by synthesizing information from multiple sources.
                  30a.
                  • Determine the importance of information by making complex inferences within one text or across multiple texts.
                  30b.
                  • Use evidence to explain information across different texts.
                  Understanding:
                  30. Students understand that:
                  • To become knowledgeable about a topic, they have to combine their knowledge gained from a variety of sources.
                  30a.
                  • Complex inferences can be used to determine the importance of information within a text or within a body of knowledge.
                  30b.
                  • Textual evidence must be used to explain information found in different texts.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 4
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 1
                  Unit Plans: 1
                  31. Orally paraphrase portions of a text or information presented in diverse media when collaborating and/or presenting.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  31.
                  • Orally paraphrase
                  • Diverse media
                  • Collaborating
                  • Presenting
                  Knowledge:
                  31. Students know:
                  • Paraphrasing means to express the same meaning of the original source, but use different words or phrases.
                  Skills:
                  31. Students are able to:
                  • Orally paraphrase portions of text or other presented information in presentations or groups.
                  Understanding:
                  31. Students understand that:
                  • Paraphrasing can demonstrate they understand the source information well enough to rephrase it in their own words.
                  Writing
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 1
                  32. Respond in writing to literature and informational text, including stories, dramas, poetry, and cross-curricular texts, both independently and with support, demonstrating grade-level proficiency.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  32.
                  • Respond
                  • Writing
                  • Literature
                  • Informational texts
                  • Stories
                  • Dramas
                  • Poetry
                  • Cross-curricular texts
                  • Independently
                  • With support
                  • Grade-level proficiency
                  Knowledge:
                  32. Students know:
                  • Responding to text in a written format demonstrates comprehension of the text.
                  Skills:
                  32. Students are able to:
                  • Independently and with support, create grade-appropriate written responses after reading literature and informational text.
                  Understanding:
                  32. Students understand that:
                  • To respond in writing to literature and informational texts, they must read critically, have a deep understanding of the text's content, and use appropriate writing skills.
                  Reception
                  Reading
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 15
                  Lesson Plans: 5
                  Classroom Resources: 10
                  33. Use research to produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

                  a. Introduce a research topic clearly and group related ideas.

                  b. Integrate and cite evidence to present research findings in written form.

                  c. Paraphrase portions of texts or information presented in diverse media and formats.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  33.
                  • Research
                  • Clear
                  • Coherent
                  • Development
                  • Organization
                  • Task
                  • Purpose
                  • Audience
                  33a.
                  • Research
                  • Topic
                  • Group
                  • Related ideas
                  33b.
                  • Integrate
                  • Evidence
                  • Cite
                  • Research
                  33c.
                  • Paraphrase
                  • Diverse media
                  Knowledge:
                  33. Students know:
                  • Research happens when you look up information about a topic.
                  • Clear and coherent writing is organized into a text structure and develops ideas with the addition of details.
                  • Writing styles can vary depending on the task, the purpose, and the intended audience.
                  33a.
                  • Informative writing should begin by introducing the topic of the text.
                  • Writing can be organized into a structure by logically grouping ideas to support the writer's purpose.
                  33b.
                  • Integrate means to combine information from multiple research sources.
                  33c.
                  • Paraphrasing means to express the same meaning of the original source, but use different words or phrases.
                  Skills:
                  33. Students are able to:
                  • Gather research information about a topic.
                  • Create writing that is clear, coherent, and appropriate to the task, the purpose, and the audience.
                  • Organize writing into a particular structure and develop ideas using details.
                  33a.
                  • Clearly introduce a research topic in their writing.
                  • Logically group related ideas to support explanation of the topic.
                  33b.
                  • Integrate research findings from multiple sources in writing.
                  • Cite evidence from research sources in writing.
                  33c.
                  • Paraphrase portions of texts or presented information in writing.
                  Understanding:
                  33. Students understand that:
                  • Before writing an informative text, they should gather information through research.
                  • There writing should always be clear and coherent, but the style may change depending on the task, purpose, and audience.
                  33a.
                  • Focusing on the topic of a text by providing a clear introduction and grouping related ideas draws the reader's attention to important points and supports the meaning of the text.
                  33b.
                  • They must combine multiple sources of information and cite the source of the information when presenting research findings in their writing.
                  33c.
                  • Paraphrasing can demonstrate they understand the source information well enough to write it in their own words.
                  Expression
                  Writing
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 0
                  34. Write fluently and legibly in cursive, using correctly formed letters with appropriate spacing.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  34.
                  • Fluently
                  • Legibly
                  • Cursive
                  • Correctly formed letters
                  • Appropriate spacing
                  Knowledge:
                  34. Students know:
                  • Legible writing can be read by others.
                  • Fluent writing is writing at a consistent pace.
                  • Cursive writing strokes for all letters.
                  • Cursive writing connects the letters within words.
                  • Appropriate spacing should occur between words.
                  Skills:
                  34. Students are able to:
                  • Write legibly in cursive at a steady pace.
                  • Connect and correctly form cursive letters.
                  • Include appropriate spacing between words.
                  Understanding:
                  34. Students understand that:
                  • Cursive writing is a special type of writing that connects letters within words.
                  • Appropriate spacing is important so that readers can tell where one cursive word ends and the next begins.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 25
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  Lesson Plans: 5
                  Classroom Resources: 19
                  35. Write personal or fictional narratives using a logical plot, transitional words and phrases, sensory details, and dialogue, and providing a sense of closure.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  35.
                  • Personal narratives
                  • Fictional narratives
                  • Logical plot
                  • Transitional words and phrases
                  • Sensory details
                  • Dialogue
                  • Closure
                  Knowledge:
                  35. Students know:
                  • A narrative is a piece of writing that tells a story.
                  • A personal narrative tells about an event that was personally experienced by the author, while a fictional narrative tells a made up story.
                  • A narrative story describes a sequence of events in a logical order (beginning, middle, end) and provides a sense of closure as an ending.
                  • Narrative transitions indicate when and where the story is occurring.
                  • Sensory details use descriptions of the five senses.
                  • Dialogue is a conversation between two or more people.
                  Skills:
                  35. Students are able to:
                  • Write a personal narrative that recalls a personal experience or a fictional narrative with a made-up story.
                  • Write a narrative with a logical sequence of events and sensory details.
                  • Use appropriate transitional words and phrases in narrative writing.
                  • Include dialogue in narrative writing.
                  • Write a narrative that ends with a sense of closure.
                  Understanding:
                  35. Students understand that:
                  • Narrative writing includes predictable elements, like a logical sequence of events and an ending that provides the reader with a sense of closure.
                  • Because narrative writing describes a chronological sequence of events, it includes transitions that indicate the time and place in which the story is occurring.
                  • Narrative writing can be used to tell about something that happened to them personally or it can tell a story they made up.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 19
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  Lesson Plans: 6
                  Classroom Resources: 11
                  Unit Plans: 1
                  36. Write informative or explanatory text about a topic using sources, incorporating academic vocabulary, and including an introduction, facts, details with elaboration, and a conclusion.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  36.
                  • Informative text
                  • Explanatory text
                  • Topic
                  • Sources
                  • Academic vocabulary
                  • Introduction
                  • Facts
                  • Details with elaboration
                  • Conclusion
                  Knowledge:
                  36. Students know:
                  • Informative or explanatory text is a piece of writing that provides factual information that was gathered from research sources.
                  • Informative or explanatory text begins by introducing the topic, provides facts and relevant details, and ends with a conclusion.
                  • Elaboration means to supply additional information about a detail by using academic vocabulary or by including text features.
                  • Academic vocabulary is more formal and specific than spoken language.
                  Skills:
                  36. Students are able to:
                  • Gather information from sources.
                  • Write an informative or explanatory text using information gathered from sources.
                  • Write an informative or explanatory text that begins with introducing the topic, provides facts and details about the topic, and ends with a conclusion.
                  • Elaborate on details included in the text using academic vocabulary.
                  Understanding:
                  36. Students understand that:
                  • Informative or explanatory writing follows a predictable text structure that includes introducing the topic, providing facts or additional details about the topic, and ends with a conclusion.
                  • They must gather their facts about the topic from a research source.
                  • Writers elaborate details included in the text by using formal academic vocabulary and text features.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 5
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  Lesson Plans: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 2
                  37. Write an argument to persuade the reader to take an action or adopt a position, using an introduction, logical reasoning supported by evidence from relevant sources, and linking words to connect their argument to the evidence.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  37.
                  • Argument
                  • Persuade
                  • Take an action
                  • Adopt a position
                  • Introduction
                  • Logical reasoning
                  • Evidence
                  • Relevant sources
                  • Linking words
                  Knowledge:
                  37. Students know:
                  • The purpose of argumentative writing is to convince the reader to take action or adopt a particular position.
                  • Argumentative writing includes an introduction, logical reasoning supported by evidence, and a concluding statement.
                  • Evidence to support the argument must be collected from various sources.
                  • Linking words are used to connect their claim to the corresponding evidence.
                  Skills:
                  37. Students are able to:
                  • Write an argument to convince a reader to take action or adopt a position.
                  • Include an introduction, logical reasoning supported by evidence, and a conclusion in argumentative writing.
                  • Gather evidence from relevant sources to support a claim.
                  • Use linking words to connect their argument to the corresponding evidence.
                  Understanding:
                  37. Students understand that:
                  • To persuade a reader to take action or adopt an opinion, they must present logical reasoning supported by evidence from relevant sources.
                  • Linking words can help connect their argument to the evidence supporting their argument.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 13
                  Classroom Resources: 13
                  38. Compose complete sentences with correct subject-verb agreement, punctuation, and usage.

                  a. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns.

