Courses of Study : Science

Number of Standards matching query: 16
From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 4
1 ) Use models to compare and contrast how the structural characteristics of carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids define their function in organisms.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.1: Living systems are made of complex molecules (including carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids) that consist mostly of a few elements, especially carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous.

NAEP Statement::
L12.2: Cellular processes are carried out by many different types of molecules, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from combinations of amino-acid molecules. Protein molecules assemble fats and carbohydrates and carry out other cellular functions. The function of each protein molecule depends on its specific sequence of amino acids and the shape of the molecule.

NAEP Statement::
L12.4: Plants have the capability (through photosynthesis) to take energy from light to form higher energy sugar molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from lower energy molecules. These sugar molecules can be used to make amino acids and other carbon-containing (organic) molecules and assembled into larger molecules with biological activity (including proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and fats).



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.2- Recognize organelles (e.g., mitochondria, ribosomes, chloroplasts) and their functions within plant and animal cells.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 8
Learning Activities: 5
Classroom Resources: 3
2 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to describe the function and diversity of organelles and structures in various types of cells (e.g., muscle cells having a large amount of mitochondria, plasmids in bacteria, chloroplasts in plant cells).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.3: Cellular processes are regulated both internally and externally by environments in which cells exist, including local environments that lead to cell differentiation during the development of multicellular organisms. During the development of complex multicellular organisms, cell differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
Classroom Resources: 1
3 ) Formulate an evidence-based explanation regarding how the composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) determines the structural organization of proteins.

a. Obtain and evaluate experiments of major scientists and communicate their contributions to the development of the structure of DNA and to the development of the central dogma of molecular biology.

b. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information that explains how advancements in genetic technology (e.g., Human Genome Project, Encyclopedia of DNA Elements [ENCODE] project, 1000 Genomes Project) have contributed to the understanding as to how a genetic change at the DNA level may affect proteins and, in turn, influence the appearance of traits.

c. Obtain information to identify errors that occur during DNA replication (e.g., deletion, insertion, translocation, substitution, inversion, frame-shift, point mutations).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.9: The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules. Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.3- Recognize the structure of DNA which determines the characteristics of living organisms.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 2
4 ) Develop and use models to explain the role of the cell cycle during growth and maintenance in multicellular organisms (e.g., normal growth and/or uncontrolled growth resulting in tumors).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.3: Cellular processes are regulated both internally and externally by environments in which cells exist, including local environments that lead to cell differentiation during the development of multicellular organisms. During the development of complex multicellular organisms, cell differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.4- Use a model to illustrate how growth occurs when cells multiply and recognize that uncontrolled growth can lead to the development of tumors (e.g., cancer).


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 0
5 ) Plan and carry out investigations to explain feedback mechanisms (e.g., sweating and shivering) and cellular processes (e.g., active and passive transport) that maintain homeostasis.

a. Plan and carry out investigations to explain how the unique properties of water (e.g., polarity, cohesion, adhesion) are vital to maintaining homeostasis in organisms.


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.5- Recognize feedback mechanisms (e.g., sweating and shivering) that maintain homeostasis.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 0
6 ) Analyze and interpret data from investigations to explain the role of products and reactants of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and the flow of energy.

a. Plan and carry out investigations to explain the interactions among pigments, absorption of light, and reflection of light.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.4: Plants have the capability (through photosynthesis) to take energy from light to form higher energy sugar molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from lower energy molecules. These sugar molecules can be used to make amino acids and other carbon-containing (organic) molecules and assembled into larger molecules with biological activity (including proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and fats).

NAEP Statement::
L12.5: The chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an ecosystem, some energy is stored in newly made structures, but much is dissipated into the environment as heat. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps the process going.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.6- Recognize the components necessary for plants to produce their own food and oxygen (e.g., water, sunlight, carbon dioxide).


Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
7 ) Develop and use models to illustrate examples of ecological hierarchy levels, including biosphere, biome, ecosystem, community, population, and organism.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.7: Although the interrelationships and interdependence of organisms may generate biological communities in ecosystems that are stable for hundreds or thousands of years, ecosystems always change when climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution. The impact of the human species has major consequences for other species.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.7- Use models to recognize an organism, a population, and an ecosystem.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 3
8 ) Develop and use models to describe the cycling of matter (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, water) and flow of energy (e.g., food chains, food webs, biomass pyramids, ten percent law) between abiotic and biotic factors in ecosystems.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.5: The chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an ecosystem, some energy is stored in newly made structures, but much is dissipated into the environment as heat. Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps the process going.

