GEOMETRY
 
Congruence
 
Experiment with transformations in the plane.
 

1 ) Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc. [GCO1] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



2 ) Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). [GCO2] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



3 ) Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. [GCO3] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



4 ) Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. [GCO4] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



5 ) Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another. [GCO5] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards


Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions. (Build on rigid motions as a familiar starting point for development of concept of geometric proof.)
 

6 ) Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. [GCO6] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



7 ) Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent. [GCO7] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



8 ) Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence, anglesideangle (ASA), sideangleside (SAS), and sidesideside (SSS), follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions. [GCO8] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards


Prove geometric theorems. (Focus on validity of underlying reasoning while using variety of ways of writing proofs.)
 

9 ) Prove theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; and points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment's endpoints. [GCO9] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



10 ) Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180^{o}, base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent, the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length, and the medians of a triangle meet at a point. [GCO10] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



11 ) Prove theorems about parallelograms. Theorems include opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent; the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other; and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals. [GCO11] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards


Make geometric constructions. (Formalize and explain processes.)
 

12 ) Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods such as compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, and dynamic geometric software. Constructions include copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. [GCO12] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



13 ) Construct an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle. [GCO13] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards


Similarity, Right Triangles, and Trigonometry
 
Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations.
 

14 ) Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor. [GSRT1] a. A dilation takes a line not passing through the center of the dilation to a parallel line and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged. [GSRT1a] b. The dilation of a line segment is longer or shorter in the ratio given by the scale factor.
[GSRT1b] 


15 ) Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides. [GSRT2] Example 1: Given the two triangles above, show that they are similar. ^{4}/_{8} = ^{6}/_{12} They are similar by SSS. The scale factor is equivalent. Example 2: Show that the two triangles are similar. Two corresponding sides are proportional and the included angle is congruent. (SAS similarity) 


16 ) Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the angleangle (AA) criterion for two triangles to be similar. [GSRT3] 

Prove theorems involving similarity.
 

17 ) Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; and the Pythagorean Theorem proved using triangle similarity. [GSRT4] 


18 ) Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures. [GSRT5] 

Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles.
 

19 ) Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles. [GSRT6] 


20 ) Explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles. [GSRT7] 


21 ) Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems.* [GSRT8] 


22 ) (+) Prove the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines and use them to solve problems. [GSRT10] 


23 ) (+) Understand and apply the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find unknown measurements in right and nonright triangles (e.g., surveying problems, resultant forces).
[GSRT11] 

Circles
 
Understand and apply theorems about circles.
 

24 ) Prove that all circles are similar. [GC1] 


25 ) Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, and chords. Include the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle. [GC2] 


26 ) Construct the inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle, and prove properties of angles for a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. [GC3] 


27 ) (+) Construct a tangent line from a point outside a given circle to the circle. [GC4] 

Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles. (Radian introduced only as unit of measure.)
 

28 ) Derive, using similarity, the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector. [GC5] 

Expressing Geometric Properties With Equations
 
Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section.
 

29 ) Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation. [GGPE1] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards


Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically. (Include distance formula; relate to Pythagorean Theorem.)
 

30 ) Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically. [GGPE4] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



31 ) Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines, and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point). [GGPE5] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



32 ) Find the point on a directed line segment between two given points that partitions the segment in a given ratio. [GGPE6] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



33 ) Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula.* [GGPE7] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards


Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically. (Alabama)
 

34 ) Determine areas and perimeters of regular polygons, including inscribed or circumscribed polygons, given the coordinates of vertices or other characteristics. (Alabama) Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards


Geometric Measurement and Dimension
 
Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems.
 

35 ) Give an informal argument for the formulas for the circumference of a circle; area of a circle; and volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone. Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri's principle, and informal limit arguments. [GGMD1] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



36 ) Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems.* [GGMD3] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



37 ) Determine the relationship between surface areas of similar figures and volumes of similar figures. (Alabama) Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards


Visualize relationships between twodimensional and threedimensional objects.
 

38 ) Identify the shapes of twodimensional crosssections of threedimensional objects, and identify threedimensional objects generated by rotations of twodimensional objects. [GGMD4] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards


Modeling With Geometry
 
Apply geometric concepts in modeling situations.
 

39 ) Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).* [GMG1] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



40 ) Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile, British Thermal Units (BTUs) per cubic foot).* [GMG2] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards



41 ) Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost, working with typographic grid systems based on ratios).* [GMG3] Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards


Using Probability to Make Decisions
 
Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions. (Introductory; apply counting rules.)
 

42 ) (+) Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator). [SMD6] 


43 ) (+) Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game). [SMD7] (Alabama) Example: What is the probability of tossing a penny and having it land in the nonshaded region' Geometric Probability is the NonShaded Area divided by the Total Area. 