                  Example: a small red bag rather than a red small bag

                  b. Form and use prepositional phrases and conjunctions.

                  c. Recognize and correct sentence fragments and run-on sentences.

                  d. Use commas, apostrophes, and quotation marks correctly.

                  e. Use correct capitalization, including familial relations and proper adjectives.

                  f. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  38.
                  • Compose
                  • Complete sentences
                  • Subject-verb agreement
                  • Punctuation
                  38a.
                  • Adjectives
                  38b.
                  • Prepositional phrases
                  • Conjunctions
                  38c.
                  • Sentence fragments
                  • Run-on sentences
                  38d.
                  • Commas
                  • Apostrophes
                  • Quotation marks
                  38e.
                  • Capitalization
                  • Familial relations
                  • Proper adjectives
                  38f.
                  • References
                  Knowledge:
                  38. Students know:
                  • A complete sentence has at least one subject and one predicate.
                  • A subject and its verb must both be singular or both plural.
                  • A complete sentence ends with an ending punctuation mark and there are other punctuation marks that may need to be included.
                  38a.
                  • The English language orders adjectives within a sentence according to conventional patterns.
                  38b.
                  • A prepositional phrase is a group of words consisting of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any words that modify the object.
                  • A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses and indicates the relationship between the joined units; there are coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.
                  38c.
                  • A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence that is missing either its subject or its main verb.
                  • A run-on sentence occurs when multiple complete sentences are joined incorrectly without using a coordinating conjunction or appropriate punctuation.
                  38d.
                  • Commas, apostrophes, and quotation marks are punctuation marks that are used in writing for specific purposes.
                  38e.
                  • Certain words in the English language are capitalized.
                  38f.
                  • Phonics skills necessary to spell words correctly.
                  • Correct spellings can be located in reference materials, such as dictionaries.
                  Skills:
                  38. Students are able to:
                  • Write complete sentences with correct subject-verb agreement and appropriate punctuation and word usage.
                  38a.
                  • Appropriate order adjectives within a sentence according to standard English conventions; for example, a small red bag rather than a red small bag.
                  38b.
                  • Form and use prepositional phrases in writing.
                  • Form and use conjunctions in writing.
                  38c.
                  • Recognize sentence fragments and run-on sentences.
                  • Correct sentence fragments and run-on sentences.
                  38d.
                  • Use commas, apostrophes, and quotation marks correctly in writing.
                  38e.
                  • Use correct capitalization, including familial relations and proper adjectives.
                  38f.
                  • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly.
                  • Consult references for correct spellings, if needed.
                  Understanding:
                  38. Students understand that:
                  • The proper conventions of a complete sentence must be used to convey their intended meaning.
                  38a.
                  • Ordering adjectives in a conventional manner helps their writing to be clearly understood by readers.
                  38b.
                  • Prepositional phrases and conjunctions are used to expand or connect words, phrases, and sentences.
                  38c.
                  • Sentence fragments and run-on sentences should not be included in academic writing, and they must be corrected when the occur.
                  38d.
                  • Commas are a common punctuation mark used in writing for multiple reasons, such as to separate items in a series, before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence, or with direct quotations.
                  • Apostrophes are used to form possessive nouns and contractions.
                  • Quotation marks are used to show dialogue (speech) in text.
                  38e.
                  • There are common capitalization rules to follow, such as capitalizing the first letter of a sentence, proper nouns, and the pronoun I.
                  • There are less common capitalization rules, like capitalizing familial relations and proper adjectives.
                  38f.
                  • To clearly communicate in writing, they must use correct spellings.
                  • If they do not know how to spell a word, they can consult reference materials for assistance.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 12
                  Learning Activities: 2
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 9
                  39. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage.

                  a. Use relative pronouns who, whose, which, and that, relative adverbs where, when, and how, and irregular possessive nouns.

                  b. Form and use the progressive verb tenses.

                  Examples: I was walking, I am walking

                  c. Use modal auxiliaries to convey various conditions.

                  Examples: can, may, must
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  39.
                  • Demonstrate
                  • Command
                  • Conventions
                  • Standard English grammar
                  • Standard English usage
                  39a.
                  • Relative pronouns
                  • Relative adverbs
                  • Irregular possessive nouns
                  39b.
                  • Progressive verb tenses
                  39c.
                  • Modal auxiliaries
                  • Convey
                  • Various conditions
                  Knowledge:
                  39. Students know:
                  • Standard English grammar and usage conventions.
                  39a.
                  • A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb that have a relationship.
                  • A relative pronoun is used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun in which the clause modifies or describes the noun.
                  • A relative adverb is an adverb that introduces an adjective clause.
                  • Common irregular nouns and conventions to form possessive nouns.
                  39b.
                  • The progressive verb tense describes ongoing actions, and it tells about something that is, was, or will be happening.
                  39c.
                  • Modal auxiliaries are verbs that never change forms the way most other verbs do.
                  • Modal auxiliary verbs indicate possibility, capability, necessity, or willingness.
                  Skills:
                  39. Students are able to:
                  • Demonstrate correct standard English grammar and word usage in writing.
                  39a.
                  • Use relative pronouns correctly in writing.
                  • Use relative adverbs correctly in writing.
                  • Form and use irregular possessive nouns correctly in writing.
                  39b.
                  • Form and use the progressive verb tenses; for example, I was walking, I am walking.
                  39c.
                  • Use modal auxiliaries to convey various conditions; for example, can, may, must.
                  Understanding:
                  39. Students understand that:
                  • Demonstrating command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing is necessary to convey meaning.
                  39a.
                  • There are some special parts of speech that can be used to add more details to sentences, like relative pronouns and relative adverbs, that must be used correctly to clearly convey meaning.
                  • There are some nouns that create their plural and possessive forms in an irregular way.
                  39b.
                  • The tense of a verb indicates when the action occurred.
                  • To form the progressive tenses, they will use a form of the helping verb to be with a main verb ending in -ing.
                  39c.
                  • Modal auxiliaries are a type of helping verb that must be used together with the main verb of the sentence.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 1
                  40. Compose friendly and formal letters using appropriate elements, including date, greeting, body, and a signature.

                  a. Write return address and mailing address in the proper locations on an envelope.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  40.
                  • Friendly letter
                  • Formal letter
                  • Date
                  • Greeting
                  • Body
                  • Signature
                  40a.
                  • Return address
                  • Mailing address
                  • Envelope
                  Knowledge:
                  40. Students know:
                  • The tone of a formal letter is professional and official, while the tone of an friendly letter is informal.
                  • Both friendly and formal letters include some of the same components, including the date, greeting, body, and signature.
                  40a.
                  • The mailing address is written in the center of an envelope, and the return address is written in the upper-left corner of the envelope.
                  Skills:
                  40. Students are able to:
                  • Write a friendly letter with all of the appropriate elements.
                  • Write a formal letter with all of the appropriate elements.
                  40a.
                  • Write the return address and mailing address on an envelope in the correct place.
                  Understanding:
                  40. Students understand that:
                  • Letters can be written for different purposes and different intended audiences, but all letters contain some required elements.
                  40a.
                  • A return address and mailing address must be included when mailing an envelope.
                  Speaking
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 0
                  41. Present an opinion orally, sequencing ideas logically and using relevant facts.

                  a. Express appropriate and meaningful responses to questions posed by others.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  41.
                  • Opinion
                  • Sequencing
                  • Logically
                  • Relevant
                  41a.
                  • Appropriate
                  • Meaningful
                  • Response
                  • Question
                  Knowledge:
                  41. Students know:
                  • When presenting an opinion, ideas must be sequenced in a logical pattern and relevant facts must be included.
                  41a.
                  • Part of presenting information orally includes responding to listeners' questions.
                  Skills:
                  41. Students are able to:
                  • Orally present an opinion, with ideas that are logically sequenced and facts that are relevant to the presentation.
                  41a.
                  • Express an appropriate and meaningful response to a question.
                  Understanding:
                  41. Students understand that:
                  • When presenting an opinion, facts and supporting details must be logically presented to provide support for the argument.
                  41a.
                  • After presenting information to others, they should be prepared to respond to questions in an appropriate and meaningful way.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 4
                  All Resources: 9
                  Learning Activities: 2
                  Lesson Plans: 5
                  Classroom Resources: 1
                  Unit Plans: 1
                  42. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes, and speaking clearly with adequate volume, appropriate pacing, and clear pronunciation.

