Courses of Study: Credit Recovery Science

Credit Recovery Science, Grade 9 - 12, Earth and Space Elective, 2005

1.) Describe sources of energy, including solar, gravitational, geothermal, and nuclear.

2.) Describe effects on weather of energy transfer within and among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere.

•  Describing the energy transfer related to condensation in clouds, precipitation, winds, and ocean currents
•  Describing characteristics of the El Niño and La Niña phenomena
•  Using data to analyze global weather patterns
Examples: temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction

3.) Explain how weather patterns affect climate.

•  Explaining characteristics of various weather systems, including high and low pressure areas or fronts
•  Interpreting weather maps and symbols to predict changing weather conditions
•  Identifying technologies used to obtain meteorological data
4.) Describe the production and transfer of stellar energies.

•  Describing the relationship between life cycles and nuclear reactions of stars
•  Describing how the reception of solar radiation is affected by atmospheric and lithospheric conditions
Example: volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gases affecting reflection and absorption of solar radiation

5.) Discuss various theories for the origin, formation, and changing nature of the universe and our solar system.

•  Explaining the nebular hypothesis for formation of planets, the big bang theory, and the steady state theory
•  Relating Hubble's law to the concept of an ever-expanding universe
•  Describing the impact of meteor, asteroid, and comet bombardment on planetary and lunar development
6.) Explain the length of a day and of a year in terms of the motion of Earth.

•  Explaining the relationship of the seasons to the tilt of Earth's axis and its revolution about the sun
7.) Explain techniques for determining the age and composition of Earth and the universe.

•  Using radiometric age methods to compute the age of Earth
•  Using expanding universe measurements to determine the age of the universe
•  Identifying techniques for evaluating the composition of objects in space
8.) Explain the terms astronomical unit and light year.

9.) Relate the life cycle of stars to the H-R diagram.

•  Explaining indicators of motion by the stars and sun in terms of the Doppler effect and red and blue shifts
•  Describing the relationship of star color, brightness, and evolution to the balance between gravitational collapse and nuclear fusion
10.) Identify scientists and their findings relative to Earth and space, including Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, and Einstein.

•  Identifying classical instruments used to extend the senses and increase knowledge of the universe, including optical telescopes, radio telescopes, spectroscopes, and cameras
11.) Describe pulsars, quasars, black holes, and galaxies.

12.) Describe challenges and required technologies for space exploration.

•  Identifying long-term human space travel needs, including life support
•  Identifying applications of propulsion technologies for space travel
•  Identifying new instrumentation and communication technologies needed for space information gathering
Examples: Mars Exploration Rover, Cassini spacecraft and Huygens probe, Gravity Probe B

•  Identifying benefits to the quality of life that have been achieved through space advances
Examples: cellular telephone, GPS

•  Identifying new technology used to gather information, including spacecraft, observatories, space-based telescopes, and probes