Courses of Study: Credit Recovery Science

Credit Recovery Science, Grade 9 - 12, Biology, 2005

1.) Select appropriate laboratory glassware, balances, time measuring equipment, and optical instruments to conduct an experiment.

•  Describing the steps of the scientific method
•  Comparing controls, dependent variables, and independent variables
•  Identifying safe laboratory procedures when handling chemicals and using Bunsen burners and laboratory glassware
•  Using appropriate SI units for measuring length, volume, and mass
2.) Describe cell processes necessary for achieving homeostasis, including active and passive transport, osmosis, diffusion, exocytosis, and endocytosis.

•  Identifying functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in cellular activities
•  Comparing the reaction of plant and animal cells in isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions
•  Explaining how surface area, cell size, temperature, light, and pH affect cellular activities
•  Applying the concept of fluid pressure to biological systems
Examples: blood pressure, turgor pressure, bends, strokes

3.) Identify reactants and products associated with photosynthesis and cellular respiration and the purposes of these two processes.

4.) Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams and tables.

•  Identifying scientists who contributed to the cell theory
Examples: Hooke, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, van Leeuwenhoek

•  Distinguishing between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
•  Identifying various technologies used to observe cells
Examples: light microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope

5.) Identify cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as levels of organization in the biosphere.

•  Recognizing that cells differentiate to perform specific functions
Examples: ciliated cells to produce movement, nerve cells to conduct electrical charges

6.) Describe the roles of mitotic and meiotic divisions during reproduction, growth, and repair of cells.

•  Comparing sperm and egg formation in terms of ploidy
Example: ploidy—haploid, diploid

•  Comparing sexual and asexual reproduction
7.) Apply Mendel's law to determine phenotypic and genotypic probabilities of offspring.

•  Defining important genetic terms, including dihybrid cross, monohybrid cross, phenotype, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant trait, recessive trait, incomplete dominance, codominance, and allele
•  Interpreting inheritance patterns shown in graphs and charts
•  Calculating genotypic and phenotypic percentages and ratios using a Punnett square
8.) Identify the structure and function of DNA, RNA, and protein.

•  Explaining relationships among DNA, genes, and chromosomes
•  Listing significant contributions of biotechnology to society, including agricultural and medical practices
Examples: DNA fingerprinting, insulin, growth hormone

•  Relating normal patterns of genetic inheritance to genetic variation
Example: crossing-over

•  Relating ways chance, mutagens, and genetic engineering increase diversity
Examples: insertion, deletion, translocation, inversion, recombinant DNA

•  Relating genetic disorders and disease to patterns of genetic inheritance
Examples: hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, Down's syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, color blindness, phenylketonuria (PKU)

9.) Differentiate between the previous five-kingdom and current six-kingdom classification systems.

•  Sequencing taxa from most inclusive to least inclusive in the classification of living things
•  Identifying organisms using a dichotomous key
•  Identifying ways in which organisms from the Monera, Protista, and Fungi kingdoms are beneficial and harmful

- beneficial—decomposers,

- harmful—diseases

•  Justifying the grouping of viruses in a category separate from living things
•  Writing scientific names accurately by using binomial nomenclature
10.) Distinguish between monocots and dicots, angiosperms and gymnosperms, and vascular and nonvascular plants.

•  Describing the histology of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers
•  Recognizing chemical and physical adaptations of plants

- chemical—foul odor, bitter taste, toxicity;

- physical—spines, needles, broad leaves

11.) Classify animals according to type of skeletal structure, method of fertilization and reproduction, body symmetry, body coverings, and locomotion.


- skeletal structure—vertebrates, invertebrates;

- fertilization—external, internal;

- reproduction—sexual, asexual;

- body symmetry—bilateral, radial, asymmetrical;

- body coverings—feathers, scales, fur;

- locomotion—cilia, flagella, pseudopodia

12.) Describe protective adaptations of animals, including mimicry, camouflage, beak type, migration, and hibernation.

•  Identifying ways in which the theory of evolution explains the nature and diversity of organisms
•  Describing natural selection, survival of the fittest, geographic isolation, and fossil record
13.) Trace the flow of energy as it decreases through the trophic levels from producers to the quaternary level in food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.

•  Describing the interdependence of biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
Examples: effects of humidity on stomata size, effects of dissolved oxygen on fish respiration

•  Contrasting autotrophs and heterotrophs
•  Describing the niche of decomposers
•  Using the ten percent law to explain the decreasing availability of energy through the trophic levels
14.) Trace biogeochemical cycles through the environment, including water, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen.

•  Relating natural disasters, climate changes, nonnative species, and human activity to the dynamic equilibrium of ecosystems

- natural disasters—habitat destruction resulting from tornadoes;

- climate changes—changes in migratory patterns of birds;

- nonnative species—exponential growth of kudzu and Zebra mussels due to absence of natural controls;

- human activity—habitat destruction resulting in reduction of biodiversity, conservation resulting in preservation of biodiversity

•  Describing the process of ecological succession
15.) Identify biomes based on environmental factors and native organisms.

Example: tundra—permafrost, low humidity, lichens, polar bears

16.) Identify density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors that affect populations in an ecosystem.


- density-dependent—disease, predator-prey relationships, availability of food and water;

- density-independent—natural disasters, climate

•  Discriminating among symbiotic relationships, including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism