Credit Recovery Science, Grade 9 - 12, Chemistry, 2005
1.) Differentiate among pure substances, mixtures, elements, and compounds.
Distinguishing between intensive and extensive properties of matter
Contrasting properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
Distinguishing between homogeneous and heterogeneous forms of matter
2.) Describe the structure of carbon chains, branched chains, and rings.
3.) Use the periodic table to identify periodic trends, including atomic radii, ionization energy, electronegativity, and energy levels.
Utilizing electron configurations, Lewis dot structures, and orbital notations to write chemical formulas
Calculating the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an isotope
Utilizing benchmark discoveries to describe the historical development of atomic structure, including photoelectric effect, absorption, and emission spectra of elements
Example: Thompson's cathode ray, Rutherford's gold foil, Millikan's oil drop, and Bohr's bright line spectra experiments
4.) Describe solubility in terms of energy changes associated with the solution process.
Using solubility curves to interpret saturation levels
Explaining the conductivity of electrolytic solutions
Describing acids and bases in terms of strength, concentration, pH, and neutralization reactions
Describing factors that affect the rate of solution
Solving problems involving molarity, including solution preparation and dilution
5.) Use the kinetic theory to explain states of matter, phase changes, solubility, and chemical reactions.
Example: water at 25 degrees Celsius remains in the liquid state because of the strong attraction between water molecules while kinetic energy allows the sliding of molecules past one another
6.) Solve stoichiometric problems involving relationships among the number of particles, moles, and masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
Predicting ionic and covalent bond types and products given known reactants
Assigning oxidation numbers for individual atoms of monatomic and polyatomic ions
Identifying the nomenclature of ionic compounds, binary compounds, and acids
Classifying chemical reactions as composition, decomposition, single replacement, or double replacement
Determining the empirical or molecular formula for a compound using percent composition data
7.) Explain the behavior of ideal gases in terms of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles using Charles's law, Boyle's law, Gay-Lussac's law, the combined gas law, and the ideal gas law.
8.) Distinguish among endothermic and exothermic physical and chemical changes.
- endothermic physical—phase change from ice to water,
- endothermic chemical—reaction between citric acid solution and baking soda,
- exothermic physical—phase change from water vapor to water,
- exothermic chemical—formation of water from combustion of hydrogen and oxygen
Calculating temperature change by using specific heat
Using Le Châtelier's principle to explain changes in physical and chemical equilibrium
9.) Distinguish between chemical and nuclear reactions.
Identifying atomic and subatomic particles, including mesons, quarks, tachyons, and baryons
Calculating the half-life of selective radioactive isotopes
Identifying types of radiation and their properties
Contrasting fission and fusion
Describing carbon-14 decay as a dating method