                  a. Articulate ideas, claims, and perspectives in a logical sequence, presenting information, findings, and credible evidence from multiple sources and modalities to enhance listeners' understanding.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  42.
                  • Report
                  • Topic
                  • Text
                  • Recount
                  • Appropriate facts
                  • Relevant details
                  • Descriptive details
                  • Main ideas
                  • Themes
                  • Volume
                  • Pacing
                  • Pronunciation
                  42a.
                  • Articulate
                  • Ideas
                  • Claims
                  • Perspectives
                  • Logical sequence
                  • Information
                  • Findings
                  • Credible evidence
                  • Sources
                  • Modalities
                  Knowledge:
                  42. Students know:
                  • One way to share information is through oral presentations.
                  • Oral presentations should be organized, have a main idea or theme, and include relevant, descriptive details and facts that support the key point.
                  • Speakers should orally present in a volume loud enough for the audience to hear, at an understable pace, and with correct speech pronunciation.
                  42a.
                  • A speaker can enhance the audience's understanding by explaining ideas, claims, and perspectives in a logical sequence, and by providing additional information in the form of credible evidence from multiple sources.
                  Skills:
                  42. Students are able to:
                  • Orally report in response to a topic or text, to tell a story, or to describe a personal experience.
                  • Create an oral report that is organized, and includes relevant, descriptive facts and details that support the main idea or theme.
                  • Speak at an adequate volume and appropriate pace and use proper pronunciation when presenting an oral report.
                  42a.
                  • Orally articulate ideas, claims, and perspectives in a logical sequence.
                  • Gather information, findings, and credible evidence from multiple sources and modalities.
                  • Orally present information, findings, and credible evidence.
                  Understanding:
                  42. Students understand that:
                  • An effective oral presentation requires an organized structure and uses relevant facts and details to support the key idea.
                  • An effective speaker presents with a voice that can be heard by the audience, a speaking pace that can be understood by the audience, and proper pronunciation of words.
                  42a.
                  • Information, findings, and credible evidence should be gathered from multiple sources in varied modalities to enhance the audience's understanding of the oral presentation.
                  • To clearly articulate their ideas, claims, and perspectives, they must organize their thoughts in a logical sequence.
                  Recurring Standards
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 15
                  Learning Activities: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 13
                  R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Recurring Standard
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  R1.
                  • Active listening
                  • Discussion
                  • Conversation
                  • Rules
                  • Participation
                  Knowledge:
                  R1. Students know:
                  • Active listening skills.
                  • How to engage in discussions and conversations in a variety of settings.
                  • Agreed-upon rules for participation.
                  Skills:
                  R1. Students are able to:
                  • Demonstrate active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings.
                  • Converse in pairs, small groups, and large groups.
                  • Practice the agreed-upon rules for participation.
                  Understanding:
                  R1. Students understand that:
                  • Conversations and discussions follow agreed-upon rules which help us actively listen and gain understanding.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 7
                  Classroom Resources: 7
                  R2. Use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar spoken or written words.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Recurring Standard
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  R2.
                  • Context clues
                  • Determine
                  • Unfamiliar spoken words
                  • Unfamiliar written words
                  Knowledge:
                  R2. Students know:
                  • Context clues in speech or text can provide the meaning of unfamiliar words.
                  • There are different types of context clues, including: inference/general clues, definition/explanation clues, restatement/synonym clues, and contrast/antonym clues.
                  • Context clues in text are often indicated by punctuation marks.
                  Skills:
                  R2. Students are able to:
                  • Use context clues to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words in speech.
                  • Use context clues to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words in text.
                  Understanding:
                  R2. Students understand that:
                  • An author or a speaker use context clues to explain the meaning of unusual words or academic, domain-specific vocabulary.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 2
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 1
                  R3. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically when researching and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Recurring Standard
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  R3.
                  • Digital tools
                  • Electronic tools
                  • Appropriately
                  • Safely
                  • Ethically
                  • Research
                  • Individually
                  • Collaboratively
                  Knowledge:
                  R3. Students know:
                  • Digital and electronic tools must be used appropriately, safely, and ethically.
                  • Digital and electronic tools can be used for research or for writing tasks.
                  • Digital and electronic tools can be independently or with others.
                  Skills:
                  R3. Students are able to:
                  • Engage in safe and ethical behavior when using digital and electronic tools individually and collaboratively.
                  Understanding:
                  R3. Students understand that:
                  • Safe behaviors, interactions that keep you out of harm's way, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
                  • Ethical behavior, interactions that align to one's moral code, are necessary when using digital and electronic tools.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 8
                  Lesson Plans: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 6
                  R4. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Recurring Standard
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  R4.
                  • Writing process
                  • Plan
                  • Draft
                  • Revise
                  • Edit
                  • Publish
                  • Genres
                  Knowledge:
                  R4. Students know:
                  • The writing process steps are to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish.
                  • Various genres of writing.
                  Skills:
                  R4. Students are able to:
                  • Plan writings in various genres.
                  • Draft writings in various genres.
                  • Revise writings in various genres.
                  • Edit writings in various genres.
                  • Publish writings in various genres.
                  Understanding:
                  R4. Students understand that:
                  • The writing process is a set of steps that make writing easier.
                  • There are different categories, or genres, of writing that can be used for different purposes.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 2
                  Lesson Plans: 2
                  R5. Identify and explain literary devices in prose and poetry.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Recurring Standard
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  R5.
                  • Identify
                  • Explain
                  • Literary devices
                  • Prose
                  • Poetry
                  Knowledge:
                  R5. Students know:
                  • Literary devices are language that carries meaning other than the literal meaning of the words or phrases.
                  • Literary text often includes literary devices, such as personification, imagery, alliteration, onomatopoeia, symbolism, metaphor, and simile.
                  • Poetry is a genre of text that uses distinctive style and rhythm to aid in the expression of feelings, while prose is written in ordinary language.
                  Skills:
                  R5. Students are able to:
                  • Identify literary devices in prose and poetry.
                  • Explain the meaning of literary devices in prose and poetry.
                  Understanding:
                  R5. Students understand that:
                  • Literary devices are often included in literary text, like prose and poems.
                  • An author uses literary devices to convey meaning within the text.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  R6. Assess the formality of occasions in order to speak or write using appropriate language and tone.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Recurring Standard
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  R6.
                  • Assess
                  • Formality
                  • Occasions
                  • Appropriate language
                  • Appropriate tone
                  Knowledge:
                  R6. Students know:
                  • Some occasions (times and places) call for formal language and tone, while other occasions permit a casual communication.
                  Skills:
                  R6. Students are able to:
                  • Assess the formality of occasions.
                  • In formal occasions, speak and write with a formal language and tone.
                  • In informal occasions, speak and write with a casual language and tone.
                  Understanding:
                  R6. Students understand that:
                  • Different situations require different types of languages and tones.
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Phonics
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  1. Apply phonics and word analysis skills to encode and decode words in grade-level texts.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Phonics
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  1.
                  • Encode
                  • Decode
                  • Phonics
                  • Word analysis
                  Knowledge:
                  1. Students know:
                  • Previously taught phonics and word-analysis skills.
                  • Encode means to spell and decode means to read.
                  Skills:
                  1. Students are able to:
                  • Apply phonics and word-analysis skills to spell grade-appropriate words.
                  • Apply phonics and word-analysis skills to read words in grade-level texts.
                  Understanding:
                  1. Students understand that:
                  • The phonics and word analysis skills they have learned in previously grades can be used to read fifth-grade level texts and spell fifth-grade level words.
                  Reception
                  Reading
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  2. Use combined knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, appropriate blending, syllabication patterns, morphology, and word attack skills to read unfamiliar multisyllabic, grade-level words accurately in context and in isolation.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Phonics
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  2.
                  • Letter-sound correspondence
                  • Appropriate blending
                  • Syllabication patterns
                  • Word attack skills
                  • Multisyllabic words
                  • In context
                  • In isolation
                  • Morphology
                  Knowledge:
                  2. Students know:
                  • Written letters are associated with spoken sounds, and words can be read by blending the sounds together.
                  • Word attack skills involve dividing a word into syllables and recognizing syllable patterns.
                  • Morphology can help divide words into their smallest meaningful parts that can be read and understood.
                  • In isolation means reading a single word, while in context refers to reading skills within a larger text.
                  Skills:
                  2. Students are able to:
                  • Read unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and in isolation, drawing from a wide range of knowledge.
                  Understanding:
                  2. Students understand that:
                  • The word recognition and word attack skills they have learned in previous grades can be used to read unfamiliar multisyllabic fifth-grade level words in isolation and within text.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  3. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Phonics
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  3.
                  • Determine
                  • Clarify
                  • Multiple-meaning words
                  • Multiple-meaning phrases
                  • Flexibly
                  • Strategy
                  Knowledge:
                  3. Students know:
                  • There are several strategies that can be used to identify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases, including using context clues or knowledge of the word's morphological structure.
                  Skills:
                  3. Students are able to:
                  • Apply a range of strategies to determine the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases.
                  Understanding:
                  3. Students understand that:
                  • They have learned many strategies to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases, and they must select the best strategy based on the situation and task.
                  Expression
                  Writing
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  4. Write familiar and unfamiliar multisyllabic, grade-level appropriate words accurately in context and in isolation.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Phonics
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  4.
                  • Multisyllabic words
                  • In context
                  • In isolation
                  Knowledge:
                  4. Students know:
                  • Strategies to accurately spell multisyllabic words.
                  • In isolation means writing a single word, while in context refers to writing skills within a larger text.
                  Skills:
                  4. Students are able to:
                  • Accurately write familiar and unfamiliar multisyllabic words, in context and in isolation.
                  Understanding:
                  4. Students understand that:
                  • The encoding skills and strategies they have learned in previous grades can be used to write familiar and unfamiliar multisyllabic fifth-grade level words.
                  Fluency
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  5. Demonstrate fluency when independently reading, writing, and speaking in response to grade-level literary and informational text, including stories, dramas, poetry, and cross-curricular texts.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Fluency
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  5.
                  • Fluency
                  • Independently
                  • Literary text
                  • Informational text
                  • Stories
                  • Dramas
                  • Poetry
                  • Cross-curricular texts
                  Knowledge:
                  5. Students know:
                  • Fluency is the ability to read, write, or speak at a pace that does not negatively impact meaning or understanding.
                  • Responding to text through writing and speaking demonstrates comprehension.
                  Skills:
                  5. Students are able to:
                  • Independently read grade-level literary and informational text fluently.
                  • Demonstrate fluency when writing.
                  • Demonstrate fluent speech.
                  Understanding:
                  5. Students understand that:
                  • The ability to read fluently supports comprehension, or understanding, of the text.
                  • The ability to write and speak fluently helps clearly communicate with others.
                  • One way to demonstrate comprehension of literary and informational text is to respond in writing or through speaking.
                  Reception
                  Reading
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 16
                  Classroom Resources: 16
                  6. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, automaticity, appropriate prosody or expression, purpose, and understanding, self-correcting and rereading as necessary.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Fluency
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  6.
                  • Accuracy
                  • Automaticity
                  • Prosody
                  • Expression
                  • Purpose
                  • Understanding
                  • Self-correcting
                  • Rereading
                  Knowledge:
                  6. Students know:
                  • Accurately means reading without mistakes, and automatically means knowing the words immediately without sounding them out.
                  • Prosody is reading aloud with appropriate changes in voice, pitch, and expression.
                  • Reading can occur for different purposes and setting a purpose for reading can improve comprehension.
                  • Rereading is a strategy that aids in word recognition and comprehension.
                  Skills:
                  6. Students are able to:
                  • Set a purpose prior to reading aloud.
                  • Read aloud accurately, automatically, while using appropriate expression.
                  • Self-correct and reread when necessary.
                  Understanding:
                  6. Students understand that:
                  • Identifying their purpose for reading prior to beginning to read can improve their comprehension of the text.
                  • Fluent readers are accurate, automatic, and use appropriate voice expression.
                  • If a word is misread, they need to self-correct and reread.
                  • If their comprehension begins to break down, they need to reread to improve their understanding.
                  Expression
                  Writing
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 3
                  Classroom Resources: 3
                  7. Write routinely and independently for varied amounts of time.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Fluency
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  7.
                  • Routinely
                  • Independently
                  Knowledge:
                  7. Student know:
                  • Routinely means on a consistent basis, and independently means without help from others.
                  • Writing skills.
                  Skills:
                  7. Students are able to:
                  • Writing on a consistent basis without support from others for various time frames.
                  Understanding:
                  7. Students understand that:
                  • Writing can be done for many purposes and over many different time frames.
                  Speaking
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  8. Orally present information and original ideas clearly.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Fluency
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  8.
                  • Orally
                  • Present
                  • Original ideas
                  Knowledge:
                  8. Students know:
                  • Oral language and literacy skills.
                  Skills:
                  8. Students are able to:
                  • Present information and original ideas through speaking.
                  Understanding:
                  8. Students understand that:
                  • They can share their ideas and other information with others through speaking clearly.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 9
                  Learning Activities: 3
                  Lesson Plans: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 4
                  9. Express ideas clearly and effectively to diverse partners or groups.

