Courses of Study: Science

Number of Standards matching query: 11
Matter and Its Interactions
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
1 ) Obtain and communicate information from historical experiments (e.g., work by Mendeleev and Moseley, Rutherford's gold foil experiment, Thomson's cathode ray experiment, Millikan's oil drop experiment, Bohr's interpretation of bright line spectra) to determine the structure and function of an atom and to analyze the patterns represented in the periodic table.

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Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Crosscutting Concepts: Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Identify scientists whose experiments added to our knowledge of atomic structure and the arrangement of the periodic table.
  • Obtain information about these scientists, their experiments, their discoveries about atomic structure, and how their discoveries aer represented on the periodic table.
  • Communicate information in a manner that connects the scientific discovery to the structure and function of an atom as well as the patterns in the periodic table.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Atomic theory
  • Periodic table history
  • Macroscopic level
  • Atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Examples of scientists and scientific discoveries that changed our knowledge of atomic structure.
  • How these scientific discoveries relate to the information found on the periodic table.
  • Each atom has a charged substructure that consists of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
  • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar properties in columns.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Obtain information from multiple, grade-level appropriate materials (text, media, visual displays, data).
  • Communicate information from a variety of reliable sources in multiple formats (oral, graphical, textual, and/or mathematical).
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • It is important to gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used.
  • Our knowledge of the structure and function of the atom changed over time due to scientific discoveries, and the history of the periodic table traces our understanding of the atom.
  • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of atomic/ molecular/ particulate level structure.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
History of the Atomic Theory
Chemicool People
Journey Into the Atom
Mendeleev's Periodic Table Simulator
Excited Electrons
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
2 ) Develop and use models of atomic nuclei to explain why the abundance-weighted average of isotopes of an element yields the published atomic mass.

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Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models
Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Identify isotopes of elements.
  • Develop a model that relates the published atomic mass of an element on the periodic table to the abundance of that element's isotopes.
  • Use the model to determine the most common isotopic form of an element in nature.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Atomic mass
  • Isotopes
  • Abundance
  • Weighted average
  • Nucleus
  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Macroscopic level
  • Atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Each atom has a charge substructure that consists of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
  • The majority of an atom's mass comes from the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
  • Electrons have a very small mass, so they are not typically included in atomic mass calculations.
  • Atoms of an element can have different masses, and we call those atoms isotopes.
  • Isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons.
  • Most elements exist in nature in isotopic form.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationship between the structure of the atom and the average atomic mass of an element.
  • Use the model to make predictions.
  • Calculate weighted averages.
  • Determine the most common isotopic form of an element in nature.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Models can be computational or mathematical.
  • The published atomic mass of an element is a weighted average of all known isotopes of that element.
  • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of atomic/ molecular/ particulate level structure.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Calculating Average Atomic Mass
Coinium Isotopes of Atoms
Intensive and Extensive Properties
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 12
Learning Activities: 3
Lesson Plans: 9
Unit Plans: 0
3 ) Use the periodic table as a systematic representation to predict properties of elements based on their valence electron arrangement.

a. Analyze data such as physical properties to explain periodic trends of the elements, including metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity and electron affinity, ionization energy, and atomic-covalent/ionic radii, and how they relate to position in the periodic table.

b. Develop and use models (e.g., Lewis dot, 3-D ball-and-stick, space-filling, valence-shell electron-pair repulsion [VSEPR]) to predict the type of bonding and shape of simple compounds.

c. Use the periodic table as a model to derive formulas and names of ionic and covalent compounds.