NAEP Statement::
L12.6: As matter cycles and energy flows through different levels of organization of living systems (cells, organs, organisms, communities) and between living systems and the physical environment, chemical elements are recombined in different ways. Each recombination results in storage and dissipation of energy into the environment as heat. Matter and energy are conserved in each change.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.8- Identify living and nonliving components in an ecosystem; identify the flow of energy within a common food chain.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 0
9 ) Use mathematical comparisons and visual representations to support or refute explanations of factors that affect population growth (e.g., exponential, linear, logistic).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.7: Although the interrelationships and interdependence of organisms may generate biological communities in ecosystems that are stable for hundreds or thousands of years, ecosystems always change when climate changes or when one or more new species appear as a result of migration or local evolution. The impact of the human species has major consequences for other species.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.9- Recognize the relationship between population size and available resources for food and shelter from a graphical representation.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
10 ) Construct an explanation and design a real-world solution to address changing conditions and ecological succession caused by density-dependent and/or density-independent factors.*

Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
11 ) Analyze and interpret data collected from probability calculations to explain the variation of expressed traits within a population.

a. Use mathematics and computation to predict phenotypic and genotypic ratios and percentages by constructing Punnett squares, including using both homozygous and heterozygous allele pairs.

b. Develop and use models to demonstrate codominance, incomplete dominance, and Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.

c. Analyze and interpret data (e.g., pedigree charts, family and population studies) regarding Mendelian and complex genetic disorders (e.g., sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, type 2 diabetes) to determine patterns of genetic inheritance and disease risks from both genetic and environmental factors.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.10: Sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of any two parents.

NAEP Statement::
L12.8: Hereditary information is contained in genes, which are located in the chromosomes of each cell. A human cell contains many thousands of different genes. One or many genes can determine an inherited trait of an individual, and a single gene can influence more than one trait.

NAEP Statement::
L12.9: The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules. Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.11- Recognize that parents and offspring may have different traits.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 1
12 ) Develop and use a model to analyze the structure of chromosomes and how new genetic combinations occur through the process of meiosis.

a. Analyze data to draw conclusions about genetic disorders caused by errors in meiosis (e.g., Down syndrome, Turner syndrome).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.10: Sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of any two parents.

NAEP Statement::
L12.8: Hereditary information is contained in genes, which are located in the chromosomes of each cell. A human cell contains many thousands of different genes. One or many genes can determine an inherited trait of an individual, and a single gene can influence more than one trait.

NAEP Statement::
L12.9: The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules. Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.


Unity and Diversity
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 6
Learning Activities: 2
Lesson Plans: 2
Classroom Resources: 2
13 ) Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how organisms are classified by physical characteristics, organized into levels of taxonomy, and identified by binomial nomenclature (e.g., taxonomic classification, dichotomous keys).

a. Engage in argument to justify the grouping of viruses in a category separate from living things.


Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.13- Classify organisms into similar groups based on physical characteristics.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 1
Lesson Plans: 1
14 ) Analyze and interpret data to evaluate adaptations resulting from natural and artificial selection that may cause changes in populations over time (e.g., antibiotic-resistant bacteria, beak types, peppered moths, pest-resistant crops).


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.12: Molecular evidence substantiates the anatomical evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched.

NAEP Statement::
L12.13: Evolution is the consequence of the interactions of (1) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection from environmental pressure of those organisms better able to survive and leave offspring.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 2
Lesson Plans: 2
15 ) Engage in argument from evidence (e.g., mathematical models such as distribution graphs) to explain how the diversity of organisms is affected by overpopulation of species, variation due to genetic mutations, and competition for limited resources.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.11: Modern ideas about evolution (including natural selection and common descent) provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as depicted in the fossil record and in the similarities evident within the diversity of existing organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L12.13: Evolution is the consequence of the interactions of (1) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection from environmental pressure of those organisms better able to survive and leave offspring.


Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Biology
All Resources: 0
16 ) Analyze scientific evidence (e.g., DNA, fossil records, cladograms, biogeography) to support hypotheses of common ancestry and biological evolution.


NAEP Framework
NAEP Statement::
L12.11: Modern ideas about evolution (including natural selection and common descent) provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as depicted in the fossil record and in the similarities evident within the diversity of existing organisms.

NAEP Statement::
L12.12: Molecular evidence substantiates the anatomical evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched.



Alabama Alternate Achievement Standards
AAS Standard:
SCI.AAS.B.HS.16- Using fossil evidence, recognize that humans have changed in appearance over a very long period of time.