                  a. Pose and respond to explicit questions in ways that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.

                  b. Verbally summarize information read aloud or presented in diverse media and formats.

                  c. Report orally on a topic or text, sequencing ideas logically and supporting main ideas with appropriate facts and relevant details.

                  d. Speak clearly at an understandable rate.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Fluency
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  9.
                  • Express
                  • Clearly
                  • Effectively
                  • Diverse
                  9a.
                  • Pose
                  • Respond
                  • Explicit questions
                  • Contribute
                  • Elaborate
                  • Remarks
                  9b.
                  • Summarize
                  • Diverse media
                  • Diverse formats
                  9c.
                  • Report
                  • Orally
                  • Sequencing
                  • Logically
                  • Main ideas
                  • Appropriate facts
                  • Relevant details
                  9d.
                  • Understandable rate
                  Knowledge:
                  9. Students know:
                  • Oral language and literacy skills.
                  • Collaboration skills.
                  9a.
                  • Effective communication with others requires asking questions, responding to questions, and elaborating on others' statements.
                  9b.
                  • A summary is a short statement explaining the main point or most important details of presented information.
                  9c. Student know:
                  • An effective oral presentation includes a logical sequence of main ideas that are supported by appropriate and relevant facts and details.
                  9d.
                  • An effective speaker pronounces words clearly and speaks at a speed that is understandable by the audience.
                  Skills:
                  9. Students are able to:
                  • Clearly and effectively share ideas with others through speaking.
                  9a.
                  • Pose questions that contribute to discussions.
                  • Respond to explicit questions in ways that contribute to discussions.
                  • Expand on others' comments by adding additional relevant information.
                  9b.
                  • Present a summary of information read aloud or presented in diverse formats through speaking.
                  9c.
                  • Orally report on a topic or text.
                  • Sequence ideas logically in an oral report.
                  • Support main ideas with appropriate facts and relevant details in an oral report.
                  9d.
                  • Speak clearly at an understandable rate when orally presenting information.
                  Understanding:
                  9. Students understand that:
                  • They can communicate with a variety of people if they express themselves clearly.
                  9a.
                  • Discussions should include relevant questions, answers to questions, comments, and remarks.
                  9b.
                  • Summarizing information demonstrates understanding and can help communicate ideas with others.
                  9c.
                  • To be an effective speaker, they must logically sequence presented ideas and include appropriate facts and relevant details to support their main points.
                  9d.
                  • To be understood by the audience, a speaker must clearly pronounce words and speak at an understandable pace.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  10. Respond directly to specific information shared by others in classroom discussion, using facts to support the ideas being discussed.

                  a. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from discussion.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Fluency
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  10.
                  • Specific information
                  • Discussion
                  10a.
                  • Key ideas
                  • Draw conclusions
                  Knowledge:
                  10. Students know:
                  • Effective discussions require participants to respond to others using facts to support their ideas.
                  10a.
                  • New information and knowledge can be gained through classroom discussion by drawing conclusions from the presented information.
                  Skills:
                  10. Students are able to:
                  • Participate in classroom discussions by responding directly to specific information shared by others.
                  • Use facts to support the ideas they discuss.
                  10a.
                  • Review key ideas presented in classroom discussions.
                  • Draw conclusions from key ideas presented in classroom discussions.
                  Understanding:
                  10. Students understand that:
                  • Classroom discussions can lead to learning if they actively participate.
                  • Active participation requires responding to information shared by others and using facts to support the ideas discussed.
                  10a.
                  • They can analyze key ideas and draw conclusions from information and knowledge gained from classroom discussions.
                  Vocabulary
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 8
                  Learning Activities: 6
                  Classroom Resources: 2
                  11. Acquire and use grade-level vocabulary, clarifying the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases in text, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Vocabulary
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  11.
                  • Acquire
                  • Use
                  • Grade-level vocabulary
                  • Clarifying
                  • Multiple-meaning words and phrases
                  • Range of strategies
                  Knowledge:
                  11. Students know:
                  • Techniques to learn and use new grade-level vocabulary words.
                  • Strategies to determine the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words.
                  Skills:
                  11. Students are able to:
                  • Learn and use grade-level vocabulary words.
                  • Clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases in text using a variety of strategies.
                  Understanding:
                  11. Students understand that:
                  • New vocabulary can be learned from text, and they should use grade-level vocabulary in writing and speaking.
                  • There are many strategies to learn the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases in text, such as using context clues, consulting reference materials, or using knowledge of the word's morphological structure.
                  Reception
                  Reading
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 21
                  Learning Activities: 12
                  Classroom Resources: 9
                  12. Interpret the meaning of words, phrases, and patterns as they are used in texts, including domain-specific and academic vocabulary and figurative language.

                  a. Locate similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole, imagery, alliteration, onomatopoeia, and idioms and interpret their meanings in context.

                  b. Explain the meanings of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.

                  c. Use the relationships between synonyms, antonyms, and homographs to increase understanding of word meanings.

                  d. Explain how an author's vocabulary and style influence the tone and mood of a text and support his/her purpose for writing.