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Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Systems and System Models; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Use the periodic table as a model to predict relationships between the arrangements of elements on the periodic table and the structure of the atom.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns of behavior of the elements based on the attraction and repulsion between electrically charged particles.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns of behavior of the elements based on the patterns of the valence electrons.
  • Use the periodic table to predict the patterns in bonding and shape based on the patterns of the valence electrons.
  • Use the arrangement of elements on the periodic table to name compounds.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Protons
  • Neutrons
  • Nucleus
  • Electrons
  • Valence
  • Main group elements
  • Properties
  • Atoms
  • Elements
  • Periods/ Rows
  • Groups/ Families/ Columns
  • Atomic/ molecular level
  • Macroscopic level
  • Periodic trends
  • metal/ nonmetal/ metalloid behavior
  • electrical/ heat conductivity
  • electronegativity
  • electron affinity
  • ionization energy
  • atomic-covalent/ ionic radii
  • Molecular modeling
  • Lewis dot
  • 3-D ball-and-stick
  • space-filling
  • VSEPR
  • Types of bonds
  • ionic bonds
  • covalent/ molecular bonds
  • metallic bonds
  • Molecular shapes
  • Ions
  • Ionic compounds
  • Covalent/ molecular compounds
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The atom has a positively-charged nucleus, containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by negatively-charged electrons.
  • The periodic table can be used to determine the number of particles in an atom of a given element.
  • The relationship between the arrangement of main group elements on the periodic table and the pattern of valence electrons in their atoms.
  • The relationship between the arrangement of elements on the periodic table and the number of protons in their atoms.
  • The trends in relative size, reactivity, and electronegativity in atoms are based on attractions of the valence electrons to the nucleus.
  • The number and types of bonds formed (i.e. ionic, covalent, metallic) by an element and between elements are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
  • The shapes of molecules are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
  • The rules for naming chemical compounds are based upon the type of bond formed.
  • The number and charges in stable ions that form from atoms in a group of the periodic table are based on the arrangement of valence electrons in the atoms.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Predict relative properties of elements using the periodic table.
  • Predict patterns in periodic trends based on the structure of the atom.
  • Predict patterns in bonding and shape based on the structure of the atom.
  • Use the periodic table to determine how elements will bond.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Models are based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
  • Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
  • The periodic table arranges elements into periods/ rows by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus.
  • Elements with similar properties are placed into groups/ families/ columns based on the repeating pattern of valence electrons in their atoms.
  • Attraction and repulsion between electrical charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properites, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.
  • The attraction and repulsion of charged particles in the atom creates patterns of properties of elements.
  • The arrangement of valence electrons in an atom also creates patterns of properties of elements.
  • Elements form bonds based upon their valence electron arrangement.
  • Chemical compounds are named based upon the type of bonds formed by their constituent atoms/ ions.
  • Different patterns may be observed at the atomic/ molecular level and the macroscopic level.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
It's In The Cards
Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
Periodic Trends
Periodic Trends—Graphs and Straws
Properties of Elements
Chem Cubes
Chemical Nomenclature
Bond Types and Physical Properties
Covalent bonding and Lewis Structures
Molecular Shape and Polarity

The primary focus of this standard is the patterns found among main group elements. Memorization of periodic trends (i.e. atomic radius decreases across a period) is not sufficient. Students should connect periodic trends to changes in the atom (i.e. Across a period no energy levels are added but more protons are added to nucleus and more electrons are added to electron cloud. This means electrostatic attraction is greater between protons and electrons in the same amount of space, so atomic radius decreases).
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 7
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 7
Unit Plans: 0
4 ) Plan and conduct an investigation to classify properties of matter as intensive (e.g., density, viscosity, specific heat, melting point, boiling point) or extensive (e.g., mass, volume, heat) and demonstrate how intensive properties can be used to identify a compound.

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Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Plan an investigation, considering the types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Evaluate investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time).
  • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
  • Use evidence from investigation to classify properties as intensive or extensive.
  • Use evidence from investigation to identify substances based on their intensive properties.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Properties
  • Intensive properties and examples (e.g., density, viscosity, melting point, etc.)
  • Extensive properties and examples (e.g., mass, volume, heat, etc.)
  • Matter
  • Macroscopic level
  • Atomic/ molecular level
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Properties of matter can be classified as intensive or extensive.
  • Some examples of intensive properties of matter are, but are not limited to, density, boiling point, and specific heat.
  • Some examples of extensive properties of matter are, but are not limited to, heat, mass, and volume.
  • Intensive properties can be used to identify a substance.
  • Some properties of matter are visible on the macroscopic level, while others are evident at the atomic/ molecular/ particulate level.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Plan an investigation that outlines the experimental procedure, including safety considerations, how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
  • Determine the types, quantity, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to classify properties of matter as intensive or extensive.
  • Classify properties of matter as intensive or extensive.
  • Evaluate investigation design to determine the accuracy and precision of the data collected, as well as limitations of the investigation.
  • Identify a compound based on its intensive properties.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it.
  • The data generated from an investigation serves as the basis for evidence.
  • Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of atomic/ molecular level structure.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Density of a Liquid
How Sweet It Is
Melting Points
Extraction and Identification of Dyes (Kool-Aid)
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 11
Learning Activities: 4
Lesson Plans: 7
Unit Plans: 0
5 ) Plan and conduct investigations to demonstrate different types of simple chemical reactions based on valence electron arrangements of the reactants and determine the quantity of products and reactants.