                  e. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meanings of words.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Vocabulary
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  12.
                  • Domain-specific vocabulary
                  • Academic vocabulary
                  • Figurative language
                  12a.
                  • Similes
                  • Metaphors
                  • Personification
                  • Hyperbole
                  • Imagery
                  • Alliteration
                  • Onomatopoeia
                  • Idioms
                  12b.
                  • Common idioms
                  • Common adages
                  • Common proverbs
                  12c.
                  • Synonyms
                  • Antonyms
                  • Homographs
                  12d.
                  • Author's vocabulary
                  • Author's style
                  • Tone
                  • Mood
                  • Purpose
                  12e.
                  • Common Latin roots
                  • Common Greek roots
                  • Common Latin affixes
                  • Common Greek affixes
                  Knowledge:
                  12. Student know:
                  • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
                  • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
                  • Figurative language is a creative way to use words and phrases beyond their literal definition to explain or describe something.
                  • Strategies to determine the meaning of words, phrases, and patterns in text.
                  12a.
                  • Figurative language is a creative way to use words and phrases beyond their literal definition to explain or describe something.
                  • Examples of figurative language include similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole, imagery, alliteration, onomatopoeia, and idioms.
                  12b.
                  • Idioms, adages, and proverbs are all figures of speech, in which the words and phrases carry meaning beyond their literal definitions.
                  • An idiom is a common saying with a meaning different from that of its individual words.
                  • Adages and proverbs are well-known sayings that have been used for a long time.
                  • Proverbs usually give practical advice about ways to behave and live.
                  12c.
                  • Words with opposite meanings are antonyms, and words with similar meanings are synonyms.
                  • Homographs are words that are spelled the same, but not necessarily pronounced the same and have different meanings and origins.
                  12d.
                  • Authors choose particular vocabulary and write in a specific style depending on the purpose of the writing and the tone and mood they intend to create.
                  • Tone is the attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience, and mood is the overall feeling, or atmosphere, of a text.
                  12e.
                  • Many English words and English morphemes originated from ancient Latin and Greek languages.
                  • Understanding Latin and Greek roots and affixes can provide clues to meanings of unknown words.
                  Skills:
                  12. Students are able to:
                  • Interpret the meaning of domain-specific vocabulary, academic vocabulary, and figurative language as they are used in texts.
                  12a.
                  • Identify examples of similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole, imagery, alliteration, onomatopoeia, and idioms in text.
                  • Interpret the meaning of the figurative language in context.
                  12b.
                  • Identify examples of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
                  • Explain the meanings of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
                  12c.
                  • Use synonyms, antonyms, and homographs to interpret word meaning.
                  12d.
                  • Identify the tone and mood of a text.
                  • Explain how an author's vocabulary and writing style influence the tone and mood of the text.
                  • Identify an author's purpose for writing a text.
                  • Explain how an author's vocabulary and writing style support their purpose for writing the text.
                  12e.
                  • Identify and use Latin and Greek affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word.
                  Understanding:
                  12. Students understand that:
                  • There are multiple strategies they can use to interpret the meaning of academic and domain-specific vocabulary, including using context clues in the text, their background knowledge, the morphological structure of the word, and outside resources.
                  • Words and phrases, including figurative language, can have different meanings in different texts.
                  12a.
                  • Figurative language carries meaning other than the literal meaning of the words or phrases, and authors choose to include figurative language in text to enhance the text's meaning.
                  12b.
                  • Idioms, adages, and proverbs are figures of speech that carry meaning beyond the literal definitions of the words.
                  • To fully comprehend text that contains figures of speech, they must learn the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
                  12c.
                  • The relationships between words can be used to increase vocabulary knowledge.
                  12d.
                  • Authors select specific words and write in a particular style to set a tone and mood for the text, and indicate their purpose for writing the text.
                  12e.
                  • The meaning of an unknown word can be learned by knowing the morphology and orthography of the word, including its origin.
                  Listening
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 3
                  Learning Activities: 3
                  13. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Vocabulary
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  13.
                  • Determine
                  • Clarify
                  • Multiple-meaning words and phrases
                  Knowledge:
                  13. Students know:
                  • Strategies to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases in spoken language.
                  • Active listening skills.
                  Skills:
                  13. Students are able to:
                  • Determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases in spoken language.
                  • Clarify the meaning of multiple-meaning words and phrases in spoken language.
                  Understanding:
                  13. Students understand that:
                  • When listening to to others speak, they may hear word they don't know or a word that has multiple meanings depending on the context.
                  • They must use active listening skills to determine an unknown's word's meaning or to clarify the meaning of a multiple-meaning word.
                  Expression
                  Writing
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 8
                  Classroom Resources: 8
                  14. Write using grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases accurately, including those that signal contrasting ideas, additional information, and other logical relationships.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Vocabulary
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  14.
                  • General academic vocabulary
                  • Domain-specific vocabulary
                  • Words that signal contrasting ideas
                  • Words that signal additional information
                  • Words that signal other logical relationships
                  Knowledge:
                  14. Students know:
                  • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
                  • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
                  • There are words and phrases that can be used in writing to signal relationships between ideas.
                  • Academic, domain-specific vocabulary should be used in school writing.
                  Skills:
                  14. Students are able to:
                  • Accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in writing.
                  • Accurately use words and phrases that signal contrasting ideas, additional information, and other logical relationships between ideas in writing.
                  Understanding:
                  14. Students understand that:
                  • It is important to use academic, domain-specific vocabulary in formal settings, like school writing.
                  • They can show relationships between their ideas in writings by using particular words and phrases.
                  Speaking
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  15. Use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases during presentations and discussion.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Vocabulary
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  15.
                  • General academic vocabulary
                  • Domain-specific vocabulary
                  • Presentations
                  • Discussions
                  Knowledge:
                  15. Students know:
                  • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
                  • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
                  • Academic, domain-specific vocabulary should be used in school for presentations and discussions.
                  Skills:
                  15. Students are able to:
                  • Use academic and domain-specific words in speech.
                  Understanding:
                  15. Students understand that:
                  • It is important to use academic, domain-specific vocabulary in formal settings, like school discussions and presentations.
                  Comprehension
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 10
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  Lesson Plans: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 6
                  Unit Plans: 1
                  16. Demonstrate comprehension of varied literary and informational texts by utilizing its content when discussing or writing in response to the text.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  16.
                  • Comprehension
                  • Literary text
                  • Informational text
                  • Discussing
                  • Writing
                  • Response
                  Knowledge:
                  16. Students know:
                  • Comprehension of text can be demonstrated by referring to the text in discussions or written responses.
                  • Informational text is nonfiction text, and literary text is fictional.
                  Skills:
                  16. Students are able to:
                  • Demonstrate understanding of varied literary and informational text by referring to the text in discussions.
                  • Demonstrate understanding of varied literary and informational text by referring to the text in written responses.
                  Understanding:
                  16. Students understand that:
                  • They can show that they understood a wide variety of literary and informational text by discussing or writing about specific content from the text.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 8
                  Learning Activities: 8
                  17. Demonstrate comprehension of text by asking and responding to questions about literary elements used in the text.

                  Examples: theme, plot, point of view
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  17.
                  • Demonstrate
                  • Comprehension
                  • Literary elements
                  Knowledge:
                  17. Students know:
                  • Literary elements within a story include the theme, plot, and point of view.
                  • Comprehension can be demonstrated by asking and answering questions about a text.
                  Skills:
                  17. Students are able to:
                  • Ask questions about literary elements used in the text to demonstrate comprehension.
                  • Respond to questions about literary elements used in the text to demonstrate comprehension.
                  Understanding:
                  17. Students understand that:
                  • They can show they understood a story they read by asking and answering questions about specific literary elements.
                  Reception
                  Reading
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 3
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 2
                  18. Explain the relationships among events, people, or concepts in informational texts, supported by textual evidence.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  18.
                  • Relationships
                  • Events
                  • People
                  • Concepts
                  • Informational text
                  • Textual evidence
                  Knowledge:
                  18. Students know:
                  • Informational text often explains the relationships among events, people, or concepts (ideas).
                  • Comprehension can be demonstrated by referring to specific evidence in the text.
                  Skills:
                  18. Students are able to:
                  • Explain the relationships among events, people, or concepts in informational text by providing textual evidence.
                  Understanding:
                  18. Students understand that:
                  • They can show they understood informational text by using specific text evidence to support their explanations.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  19. Interpret how authors use literary elements throughout a text, including character, setting, conflict, dialogue, and point of view.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  19.
                  • Interpret
                  • Literary elements
                  • Character
                  • Setting
                  • Conflict
                  • Dialogue
                  • Point of view
                  Knowledge:
                  19. Students know:
                  • Authors use literary elements, such as character, setting, conflict, dialogue, and point of view, throughout a text to develop and drive the plot.
                  Skills:
                  19. Students are able to:
                  • Identify literary elements in a text.
                  • Interpret how authors use literary elements throughout a text.
                  Understanding:
                  19. Students understand that:
                  • Interpreting the author's use of literary elements in a text supports their overall comprehension of the text.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  20. Explain how the author's use of character types throughout a narrative helps drive its plot.

                  Examples: static, dynamic, and stock characters
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  20.
                  • Character types
                  • Static characters
                  • Dynamic characters
                  • Stock character
                  • Narrative
                  • Plot
                  Knowledge:
                  20. Students know:
                  • Authors use different character types to develop, or drive, the plot.
                  • A static character does not change during the narrative, while a dynamic character exhibits many changes.
                  • A stock character represents a particular stereotype and is recognizable as belonging to a certain genre.
                  Skills:
                  20. Students are able to:
                  • Identify different character types in a narrative.
                  • Explain how the author's use of character types develops the narrative's plot.
                  Understanding:
                  20. Students understand that:
                  • Character types used in a story help determine the plot of the narrative.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 3
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 2
                  21. Compare and contrast characters, points of view, or events in two or more literary texts.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  21.
                  • Compare
                  • Contrast
                  • Characters
                  • Point of view
                  • Events
                  • Literary texts
                  Knowledge:
                  21. Students know:
                  • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar, and contrast means tell how things are different.
                  • There will be similarities and differences between characters, points of view, and events among literary texts.
                  Skills:
                  21. Students are able to:
                  • Identify similarities between characters, points, of view, or events in two or more literary texts.
                  • Identify differences between characters, points, of view, or events in two or more literary texts.
                  Understanding:
                  21. Students understand that:
                  • Although literary texts may have common elements, like characters, points of view, and plot events, there will similarities and differences among these elements.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 2
                  22. Determine the implied and/or explicit main idea in literary and informational texts.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  22.
                  • Implied main idea
                  • Explicit main idea
                  • Literary text
                  • Informational text
                  Knowledge:
                  22. Students know:
                  • The main idea is the most important idea presented in the text.
                  • Sometimes an author will clearly state the main idea, while other times an author will merely suggest the main idea.
                  Skills:
                  22. Students are able to:
                  • Identify the implied or explicit main idea of a text.
                  Understanding:
                  22. Students understand that:
                  • Most texts have a main idea, or most important message.
                  • An author can choose to state the main idea in the text or provide clues through details in the text to imply the main idea.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 8
                  Learning Activities: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 6
                  23. Determine and analyze themes of various culturally-diverse literary texts, supporting analysis with textual evidence.

                  a. Analyze common themes of diverse texts with support from textual evidence.

                  b. Summarize a story or drama, describing how the plot unfolds and how characters respond to challenges or change their thoughts and actions and citing textual evidence.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  23.
                  • Determine
                  • Analyze
                  • Themes
                  • Culturally-diverse literary text
                  • Textual evidence
                  23a.
                  • Theme
                  • Diverse texts
                  • Textual evidence
                  23b.
                  • Summarize
                  • Plot
                  • Characters
                  • Thoughts
                  • Actions
                  • Citing
                  • Textual evidence
                  Knowledge:
                  23. Students know:
                  • Theme is the main, recurring idea in a text.
                  • An author develops a theme by including specific details in the text to help the reader identify and understand the theme.
                  • There are common, or universal, themes that frequently appear in literary text.
                  23a.
                  • There are common, or universal, themes that frequently appear in literary text.
                  23b.
                  • A summary of a story or drama is a short statement that describes the main events of the plot and the actions of the primary characters.
                  Skills:
                  23. Students are able to:
                  • Identify the themes of various culturally-diverse literary texts.
                  • Analyze the themes of various culturally-diverse literary texts using text evidence.
                  23a.
                  • Identify common themes in diverse texts.
                  • Analyze the meaning of common themes from diverse texts using textual evidence.
                  23b.
                  • Create a summary of a story or drama that includes the main plot events and describes how characters external or internal actions.
                  • Cite textual evidence to support summary statements.
                  Understanding:
                  23. Students understand that:
                  • Literature often includes universal (common) themes, and the author suggests the theme of the text by including particular details about characters or events.
                  • They can demonstrate they understood the theme of a story by using text evidence to support their identification.
                  23a.
                  • Literature often includes universal (common) themes, and they can show they identified the theme by supporting their analysis with text evidence.
                  23b.
                  • A summary is a short explanation of the most important elements from a text, and statements in a summary should be supported with textual evidence.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 1
                  24. Determine and evaluate the effectiveness of digital and print text features and structures, including comparison and contrast, problem and solution, and cause and effect.

                  a. Identify various text features used in diverse forms of text.

                  b. Compare and contrast the overall structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information in multiple texts.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  24.
                  • Determine
                  • Evaluate
                  • Effectiveness
                  • Digital text features
                  • Print text features
                  • Text structures
                  • Comparison and contrast
                  • Problem and solution
                  • Cause and effect
                  24a.
                  • Text features
                  24b.
                  • Compare
                  • Contrast
                  • Events
                  • Ideas
                  • Concepts
                  • Information
                  Knowledge:
                  24. Students know:
                  • Text features are items like charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages.
                  • Text features can provide additional information or enhance understanding of the text.
                  • Text can be structured in different ways, depending on the type of information that is being communicated.
                  • A text that follows a comparison and contrast structure will describe how two or more things are alike or different.
                  • Problem and solution text structure describes a problem and how the problem was solved or could be solved.
                  • Cause and effect text structure describes an event (the cause) and the consequence or result of the event (the effect).
                  24a.
                  • Text features are items like charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages.
                  • Text features can provide additional information or enhance understanding of the text.
                  24b.
                  • Compare means tell how things are alike or similar, and contrast means tell how things are different.
                  • There will be similarities and differences among the structure of events, ideas, concepts, and information across multiple texts.
                  Skills:
                  24. Students are able to:
                  • Identify digital and print text features and structures.
                  • Evaluate the effectiveness of digital and print text features and structures in communicating the intended meaning.
                  24a.
                  • Identify text features in varied forms of texts.
                  24b.
                  • Identify similarities between the structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
                  • Identify differences between the structure of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
                  Understanding:
                  24. Students understand that:
                  • Text features can be found in printed and digital text materials.
                  • Text features often provide important information about details in the text or can enhance understanding of details in the text.
                  • Texts follow a predictable structure that contributes to the overall meaning of the text.
                  • They can demonstrate comprehension of the text by evaluating on the purpose and effectiveness of the text features and structure the author chose to use.
                  24a.
                  • Text features often provide important information about details in the text or can enhance understanding of details in the text.
                  24b.
                  • Comparing and contrasting multiple texts helps them better comprehend the texts and synthesize information from multiple sources.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  25. Determine credibility and appropriateness of a research source by distinguishing between fact and the author's opinion in informational text.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  25.
                  • Credibility
                  • Research
                  • Fact
                  • Opinion
                  • Informational text
                  Knowledge:
                  25. Students know:
                  • A fact is a statement that can be proven with evidence, while an opinion is a personal belief that cannot be proven true in every case.
                  • Informational text can present both facts and opinions.
                  • Informational text that presents verified facts tends to be more credible and appropriate as a research source.
                  Skills:
                  25. Students are able to:
                  • Distinguish between fact and the author's opinion in informational text.
                  • Determine the credibility and appropriateness of a research source by identifying the facts and the author's opinions.
                  Understanding:
                  25. Students understand that:
                  • A fact is a thing that is known or proved to be true, and an opinion is a personal view or judgment about something.
                  • They can determine if a statement is a fact or an opinion using their current knowledge or by referencing other materials.
                  • To be a credible, appropriate research source, an informational text must present mostly verified facts.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 16
                  Learning Activities: 3
                  Lesson Plans: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 10
                  Unit Plans: 1
                  26. Analyze how two or more texts address similar topics in diverse media and formats, including graphics, live and/or recorded performances, and written works.

                  a. Explain how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the overall meaning and tone of a text.

                  b. Compare and contrast the approaches to theme in several stories within a genre.

                  c. Locate information quickly within a text and apply information from multiple sources to analysis of the topics.

                  d. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

                  e. Compare the approaches of several authors of articles about the same or similar topics.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  26.
                  • Analyze
                  • Topics
                  • Diverse media and formats
                  • Graphics
                  • Live and/or recorded performances
                  • Written works
                  26a.
                  • Visual elements
                  • Multimedia elements
                  • Overall meaning
                  • Tone
                  26b.
                  • Compare
                  • Contrast
                  • Theme
                  • Genre
                  26c.
                  • Locate
                  • Analysis
                  • Topic
                  26d.
                  • Explain
                  • Reasons
                  • Evidence
                  • Points
                  26e.
                  • Compare
                  • Approaches
                  • Articles
                  • Topics
                  Knowledge:
                  26. Students know:
                  • Strategies to analyze text and diverse media formats.
                  • Similar topics can be presented in different formats.
                  26a.
                  • A creator chooses to include visual or multimedia elements in text to convey a particular tone and meaning.
                  • Tone is the attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience.
                  26b.
                  • Compare means to tell how something is similar and contrast is to tell how something is different.
                  • Theme is the main, recurring idea in a text.
                  • Stories within a genre will have similar in forms, styles, or subject matter.
                  26c.
                  • Strategies to locate information quickly in a text, such as utilizing text features.
                  • Techniques to synthesize information from multiple sources.
                  26d.
                  • Authors often include logical reasons and evidence to support their points.
                  26e.
                  • Compare is to tell how something is similar.
                  • Authors that write about similar topics will often have similar approaches to explaining the content.
                  Skills:
                  26. Students are able to:
                  • Analyze and explain how two or more texts explain similar topics in diverse media and formats.
                  26a.
                  • Identify visual and multimedia elements in text.
                  • Describe the overall meaning and tone of text.
                  • Explain how the visual and multimedia elements impact the overall meaning and tone of the text.
                  26b.
                  • Identify and describe the theme of a story.
                  • Identify similarities between themes of texts in the same genre.
                  • Identify differences between themes of texts in the same genre.
                  26c.
                  • Quickly find information within a text.
                  • Analyze text topics by applying information from multiple sources.
                  26d.
                  • Identify key points in a text.
                  • Identify reasons and evidence that support the author's points.
                  • Explain how the author uses reasons and evidence to support their key points.
                  26e.
                  • Identify similarities of writing approaches in articles with the same or similar topics.
                  Understanding:
                  26. Students understand that:
                  • Similar concepts can be explained in different ways depending on the format of the text and the viewpoint of the author.
                  26a.
                  • Visual and multimedia elements are added to text to enhance or clarify the overall meaning and create a tone.
                  26b.
                  • Identifying, describing, and analyzing themes of stories within the same genre improves their comprehension of the text and their knowledge of text genres.
                  26c.
                  • Quickly finding information in a text is an important skill they will use in various situations.
                  • To deeply analyze a topic, they must combine information from multiple sources.
                  26d.
                  • Authors use logical reasoning and factual evidence to support their points.
                  26e.
                  • Authors who choose to write about the same topics will often have similar approaches.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  27. Review the key ideas expressed in a text and draw conclusions, using facts to support them.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  27.
                  • Key ideas
                  • Conclusions
                  • Facts
                  Knowledge:
                  27. Students know:
                  • New knowledge can be gained from a text by drawing conclusions from the information presented in the text.
                  Skills:
                  27. Students are able to:
                  • Review key ideas presented in text.
                  • Draw conclusions from key ideas presented in text.
                  • Use facts from the text to support their conclusions.
                  Understanding:
                  27. Students understand that:
                  • They can analyze key ideas, draw conclusions, and learn new information by reading text.
                  Listening
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 1
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  28. Use audio and/or visual sources of information to obtain the answer to a question.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  28.
                  • Audio sources
                  • Visual sources
                  Knowledge:
                  28. Students know:
                  • Questions can be answered by utilizing information from audio or visual visual sources.
                  Skills:
                  28. Students are able to:
                  • Answer a question by using relevant information from an audio and/or visual source.
                  Understanding:
                  28. Students understand that:
                  • Information can be obtained from a variety of sources.
                  Expression
                  Writing
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 6
                  Learning Activities: 3
                  Classroom Resources: 3
                  29. Summarize in writing a variety of texts, stating their implied and/or explicit main ideas.

                  a. Use textual evidence to support summarization.

                  b. Cite appropriately when summarizing.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  29.
                  • Summarize
                  • Implied main idea
                  • Explicit main idea
                  29a.
                  • Textual evidence
                  • Summarization
                  29b.
                  • Cite
                  • Summarizing
                  Knowledge:
                  29. Students know:
                  • The main idea is the most important idea presented in the text.
                  • Sometimes an author will clearly state the main idea, while other times an author will merely suggest the main idea.
                  • A summary is a short statement explaining the main point or most important details of presented information.
                  • Writing skills.
                  29a.
                  • A summary is a short statement explaining the main point or most important details of presented information.
                  • Summary statements can be supported by including evidence from the text.
                  29b.
                  • Citation conventions.
                  • Text evidence must be cited appropriately in writing.
                  Skills:
                  29. Students are able to:
                  • Identify the implied or explicit main idea of a text.
                  • Write a summary stating the implied and/or explicit main idea(s) of a text.
                  29a.
                  • Use textual evidence to support summary statements.
                  29b.
                  • Appropriately cite text evidence in a written summary.
                  Understanding:
                  29. Students understand that:
                  • Most texts have a main idea, or most important message.
                  • An author can choose to state the main idea in the text or provide clues through details in the text to imply the main idea.
                  • They can demonstrate their comprehension of the text by writing a summary that explains the main idea(s).
                  29a.
                  • They can demonstrate their comprehension of the text by writing a summary that includes textual evidence.
                  29b.
                  • When they use text evidence in their writing, they must give the original creator credit by including appropriate citations.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 2
                  30. Quote literary and informational texts accurately to support conclusions and inferences drawn from them.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  30.
                  • Quote
                  • Literary texts
                  • Informational texts
                  • Conclusions
                  • Inferences
                  Knowledge:
                  30. Students know:
                  • Explicit information in a text can be used to draw conclusions and support inferences.
                  • Conventions for using direct quotations in writing.
                  Skills:
                  30. Students are able to:
                  • Draw conclusions and make inferences from literary and informational texts.
                  • Accurately quote literary and informational texts to support their conclusions and inferences.
                  Understanding:
                  30. Students understand that:
                  • Accurately quoting a text in their writing ensures they are giving the original creator credit for their work.
                  • Conclusions and inferences can be supported with explicit information from the text.
                  Speaking
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 6
                  Learning Activities: 2
                  Lesson Plans: 4
                  31. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to enhance the development of main ideas or themes when appropriate.