a. Use mathematics and computational thinking to represent the ratio of reactants and products in terms of masses, molecules, and moles.

b. Use mathematics and computational thinking to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

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Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Scale, Proportion, and Quantity; Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Plan an investigation, considering the types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Evaluate investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time).
  • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
  • Use evidence from the investigation to explain how the patterns of valence electrons can be used to predict the number and types of bonds each element forms.
  • Describe the cause and effect relationship between the observable macroscopic patterns of reactivity of elements in the periodic table, and the patterns of valence electrons for each atom.
  • Determine the number of atoms, molecules, or ions of a component of a chemical reaction using moles, molar relationships, and Avogadro's number.
  • Use stoichiometric calculations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
  • Use the mass of substances to determine the number of atoms, molecules, or ions using moles, molar relationships, and Avogadro's number.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Chemical reactions
  • Valence electrons
  • Reactants
  • Products
  • Macroscopic level
  • Atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
  • Ionic bonds
  • Covalent/ molecular bonds
  • Types of reactions:
    • synthesis
    • decomposition
    • single replacement/ displacement
    • double replacement/ displacement
    • combustion
  • Chemical reactions
  • Reactants
  • Products
  • Chemical equations
  • Coefficients
  • Subscripts
  • Mass
  • Moles
  • Mole ratio
  • Ratio
  • Atoms
  • Conservation of matter
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative
  • Stoichiometry
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The total number of atoms of each element in the reactants and in the products is the same.
  • The number and types of bonds that each atom forms is determined by their valence electron arrangement.
  • The valence electron state of the atoms that make up the reactants and the products is based on their location on the periodic table.
  • Patterns of attraction allow the prediction of the type of reaction that occurs.
  • Chemical equations are a mathematical representation of chemical reactions.
  • Coefficients of a balanced chemical equation indicate the ratio in which substances react or are produced.
  • Substances in a chemical reaction react proportionally.
  • The mole is used to convert between the atomic/ molecular/ particulate and macroscopic levels.
  • Mathematical representations may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions.
  • Matter cannot be created or destroyed but is conserved during a chemical change.
  • Substances in a chemical reaction react proportionally.
  • Conversion between the atomic/ molecular/ particulate and macroscopic levels requires the use of moles and Avogadro's number.
  • Mathematical representations may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Plan an investigation that outlines the experimental procedure, including safety considerations, how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
  • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to classify reactions and determine the quantity of reactants and products.
  • Write correct chemical formulas of products and reactants using valence electron arrangement.
  • Demonstrate that the numbers and types of atoms are the same both before and after the reaction.
  • Identify the numbers and types of bonds in both the reactants and products.
  • Describe how the patterns of reactivity at the macroscopic level are determined using the periodic table.
  • Identify reactants and products in a chemical reaction using a chemical equation.
  • Balance chemical equations.
  • Determine the number of atoms/ molecules and number of moles of each component in a chemical reaction using a balanced chemical equation.
  • Determine the molar mass of all components of a chemical reaction.
  • Calculate the mass number of atoms, molar mass and number of moles of substances in a chemical reaction.
  • Calculate the mass of a component in a chemical reaction given the mass or number of moles of any other component using proportional relationships.
  • Predict the number of atoms in the reactant and product at the atomic or molecular scale.
  • Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms and therefore mass are conserved during a chemical reaction.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
  • Scientists plan and conduct investigations individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence.
  • The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons and places those with similar properties into columns, which reflect patterns of valence electrons.
  • The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.
  • Different patterns may be observed at each level (macroscopic, atomic/ molecular, etc.) and can provide evidence to explain phenomena.
  • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to support claims and may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
  • The total amount of energy and matter in closed systems is conserved.
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
  • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to support claims and may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
  • The fact that atoms are conserved, together with the knowledge of the chemical properties of the substances involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.
  • The total amount of energy and matter in closed systems is conserved.
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Tortoise Island
Freezing Point Depression
Chemical Reactions
Empirical Formulas
Numerical and Chemical Equations
Color of Chemistry
Aluminum Leftovers
Aspirin Synthesis
Determination of Percent Water in a Chemical Empirical Formula
Using Stoichiometry to Identify the Products of a Reaction
Ideal Gas Law and Molar Volume