                  Examples: graphics, sounds
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Comprehension
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  31.
                  • Visual displays
                  • Presentations
                  • Main ideas
                  • Themes
                  • Multimedia components
                  Knowledge:
                  31. Students know:
                  • Multimedia components and visual displays can help others better understand the key ideas and themes of an oral presentation.
                  • Methods to add multimedia components or visual displays to presentations.
                  Skills:
                  31. Students are able to:
                  • Add multimedia components (e.g. audio) and visual displays (e.g. graphics) to presentations to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
                  Understanding:
                  31. Students understand that:
                  • Multimedia components and visual displays can help others understand the key ideas and themes of their oral presentations.
                  Writing
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  32. Respond in writing to literature and informational text, including stories, dramas, poetry, and cross-curricular texts, independently and with grade-level proficiency.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  32.
                  • Literature
                  • Informational text
                  • Stories
                  • Dramas
                  • Poetry
                  • Cross-curricular texts
                  • Independently
                  • Proficiency
                  Knowledge:
                  32. Students know:
                  • Responding to text in a written format demonstrates comprehension of the text.
                  Skills:
                  32. Students are able to:
                  • Independently create grade-appropriate written responses after reading literature and informational text.
                  Understanding:
                  32. Students understand that:
                  • To respond in writing to literature and informational texts, they must read critically, have a deep understanding of the text's content, and use appropriate writing skills.
                  Expression
                  Writing
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  33. Write fluently and legibly in cursive, using correctly formed letters with appropriate spacing and placing text elements correctly on the page.

                  Examples: headings, titles, paragraph indentions
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  33.
                  • Fluently
                  • Legibly
                  • Cursive
                  • Correctly formed letters
                  • Appropriate spacing
                  • Text elements
                  Knowledge:
                  33. Students know:
                  • Legible writing can be read by others.
                  • Fluent writing is writing at a consistent pace.
                  • Cursive writing strokes for all letters.
                  • Cursive writing connects the letters within words.
                  • Appropriate spacing should occur between words.
                  • Text elements, like headings, titles, and paragraph indentations, must be located in a certain place on a page.
                  Skills:
                  33. Students are able to:
                  • Write legibly in cursive at a steady pace.
                  • Connect and correctly form cursive letters.
                  • Include appropriate spacing between words.
                  • Place text elements, like headings, titles, and paragraph indentations, in the correct location on a page.
                  Understanding:
                  33. Students understand that:
                  • Cursive writing is a special type of writing that connects letters within words.
                  • Appropriate spacing is important so that readers can tell where one cursive word ends and the next begins.
                  • There are standard conventions for text elements that should be followed in formal writing.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 26
                  Learning Activities: 7
                  Lesson Plans: 2
                  Classroom Resources: 17
                  34. Write personal or fictional narratives incorporating literary elements (characters, plot, setting, conflict), dialogue, strong voice, and clear event sequences.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  34.
                  • Personal narratives
                  • Fictional narratives
                  • Literary elements
                  • Characters
                  • Plot
                  • Setting
                  • Conflict
                  • Dialogue
                  • Voice
                  • Event sequences
                  Knowledge:
                  34. Students know:
                  • A narrative is a piece of writing that tells a story.
                  • A personal narrative tells about an event that was personally experienced by the author, while a fictional narrative tells a made-up story.
                  • A narrative story describes a sequence of plot events in a logical order (beginning, middle, end).
                  • Narrative writing includes text elements, like characters, setting, and conflict.
                  • Dialogue is a conversation between two or more characters in a text.
                  Skills:
                  34. Students are able to:
                  • Write a personal narrative that recalls a personal experience or a fictional narrative with a made-up story.
                  • Write a narrative with a logical sequence of plot events.
                  • Incorporate literary elements into their narrative writing, like characters, setting, and conflict.
                  • Include dialogue in narrative writing.
                  • Use a strong voice in writing by developing a personal writing style.
                  Understanding:
                  34. Students understand that:
                  • Narrative writing includes predictable elements, like a logical sequence of events and characters, setting, and conflict.
                  • Incorporating dialogue between the characters can add details to their narrative writing.
                  • Narrative writing can be used to tell about something that happened to them personally or it can tell a story they made up.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 17
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  Lesson Plans: 5
                  Classroom Resources: 11
                  35. Write informative or explanatory texts using multiple sources to examine a topic, conveying ideas and information clearly and incorporating a strong organizational structure, relevant details, and elaboration.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  35.
                  • Informative text
                  • Explanatory text
                  • Sources
                  • Topic
                  • Organizational structure
                  • Details
                  • Elaboration
                  Knowledge:
                  35. Students know:
                  • Informative or explanatory text is a piece of writing that provides factual information that was gathered from multiple research sources.
                  • Informative or explanatory text begins by introducing the topic, provides facts and relevant details, and ends with a conclusion.
                  • Elaboration means supplying additional information about details by using academic vocabulary or including text features.
                  Skills:
                  35. Students are able to:
                  • Gather information from multiple sources.
                  • Write an informative or explanatory text using information gathered from sources.
                  • Write an informative or explanatory text with a clear, organized structure.
                  • Elaborate on details included in the text using academic vocabulary or text features.
                  Understanding:
                  35. Students understand that:
                  • Informative or explanatory writing follows a predictable text structure that includes introducing the topic, providing facts or additional details about the topic, and ends with a conclusion.
                  • They must gather their facts about the topic from multiple research sources.
                  • Writers elaborate details included in the text by using formal academic vocabulary and text features.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 4
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 3
                  36. Write an argument to persuade the reader to take an action or adopt a position, stating a claim, supporting the claim with relevant evidence from sources, using connectives to link ideas, and presenting a strong conclusion.

                  Examples: first, as a result, therefore, in addition
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  36.
                  • Argument
                  • Persuade
                  • Take an action
                  • Adopt a position
                  • Claim
                  • Relevant evidence
                  • Sources
                  • Connectives
                  • Conclusion
                  Knowledge:
                  36. Students know:
                  • The purpose of argumentative writing is to convince the reader to take action or adopt a particular position.
                  • Argumentative writing includes introducing the topic by stating an argumentative claim, logical reasoning supported by evidence, and a concluding statement.
                  • Evidence to support the argument must be collected from various sources.
                  • Connective words, like first, as a result, therefore, in addition, are used to link ideas in argumentative writing.
                  Skills:
                  36. Students are able to:
                  • Write an argument to convince a reader to take action or adopt a position.
                  • Include a claim, logical reasoning supported by evidence, and a conclusion in argumentative writing.
                  • Gather evidence from relevant sources to support a claim.
                  • Use connective words to link their ideas within the writing.
                  Understanding:
                  36. Students understand that:
                  • To persuade a reader to take action or adopt an opinion, they must present logical reasoning supported by evidence from relevant sources.
                  • Connective words can help connect their argument to the evidence supporting their argument.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 2
                  Learning Activities: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 1
                  37. Write about research findings independently over short and/or extended periods of time.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  37.
                  • Research findings
                  • Independently
                  • Short periods of time
                  • Extended periods of time
                  Knowledge:
                  37. Students know:
                  • Researching a topic begins by finding information from multiple sources.
                  • Independent writing skills.
                  Skills:
                  37. Students are able to:
                  • Find information on a particular topic from a variety of research sources.
                  • Independently write about research findings over short and extended periods of time.
                  Understanding:
                  37. Students understand that:
                  • They can share information they have learned about a topic through writing.
                  • Some writing projects will last a short time, while others may take longer to complete.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 17
                  Learning Activities: 2
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 13
                  Unit Plans: 1
                  38. Gather information on a topic or question, and share the results through various modes of writing, including projects and presentations.

                  a. Locate information in print and digital sources.

                  b. Summarize, quote, and paraphrase information in notes and finished work, providing a list of sources.

                  c. Integrate information from several texts on the same topic into presentations of research.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  38.
                  • Topic
                  • Question
                  • Results
                  • Modes of writing
                  • Projects
                  • Presentations
                  38a.
                  • Print
                  • Digital
                  38b.
                  • Summarize
                  • Quote
                  • Paraphrase
                  • Notes
                  • Finished work
                  • List of sources
                  38c.
                  • Integrate
                  • Topic
                  • Presentations of research
                  Knowledge:
                  38. Students know:
                  • Effective research skills.
                  • Transferable writing skills applicable to many modes of writing.
                  38a.
                  • Information can be found in both digital and print sources.
                  38b.
                  • Summarizing is putting the main idea(s) of the source into their own words.
                  • Quoting is using direct evidence from the source material.
                  • Paraphrasing is condensing the original source by broadly explaining the content.
                  • Summarizing, quoting, and paraphrasing are important note taking skills, but they can also be used in formal writing pieces.
                  • Credit must be attributed to the original creator of the work by including a list of sources.
                  38c.
                  • Research presentations should include information that is incorporated from several sources.
                  Skills:
                  38. Students are able to:
                  • Research information from a variety of sources to explain a topic or answer a question.
                  • Share information learned through research in various modes of writing, including projects and presentations.
                  38a.
                  • Locate information in print and digital sources.
                  38b.
                  • Summarize, quote, and paraphrase information in written notes and finished work.
                  • Include a list of sources with written summaries and paraphrases.
                  38c.
                  • Combine information from several texts on the same topic into one piece of work.
                  Understanding:
                  38. Students understand that:
                  • They can share their research findings through multiple modes of writing, including presentations and projects.
                  38a.
                  • An effective writer uses multiple sources of information, including print and digital sources.
                  38b.
                  • Including a list of sources with their writing ensures they are giving the original creator credit for their work.
                  38c.
                  • Effective research presentations include multiple sources of information that are integrated in one coherent project.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 18
                  Learning Activities: 2
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 15
                  39. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage in writing.

                  a. Evaluate the usage of pronouns for the proper case.