Students should plan and conduct investigations using simple chemical reactions involving only main group elements.
5a.
Emphasis is placed on proportional relationships and using the mole to convert from the atomic/molecular scale to the macroscopic scale.
Mathematical thinking is emphasized over memorization and algorithmic problem-solving.
5b.
Emphasis is placed on proportional relationships and using the mole to convert from the atomic/molecular scale to the macroscopic scale.
Mathematical thinking is emphasized over memorization and algorithmic problem-solving.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 8
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 8
Unit Plans: 0
6 ) Use mathematics and computational thinking to express the concentrations of solutions quantitatively using molarity.

a. Develop and use models to explain how solutes are dissolved in solvents.

b. Analyze and interpret data to explain effects of temperature on the solubility of solid, liquid, and gaseous solutes in a solvent and the effects of pressure on the solubility of gaseous solutes.

c. Design and conduct experiments to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in a solution.

d. Use the concept of pH as a model to predict the relative properties of strong, weak, concentrated, and dilute acids and bases (e.g., Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases).

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Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Analyzing and Interpreting Data; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Crosscutting Concepts: Patterns; Cause and Effect; Scale, Proportion, and Quantity; Structure and Function
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Determine the molarity of a solution given mass or moles of a solute and volume of a solvent.
  • Represent the process of dissolving to identify the solute and solvent at the atomic/molecular/particulate level.
  • Use data to predict how changes in temperature and pressure will affect solubility.
  • Plan an investigation and in the design decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Evaluate investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time).
  • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
  • Use evidence from investigation to describe the relationship between conductivity of a solution and the components of the solution (ionic and covalent substances).
  • Determine whether substances are acids or bases using the concept of pH.
  • Predict the relative properties of acids and bases using the concept of pH.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Molarity
  • Moles
  • Volume
  • Solution
  • Solute
  • Solvent
  • Concentrations
  • Dissolving
  • Solubility
  • Ionic
  • Covalent
  • atomic/ molecular/ particulate level
  • macroscopic level
  • pH
  • hydronium ion
  • hydroxide ion
  • concentration
  • concentrated
  • dilute
  • acids and bases (strong/ weak)
  • properties
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • The mole is used to convert between the atomic/ molecular and macroscopic levels.
  • Concentrations of solutions can be compared quantitatively using molarity.
  • Mathematical representations may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
  • Solutions are a type of mixture that appears homogeneous at the macroscopic level but may be heterogeneous at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • Solutes are the portion of a solution present in the lesser amount.
  • Solvents are the portion of a solution present in the greater amount.
  • Both temperature and pressure affect the solubility of solutes.
  • The effect of temperature on the solubility of a liquid or solid solute differs from that of gaseous solutes.
  • The effect of pressure on the solubility of gaseous solutes differs from that of liquid or solid solutes.
  • The ability of a substance to conduct electricity is determined by the presence of charged particles that are able to move about freely.
  • Ionic compounds typically conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water because the charged particles are able to move about freely.
  • Covalent compounds typically do not conduct electricty when melted or dissolved in water because there are no charged particles.
  • Exceptions to the typical conductivity of solutions include strong acids, which ionize in water solutions.
  • An acid has more hydronium ions than hydroxide ions.
  • A base has more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions. pH is a measure of the number of hydronium ions present in a solution.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Identify solute and solvent in a solution.
  • Calculate the molarity of a solution.
  • Represent the process of dissolving using a model.
  • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/ or models to identify relationships within the datasets.
  • Use analyzed data as evidence to describe the relationships between temperature changes and pressure changes on solubility.
  • Plan an investigation that outlines the experimental procedure, including safety considerations, how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
  • Conduct a planned investigation to test the conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances in solution.
  • Analyze collected and recorded data from investigation to determine conductivity of common ionic and covalent substances.
  • Use the pH scale to determine if a substance is acidic or basic.
  • Determine the concentration of hyfronium or hydroxide ions in a solution based on pH value.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to describe explanations.
  • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • Proportional relationships among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties.
  • Models are used to predict the relationships between systems or components of a system.
  • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • Proportional relationships among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties.
  • Data can be analyzed using tools, technologies, and/ or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims.
  • Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and ca provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
  • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
  • Scientists plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • The function of a material and its macroscopic properties are related to the atomic/ molecular level structure of the material.
  • Models are used to predict the relationships between systems or components of a system.
  • The properties of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by the interaction of particles at the atomic/ molecular level.
  • Proportional relationships among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Temperature and Solubility
Conducting Solutions
Beer's Law
Spectroscopy Ocean Optics
Molarity
39 Drops
Acid Base Indicators
Acid Ionization
Acid Titrations
Is There a Buffer Here?
Redox Titrations ASIM Rate Law Determination of the Crystal Violet Reaction
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 3
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 3
Unit Plans: 0
7 ) Plan and carry out investigations to explain the behavior of ideal gases in terms of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles.

a. Use mathematics to describe the relationships among pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas when only the amount of gas is constant.

b. Use mathematical and computational thinking based on the ideal gas law to determine molar quantities.

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Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Crosscutting Concepts: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity; Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Plan an investigation, considering the types of data, how much data, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Evaluate investigation design to determine the accuracy and precision of the data collected, as well as limitations of the investigation.
  • Use evidence from investigation to explain the relationships among pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles in a gaseous system.
  • Mathematically describe the relationships of pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas, when only the amount of gas is constant.
  • In terms of the ideal gas law, determine molar quantities using mathematical and computational thinking.
  • Analyze, represent, and model data related to the gas laws using mathematical and computational thinking.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Pressure
  • Volume
  • Temperature
  • Number of particles
  • System
  • Atomic/ molecular level
  • Macroscopic level
  • independent variable
  • Dependent variable
  • controlled variable(s)
  • Direct proportional/ relationship
  • Inverse proportional/ relationship
  • Avogadro's Law
  • Boyle's Law
  • Charles' Law
  • Gay-Lussac's Law (Amontons' Law)
  • Ideal gas law
  • Constant
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Behavior of gases is determined by the movement and interactions of the particles.
  • Relationships among the variables (pressure, volume, temperature, number of particles) can be used to predict the changes to a gaseous system.
  • The movement and interactions of gas particles within a system and the type of sytem determine the behavior of gases.
  • Relationships among the variables (pressure, volume, temperature, number of particles) can be used to predict the changes to a gaseous system.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Plan an investigation that describes experimental procedure, including how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
  • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to describe the relationship between the measureable properties of a substance and the motion of the particles of the substance.
  • Analyze recorded data to explain the behavior of ideal gases in terms of pressure, volume, temperature, and number of particles.
  • Identify relevant components in mathematical representations of the gas laws.
  • Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/ or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims.
  • Use mathematical representations to determine the value of any relevant components in mathematical representations of the gas laws, given the other values.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Scientists plan and conduct investigations individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence.
  • Changes in the variables that affect the motion of gas particles can be described and predicted using scientific investigations.
  • The patterns of interactions between particles at the atomic/ molecular/ particulate level are reflected in the patterns of behavior at the macroscopic scale.
  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.
  • Mathematical representations of phenomena are used to support claims and may include calculations, graphs or other pictorial depictions of quantitative information.
  • Changes in the variables that affect the motion of gas particles can be described and predicted using scientific investigations.
  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Calcium Carbonate Decomposition AP
Boyle's Law
Ideal Gas Law and Molar Volume

7a. & 7b.
Emphasis is placed on the relationships between gas variables in the gas laws.
Mathematical thinking is emphasized over memorization and algorithmic problem-solving.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
8 ) Refine the design of a given chemical system to illustrate how LeChâtelier's principle affects a dynamic chemical equilibrium when subjected to an outside stress (e.g., heating and cooling a saturated sugar- water solution).*

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Column Definitions

Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Stability and Change
Disciplinary Core Idea: Matter and Its Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Given a chemical system at dynamic equilibrium, identify stresses that can affect equilibrium using LeChatelier's principle and identify the results of those stresses on the system's equilibrium.
  • Given a chemical system at dynamic equilibrium, describe criteria and constraints for refining the system's design.
  • Given a chemical system at dynamic equilibrium, evaluate different stresses by comparing criteria and constraints.
  • Refine the given system to increase product(s) and describe reasoning for refinements.
  • Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • system
  • dynamic equilibrium
  • stresses
  • LeChatelier's principle
  • criteria
  • constraints
  • reversible reaction
  • forward/ backward rates
  • macroscopic level
  • atomic/ molecular level
  • claim
  • evidence
  • reasoning
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Various stresses made at the macroscopic level, such as change in temperature, pressure, volume, concentration, affect a chemical system at the molecular level.
  • Reaction rates of forward/ backward reactions change with stresses until rates are equal again.
  • Forward/ reverse reactions occur at the same rate in dynamic equilibrium, so chemical systems appear stable at macroscopic level.
  • The egineering design process is a cycle with no official starting or ending point, and, therefore, can be used repeatedly to refine your work.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Use the engineering design process (ask, imagine, plan, create, improve) to refine a chemical system.
  • Refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.
  • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students' own investigations, models, theories, simulations, and peer review).
  • Construct and present arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.
  • Solutions to real-world problems can be refined using scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.
  • In many situations, a balance between a reaction and the reverse reaction determines the numbers of all types of molecules present.
  • Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (tradeoffs) may be needed.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Chemical Equilibrium