                  Examples: subjective, objective, possessive

                  b. Identify inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.

                  c. Use varied pronouns and their antecedents correctly in composing and revising writing.

                  d. Use subject-verb agreement correctly when composing and revising writing.

                  e. Use verb tenses to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.

                  f. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense, including subject-verb agreement.

                  g. Use perfect verb tenses to compose and revise writing.

                  h. Use correlative conjunctions correctly when composing and revising writing.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  39.
                  • Demonstrate
                  • Command
                  • Conventions
                  • Standard English grammar
                  • Standard English usage
                  39a.
                  • Evaluate
                  • Pronouns
                  • Proper case
                  • Subjective
                  • Objective
                  • Possessive
                  39b.
                  • Identify
                  • Inappropriate shifts
                  • Pronoun number
                  • Pronoun person
                  39c.
                  • Pronoun
                  • Antecedents
                  • Composing
                  • Revising
                  39d.
                  • Subject-verb agreement
                  • Composing
                  • Writing
                  39e.
                  • Verb tenses
                  • Times Sequences States Conditions
                  39f.
                  • Recognize
                  • Correct
                  • Inappropriate shifts
                  • Verb tense
                  • Subject-verb agreement
                  39g.
                  • Perfect verb tenses
                  • Compose
                  • Revise
                  39h.
                  • Correlative conjunctions
                  • Composing
                  • Revising
                  Knowledge:
                  39. Students know:
                  • Standard English grammar and usage conventions.
                  39a.
                  • There are three cases of pronouns: subjective, objective, and possessive.
                  • The subjective case is used when the pronoun is used as a subject in a sentence.
                  • The objective case is used when the pronoun is used as an object of a verb or preposition.
                  • The possessive case is a pronoun that expresses ownership.
                  39b.
                  • There are three person pronouns in English: first-person, second-person, and third-person.
                  • First-person is used when an author is talking about themselves (I, me, we).
                  • Second-person is used when an author is talking directly to the reader (you).
                  • In the third person, there are distinct pronoun forms for male, female, and neutral gender (e.g., he, she, it).
                  • In addition to person, pronouns also show the number of individuals involved; there are two numbers: singular and plural.
                  39c.
                  • The noun or noun substitute that a pronoun refers to is called its antecedent.
                  • To create engaging writing, authors should use a variety of pronouns and antecedents.
                  39d.
                  • A subject and its verb must both be singular or both plural.
                  39e.
                  • The tense of a verb tells you when a person did something or when something existed or happened.
                  • In English, there are three main tenses: the present, the past, and the future.
                  • There are regular verbs that follow a predictable pattern when changing tenses, but there are also irregular verbs that can change their entire spelling when changing tenses.
                  39f.
                  • The tense of a verb tells you when a person did something or when something existed or happened.
                  • A subject and its verb must both be singular or both plural.
                  39g.
                  • Perfect verb tense is used to show an action that is complete and finished.
                  • This tense is expressed by adding one of the auxiliary verbs have, has, or had to the past participle form of the main verb.
                  39h.
                  • Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words, phrases, or clauses.
                  • The correlative conjunctions are either, or; neither, nor; both, and; not only, but also; whether, or.
                  Skills:
                  39. Students are able to:
                  • Demonstrate correct standard English grammar and word usage in writing.
                  39a.
                  • Identify pronouns in a sentence.
                  • Evaluate sentences to determine if the correct case of the pronoun was used.
                  39b.
                  • Identify inappropriate shifts in pronoun person in writing.
                  • Identify inappropriate shifts in pronoun number in writing.
                  39c.
                  • Use varied pronouns and their antecedents correctly in writing.
                  • Revise writing to use a variety of pronouns and antecedents.
                  39d.
                  • Write sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.
                  • Revise writing to ensure all sentences have correct subject-verb agreement.
                  39e.
                  • Use verb tenses to describe various times, sequences, states, and conditions in writing.
                  39f.
                  • Identify inappropriate shifts in verb tense, including subject-verb agreement, in writing.
                  • Correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense, including subject-verb agreement, in writing.
                  39g.
                  • Use perfect verb tenses correctly in writing.
                  • Revise writing for correct usage of perfect verb tenses.
                  39h.
                  • Use correlative conjunctions correctly in writing.
                  • Revise writing for correct usage of correlative conjunctions.
                  Understanding:
                  39. Students understand that:
                  • Demonstrating command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing is necessary to convey meaning.
                  39a.
                  • To clearly convey meaning in writing, the correct case of pronouns must be used.
                  39b.
                  • A personal pronoun indicates the viewpoint of the writing and refers to the number of individuals.
                  • To clearly communicate in writing, the correct pronoun number and person must be used.
                  39c.
                  • To compose engaging writing pieces, they should use a variety of pronouns and antecedents.
                  • Revising their writing can improve it and make it more interesting to read.
                  39d.
                  • To clearly communicate in writing, subjects and verbs must agree in number within each sentence.
                  • Revising their writing can ensure it follows standard English grammar conventions.
                  39e.
                  • They can change the tense of verbs in writing to indicate various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
                  39f.
                  • Standard English grammar conventions require specific and cohesive verb tense usage and subject-verb agreement in writing.
                  39g.
                  • The perfect verb tense should be used for actions that are completed and finished.
                  • A perfect verb tense is created by using a helping verb and the past participle of the main verb.
                  39h.
                  • Correlative conjunctions can be used in writing to show a strong relationship between the ideas being joined.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 9
                  Learning Activities: 2
                  Lesson Plans: 1
                  Classroom Resources: 6
                  40. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

                  a. Use commas to separate items in a series, separate introductory elements from the rest of a sentence, set off tag questions, and indicate direct address.

                  b. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate the titles of different types of works.

                  c. Spell grade-level words correctly, consulting references as needed.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  40.
                  • Demonstrate
                  • Command
                  • Conventions
                  • Standard English capitalization
                  • Standard English punctuation
                  • Standard English spelling
                  40a.
                  • Commas
                  • Series
                  • Tag questions
                  • Introductory elements
                  • Direct address
                  40b.
                  • Underlining
                  • Quotation marks
                  • Italics
                  40c.
                  • References
                  Knowledge:
                  40. Students know:
                  • Standard English spelling conventions.
                  • Punctuation marks and their appropriate usage.
                  • Capitalization rules for standard English.
                  40a.
                  • Commas are used to separate groups of words.
                  • Commas are used to separate introductory elements, which consist of phrases and words that appear before the main clause of the sentence.
                  • A tag question is a question that is added at the end of a sentence; it consists of two basic elements: a verb and a pronoun.
                  • A direct address means to direct a statement to a particular person, and a comma is used to separate the person's name from the rest of the sentence.
                  40b.
                  • Underlining, quotation marks, and italics are used to indicate titles of creative works in writing.
                  40c.
                  • Phonics skills necessary to spell words correctly.
                  • Correct spellings can be located in reference materials, such as dictionaries.
                  Skills:
                  40. Students are able to:
                  • Use correct capitalization in writing.
                  • Use appropriate punctuation in writing.
                  • Spell fifth-grade level words correctly.
                  40a.
                  • Write sentences that correctly use commas to separate words in a series, such as cat, dog, turtle, etc.
                  • Write sentences that correctly use a comma to separate introductory elements from the rest of a sentence, such as In the nighttime, people have a harder time driving.
                  • Write sentences with tag questions with correct comma usage, such as She didn't forget to call you, did she?
                  • Write sentences with direct addresses that correctly use a comma, such as Jackie, are you leaving so soon?
                  40b.
                  • Use the correct indicator (underline, quotation marks, italics) when writing the titles of different types of works.
                  40c.
                  • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly.
                  • Consult references for correct spellings, if needed.
                  Understanding:
                  40. Students understand that:
                  • When writing, they must use punctuation correctly, capitalize appropriate words, and spell fifth-grade level words correctly.
                  40a.
                  • Commas are a common punctuation mark that are used for a variety of purposes.
                  40b.
                  • Titles of work are identified differently, either with underlining, quotation marks, or italics.
                  40c.
                  • To clearly communicate in writing, they must use correct spellings.
                  • If they do not know how to spell a word, they can consult reference materials for assistance.
                  English Language Arts (2021)
                  Grade(s): 5
                  All Resources: 0
                  41. Write using grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases accurately, including those that signal contrasting ideas, additional information, and other logical relationships.
                  Unpacked Content
                  Content Area:
                  Literacy Foundations
                  Focus Area:
                  Writing
                  Teacher Vocabulary:
                  41.
                  • General academic words and phrases
                  • Domain-specific words and phrases
                  • Contrasting ideas
                  • Additional information
                  • Logical relationships
                  Knowledge:
                  41. Students know:
                  • Academic vocabulary is language that is more formal than spoken language.
                  • Domain-specific vocabulary refers to words that are used specifically in school subject areas, like math, science, and social studies.
                  • Academic, domain-specific vocabulary should be used in writing.
                  • Certain phrases can indicate that contrasting ideas, additional information, or logical relationships are being presented.
                  Skills:
                  41. Students are able to:
                  • Use academic and domain-specific words and phrases in writing.
                  Understanding:
                  41. Students understand that:
                  • It is important to use academic, domain-specific vocabulary in formal writing.
                  • They can use certain words and phrases to indicate they are explaining contrasting ideas, adding further information, or signaling a relationship between concepts.
                  English Language Arts (2021)