Students should only look at the impact of one stress at a time on a chemical system. This standard does not require students to calculate equilibrium constants and concentrations.
Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 4
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 4
Unit Plans: 0
9 ) Analyze and interpret data (e.g., melting point, boiling point, solubility, phase-change diagrams) to compare the strength of intermolecular forces and how these forces affect physical properties and changes.

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Column Definitions

Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter
Disciplinary Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Evaluate data to describe the relationship between the strength of intermolecular forces of a substance and the effect of those forces on the measureable properties (melting point, boiling point, solubility, etc.) of a substance.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • physical properties
  • melting point
  • boiling point
  • solubility
  • phase-change diagrams
  • Atomic/ molecular level
  • Macroscopic level
  • Particles
  • ions
  • atoms
  • molecules
  • networked materials (like graphite)
  • Intermolecular/ electrical forces
  • System
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • As kinetic energy is added to a system, the forces of attraction between particles can no longer keep the particles close together.
  • Patterns of interactions between particles at the molecular level are reflected in the patterns of behavior at the macroscopic scale.
  • Patterns observed at multiple levels (macroscopic, atomic/ molecular/ particulate) can provide evidence of the causal relationships between the strength of the electrical forces between particles and the structure of the substance at the macroscopic level.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Analyze and interpret data to describe why properties provide information about the strength of electrical forces between the particles of chosen substances, including phase-change diagrams.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Data is analyzed using tools, technologies, and/ or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims.
  • The structure and interactions of matter at the macroscopic level are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms.
  • Different patterns may be observed at each of the levels at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Freezing Point Depression
Melting Points
Fractional Distillation
Paper Chromatography—Ransom Notes

Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole).
Energy
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 1
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 1
Unit Plans: 0
10 ) Plan and conduct experiments that demonstrate how changes in a system (e.g., phase changes, pressure of a gas) validate the kinetic molecular theory.

a. Develop a model to explain the relationship between the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance and the temperature of the substance (e.g., no kinetic energy equaling absolute zero [0K or -273.15oC]).

Insight Unpacked Content
Column Definitions

Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations
Crosscutting Concepts: Energy and Matter; Stability and Change
Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Investigation design should include types of data, how much data, accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements, and safety considerations.
  • Evaluate investigation to determine the accuracy and precision of the data collected, as well as limitations of the investigation.
  • Use data from experiment as evidence to describe the relationship between the measureable properties (state of matter, pressure, temperature) of a substance and the motion of the particles of the substance.
  • Develop a model that explains how the average particle motion of a substance affects the temperature of the substance.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • Kinetic molecular theory
  • Kinetic energy
  • phase changes
  • Particle collisions
  • Pressure
  • Temperature
  • Absolute zero
  • Kelvin
  • Celsius
  • System
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • As the kinetic energy of colliding particles increases, the number of collisions increases and vice versa.
  • Behavior of gases is determined by the movement and interactions of the particles.
  • Particles of a gas are in rapid, constant motion and move in straight lines.
  • The particles of a gas are tiny compared to the distance between them.
  • Intermolecular forces do not affect the behavior of gases because of the large distance between the particles.
  • Energy is conserved when gas particles collide (energy lost by one particle is gained by the other).
  • Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy of gas particles.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Plan an investigation that describes experimental procedure, including how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, and equipment required.
  • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to describe the relationship between the measureable properties of a substance and the motion of the particles of the substance.
  • Use evidence from experiment to show how changes to the system change the number of particle collisions.
  • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate/ explain the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Scientists plan and conduct investigations individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.
  • Models are used to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Calcium Carbonate Decomposition AP
Determination of Molar Mass by Vapor Density
Gay Lussac's Law with CO2 Cartridges
Kinetic Molecular Theory

Focus of this standard is on the mathematical modeling of how changes to a system affect the properties and motion of particles in that system.
Science (2015)
Grade(s): 9 - 12
Chemistry
All Resources: 2
Learning Activities: 0
Lesson Plans: 2
Unit Plans: 0
11 ) Construct an explanation that describes how the release or absorption of energy from a system depends upon changes in the components of the system.

a. Develop a model to illustrate how the changes in total bond energy determine whether a chemical reaction is endothermic or exothermic.

b. Plan and conduct an investigation that demonstrates the transfer of thermal energy in a closed system (e.g., using heat capacities of two components of differing temperatures).

Insight Unpacked Content
Column Definitions

Scientific and Engineering Practices:
Developing and Using Models; Planning and Carrying out Investigations; Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Crosscutting Concepts: Cause and Effect; Systems and System Models; Stability and Change
Disciplinary Core Idea: Energy
Evidence of Student Attainment:
Students:
  • Explain how the release or absorption of energy from a system depends on changes that occur in the components of the system.
  • Develop a model to illustrate how changes in total bond energy determine if a chemical reaction is endothermic or exothermic.
  • Plan an investigation and in the design decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements.
  • Evaluate the investigation design to consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time) and to identify potential causes of apparent loss of energy from a closed system.
  • Conduct investigation as designed and if necessary, refine the plan to produce more accurate, precise, and useful data.
  • Use evidence from investigation to support the idea that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system.
Teacher Vocabulary:
  • System
  • Surroundings
  • Reactants
  • Products
  • Endothermic
  • Exothermic
  • Bond energy
  • Molecular collisions
  • Conservation of energy
  • Closed system
  • System boundaries
  • Components
  • Surroundings
  • Conservation of energy
  • Energy transfer
  • Thermal energy
Knowledge:
Students know:
  • Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system's total energy is conserved, even as within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms.
  • Models are developed based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
  • A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart.
  • In chemical processes, whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of collisions of molecules and rearrangement of atoms into new molecules.
  • The energy change within a system is accounted for by the change in the bond energies of the reactants and products.
  • Breaking bonds requires an input of energy from the system or surroundings, and forming bonds releases energy to the system and surroundings.
  • The energy transfer between systems and surroundings is the difference in energy between bond energies of the reactants and products.
  • Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms (i.e., to thermal energy in the surrounding environment).
  • The overall energy of the system and surroundings is conserved during the reaction.
  • Energy transfer occurs during molecular collisions.
Skills:
Students are able to:
  • Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (students' own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natrual world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
  • Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena.
  • Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or components of a system.
  • Describe relationships between system components to illustrate that the net energy change within the system is due to bonds being broken and formed, that the energy transfer between the system and surroundings results from molecular collisions, and that the total energy change of the chemical reaction system is matched by an equal but opposite change of energy in the surroundings.
  • Plan an investigation that describes experimental procedure (including safety considerations), how data will be collected, number of trials, experimental setup, equipment required, and how the closed system will be constructed and initial conditions of system.
  • Conduct an investigation to collect and record data that can be used to calculate the change in thermal energy of each of the two components of the system.
Understanding:
Students understand that:
  • Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system's total energy is conserved, even as within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms.
  • When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models.
  • Models are developed based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
  • A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart.
  • In chemical processes, whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of collisions of molecules and rearrangement of atoms into new molecules.
  • Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states (i.e., toward more uniform energy distribution).
  • The distribution of thermal energy is more uniform after the interaction of the hot and cold components.
  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be trasported from one place to another and transferred between systems.
  • Scientists plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence and in the design, decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of data. Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states (i.e., toward more uniform energy distribution).
  • The distribution of thermal energy is more uniform after the interaction of the hot and cold components.
  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be trasported from one place to another and transferred between systems.
  • When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models.
AMSTI Resources:
ASIM Module:
Excited Electrons
Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Energy Content of food
Hand Warmer Calorimetry

11a.
This standard does not include calculating the total bond energy changes during a chemical reaction from the bond energies of reactants and products.
11b.
Emphasis is on analyzing data from student investigations and using mathematical thinking to describe energy changes both quantitatively and conceptually. Examples could include mixing liquids at different initial temperatures or adding objects at different temperatures to water.
Heat capacity values of components in the system should be obtained from scientific literature.